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Special Issue "Theory, Experiment and Modelling of the Dynamic Response of Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. William G Proud

Blackett Laboratory, Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, UK
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The area of shock waves and the dynamic behaviour of materials is key to the understanding of impact, blast, and fracture of materials. Many engineering materials are well characterised for normal operations, however, under strong, transient loading, the normal mechanisms of deformation and failure do not have sufficient time to operate. This has many effects: (i) the material appears to be stronger, (ii) inertial forces are significant, and (iii) other, higher-energy mechanisms become significant. As strain rates increase from 10+1 s–1 to above 10+6, the deformation process becomes wave dominated and materials no longer have time to flow laterally: The loading changes from conditions of 1D stress to those of 1D strain.

Such conditions can be found across a range of length scales with planetary impact by asteroids at one extreme and small debris impact, albeit at 15 km s–1, proving a hazard to satellites at the other.

Initial quantitative studies in this area date from the middle of the 19th century, when widespread mechanisation and increased desire to understand and push materials to their limit became of interest to a wide range of scientists and engineers. The period of the early 1950s saw the birth of shock studies as a definite cross-disciplinary area with significant contributions coming from the USA and the Soviet Union.

This Special Issue will present a series of papers where contemporary research in materials under these extreme conditions are addressed. Contributors to this issue will show the need to link theory, accurate experiments, and numerical techniques. The increasing time and spatial resolution of diagnostics opens a window on processes that were previously pure speculation.

Dr. William G Proud
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Shock waves

  • Dynamic loading

  • Constitutive modelling

  • Equation of state

  • Materials modelling

  • Hydrocodes

  • High-speed diagnostics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Kinetic Phase Diagrams of Ternary Al-Cu-Li System during Rapid Solidification: A Phase-Field Study
Materials 2018, 11(2), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11020260
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4681 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Kinetic phase diagrams in technical alloys at different solidification velocities during rapid solidification are of great importance for guiding the novel alloy preparation, but are usually absent due to extreme difficulty in performing experimental measurements. In this paper, a phase-field model with finite [...] Read more.
Kinetic phase diagrams in technical alloys at different solidification velocities during rapid solidification are of great importance for guiding the novel alloy preparation, but are usually absent due to extreme difficulty in performing experimental measurements. In this paper, a phase-field model with finite interface dissipation was employed to construct kinetic phase diagrams in the ternary Al-Cu-Li system for the first time. The time-elimination relaxation scheme was utilized. The solute trapping phenomenon during rapid solidification could be nicely described by the phase-field simulation, and the results obtained from the experiment measurement and/or the theoretical model were also well reproduced. Based on the predicted kinetic phase diagrams, it was found that with the increase of interface moving velocity and/or temperature, the gap between the liquidus and solidus gradually reduces, which illustrates the effect of solute trapping and tendency of diffusionless solidification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Theory, Experiment and Modelling of the Dynamic Response of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Microstructure Evolution in a Fe-17Mn-1.5Al-0.3C Steel via In Situ Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction during a Tensile Test
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101129
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (4680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The quantitative characterization of the microstructure evolution in high-Mn steel during deformation is of great importance to understanding its strain-hardening behavior. In the current study, in situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction was employed to characterize the microstructure evolution in a Fe-17Mn-1.5Al-0.3C steel during [...] Read more.
The quantitative characterization of the microstructure evolution in high-Mn steel during deformation is of great importance to understanding its strain-hardening behavior. In the current study, in situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction was employed to characterize the microstructure evolution in a Fe-17Mn-1.5Al-0.3C steel during a tensile test. The microstructure at different engineering strain levels—in terms of ε-martensite and α’-martensite volume fractions, the stacking fault probability, and the twin fault probability—was analyzed by the Rietveld refinement method. The Fe-17Mn-1.5Al-0.3C steel exhibits a high ultimate tensile strength with a superior uniform elongation and a high strain-hardening rate. The remaining high strain-hardening rate at the strain level about 0.025 to 0.35 results from ε-martensite dominant transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) effect. The increase in the strain-hardening rate at the strain level around 0.35 to 0.43 is attributed to the synergetic α’-martensite dominant TRIP and twinning-induced-plasticity (TWIP) effects. An evaluation of the stacking fault energy (SFE) of the Fe-17Mn-1.5Al-0.3C steel by the synchrotron measurements shows good agreement with the thermodynamic calculation of the SFE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Theory, Experiment and Modelling of the Dynamic Response of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Dynamic Analysis in Semi-Analytical Finite Element Method
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10091010
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (5301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Analyses of dynamic responses are significantly important for the design, maintenance and rehabilitation of asphalt pavement. In order to evaluate the dynamic responses of asphalt pavement under moving loads, a specific computational program, SAFEM, was developed based on a semi-analytical finite element method. [...] Read more.
Analyses of dynamic responses are significantly important for the design, maintenance and rehabilitation of asphalt pavement. In order to evaluate the dynamic responses of asphalt pavement under moving loads, a specific computational program, SAFEM, was developed based on a semi-analytical finite element method. This method is three-dimensional and only requires a two-dimensional FE discretization by incorporating Fourier series in the third dimension. In this paper, the algorithm to apply the dynamic analysis to SAFEM was introduced in detail. Asphalt pavement models under moving loads were built in the SAFEM and commercial finite element software ABAQUS to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the SAFEM. The verification shows that the computational accuracy of SAFEM is high enough and its computational time is much shorter than ABAQUS. Moreover, experimental verification was carried out and the prediction derived from SAFEM is consistent with the measurement. Therefore, the SAFEM is feasible to reliably predict the dynamic response of asphalt pavement under moving loads, thus proving beneficial to road administration in assessing the pavement’s state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Theory, Experiment and Modelling of the Dynamic Response of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Protection Mechanism of 30CrMnMo-UHMWPE Composite Armor
Materials 2017, 10(4), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10040405
Received: 24 January 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The penetration of a 30CrMnMo ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene armor by a high-speed fragment was investigated via experiments and simulations. Analysis of the projectile revealed that the nose (of the projectile) is in the non-equilibrium state at the initial stage of penetration, and [...] Read more.
The penetration of a 30CrMnMo ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene armor by a high-speed fragment was investigated via experiments and simulations. Analysis of the projectile revealed that the nose (of the projectile) is in the non-equilibrium state at the initial stage of penetration, and the low-speed regions undergo plastic deformation. Subsequently, the nose-tail velocities of the projectile were virtually identical and fluctuated together. In addition, the effective combination of the steel plate and polyethylene (PE) laminate resulted in energy absorption by the PE just before the projectile nose impacts the laminate. This early absorption plays a positive role in the ballistic performance of the composite armor. Further analysis of the internal energy and mass loss revealed that the PE laminate absorbs energy via the continuous and stable failure of PE fibers during the initial stages of penetration, and absorbs energy via deformation until complete penetration occurs. The energy absorbed by the laminate accounts for 68% of the total energy absorption, indicating that the laminate plays a major role in energy absorption during the penetration process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Theory, Experiment and Modelling of the Dynamic Response of Materials)
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Graphical abstract

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