Special Issue "Advanced Methods of Flame Retardant Treatment of Polymeric Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Przemysław Rybiński
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Jan Kochanowski University. Management of Environment Protection and Modeling. Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce, Poland
Interests: material science; thermal analysis; nanocomposites; synergism action of flame retardants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Flammability reduction in polymer materials, or making them non-flammable, is of a special importance on account of the serious health and life hazards due to considerable emission of smoke and toxic compounds, during their thermal decomposition and combustion.

Various methods can be used to protect polymeric materials against fire. The most commonly-used approach to make thermally-stable and low-flammable materials is the incorporation of flame-retardant particles in the polymer matrix.

During the last few decades, a new class of fillers, commonly known as nano-fillers, have been extensively studied. The advantage of nano-fillers is that they are miscible with polymer matrix, exploiting unique synergism between the combined materials. Among others, a number of nano-particles such as clay, silica, carbon  nanotubes, graphene or polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxanes decrease the flammability of polymer composites.

The main point of this Special Issue concerns advanced methods of flame retardand treatment of polymeric materials. Research papers or reviews, presenting the latest achievements in the field of polymers or polymer composite flammability and methods of their retardation are invited for this Special Issue.

Prof. Przemysław Rybiński
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Flammability of polymer composites
  • Flame retardant mechanism action
  • Nano-fillers
  • Ceramifiable composites
  • Thermal analysis

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Impact of Basalt Filler and Ceramizable Additives on the Toxicity of Gaseous Products Emitted from Thermal Decomposition of Silicone Rubber Composites
Materials 2019, 12(21), 3478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12213478 - 24 Oct 2019
Abstract
The article illustrates the impact of basalt filler in the form of flakes and fibres on the toxicity of gaseous products that formed during the thermal decomposition of silicone rubber composites. The values of specific emissions of gases were determined with the help [...] Read more.
The article illustrates the impact of basalt filler in the form of flakes and fibres on the toxicity of gaseous products that formed during the thermal decomposition of silicone rubber composites. The values of specific emissions of gases were determined with the help of the IR spectroscopy and further applied to calculate the toxicometric index. The presented method of measuring the concentrations of gaseous products resulting from thermal decomposition consists in the application of a fluidised bed reactor, which makes it possible to conduct the decomposition of a sample at a precisely assumed temperature value and imitate the conditions of a real fire. At a temperature lower than 700 °C, the gases resulting from the thermal decomposition of composites are particularly toxic due to the presence of significant concentrations of formaldehyde that does not undergo oxidation to more stable inorganic products. At a temperature of 600 °C the toxicity of gases for the samples with ceramizable additives and without them was similar. In the first case, there appeared to be a positive synergistic effect of mineral and basalt additives, and the basalt additives themselves increased the toxicity of gases. At higher temperatures of decomposition, the exponentially increasing rate of the oxidation reaction in the gaseous phase results in the lack of significant differences between the toxicity of gases for the samples with and without basalt additives. The toxicometric index value at temperatures of 700 °C and 800 °C was by one or two orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than the one that was observed in the temperature range of 500–600 °C, as inorganic components appear in the place of formaldehyde. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Methods of Flame Retardant Treatment of Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Bicomponent Functional Fibers with Sheath/Core Configuration Containing Intumescent Flame-Retardants for Textile Applications
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3095; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193095 - 23 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The objective of this study is to examine the effect of intumescent flame-retardants (IFR’s) on the spinnability of sheath/core bicomponent melt-spun fibers, produced from Polylactic acid (PLA) single polymer composites, as IFR’s have not been tested in bicomponent fibers so far. Highly crystalline [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to examine the effect of intumescent flame-retardants (IFR’s) on the spinnability of sheath/core bicomponent melt-spun fibers, produced from Polylactic acid (PLA) single polymer composites, as IFR’s have not been tested in bicomponent fibers so far. Highly crystalline PLA-containing IFR’s was used in the core component, while an amorphous PLA was tested in the sheath component of melt-spun bicomponent fibers. Ammonium polyphosphate and lignin powder were used as acid, and carbon source, respectively, together with PES as a plasticizing agent in the core component of bicomponent fibers. Multifilament fibers, with sheath/core configurations, were produced on a pilot-scale melt spinning machine, and the changes in fibers mechanical properties and crystallinity were recorded in response to varying process parameters. The crystallinity of the bicomponent fibers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal stabilities were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis. Thermally bonded, non-woven fabric samples, from as prepared bicomponent fibers, were produced and their fire properties, such as limiting oxygen index and cone calorimetry values were measured. However, the ignitability of fabric samples was tested by a single-flame source test. Cone calorimetry showed a 46% decline in the heat release rate of nonwovens, produced from FR PLA bicomponent fibers, compared to pure PLA nonwovens. This indicated the development of an intumescent char by leaving a residual mass of 34% relative to the initial mass of the sample. It was found that the IFRs can be melt spun into bicomponent fibers by sheath/core configuration, and the enhanced functionality in the fibers can be achieved with suitable mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Methods of Flame Retardant Treatment of Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Basalt Filler on Thermal and Mechanical Properties, as Well as Fire Hazard, of Silicone Rubber Composites, Including Ceramizable Composites
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152432 - 30 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This article illustrates the impact of basalt filler, both in the form of basalt flakes and basalt fibers, on thermal and mechanical properties, as well as on the fire hazard, of silicone rubber (SR) composites, including ceramizable composites. In addition to basalt filler, [...] Read more.
This article illustrates the impact of basalt filler, both in the form of basalt flakes and basalt fibers, on thermal and mechanical properties, as well as on the fire hazard, of silicone rubber (SR) composites, including ceramizable composites. In addition to basalt filler, ceramizable composites contain mineral fillers in their composition in the form of silica and calcium carbonate, inorganic fluxes such as zinc borate and glass frit, and melamine cyanurate as a flame retardant. The obtained composites were analyzed from the point of view of their morphology, rheological and thermal properties, flammability, and mechanical properties before and after the ceramization process. The obtained research results indicate that the basalt filler has an unambiguous impact on the improvement of thermal properties and the reduction of flammability in the analyzed composites. The results of morphological analyses of ceramizable composites before and after the process of their ceramization indicate a definite impact of the basalt filler on the structure of the formed ceramic layer. An increase in its homogeneity exerts a direct impact on the improvement of its mechanical parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Methods of Flame Retardant Treatment of Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Mechanical and Fire Properties of Multicomponent Flame Retardant EPDM Rubbers Using Aluminum Trihydroxide, Ammonium Polyphosphate, and Polyaniline
Materials 2019, 12(12), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12121932 - 15 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this study, multicomponent flame retardant systems, consisting of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), aluminum trihydroxide (ATH), and polyaniline (PANI), were used in ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber. The multicomponent system was designed to improve flame retardancy and the mechanical properties of the rubber [...] Read more.
In this study, multicomponent flame retardant systems, consisting of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), aluminum trihydroxide (ATH), and polyaniline (PANI), were used in ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber. The multicomponent system was designed to improve flame retardancy and the mechanical properties of the rubber compounds, while simultaneously reducing the amount of filler. PANI was applied at low loadings (7 phr) and combined with the phosphorous APP (21 phr) and the mineral flame retardant ATH (50 phr). A comprehensive study of six EPDM rubbers was carried out by systematically varying the fillers to explain the impact of multicomponent flame retardant systems on mechanical properties. The six EPDM materials were investigated via the UL 94, limiting oxygen index (LOI), FMVSS 302, glow wire tests, and the cone calorimeter, showing that multicomponent flame retardant systems led to improved fire performance. In cone calorimeter tests the EPDM/APP/ATH/PANI composite reduced the maximum average rate of heat emission (MARHE) to 142 kW·m−2, a value 50% lower than that for the unfilled EPDM rubber. Furthermore, the amount of phosphorus in the residues was quantified and the mode of action of the phosphorous flame retardant APP was explained. The data from the cone calorimeter were used to determine the protective layer effect of the multicomponent flame retardant systems in the EPDM compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Methods of Flame Retardant Treatment of Polymeric Materials)
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