Special Issue "Thermal Analysis of Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Structure Analysis and Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sergey V. Ushakov
Website
Guest Editor
University of California at Davis, USA
Interests: thermal analysis and calorimetry, high temperature diffraction, rare earth oxides
Prof. Dr. Shmuel Hayun
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 8410501, Israel
Interests: material science; thermal analysis; advanced ceramics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thermal analysis of materials encompasses a variety of methods used to detect changes in material properties as a function of temperature. Before temperature measurement became routine in all stages of metal and ceramic processing, early metallurgists relied on color and brightness of hot metal and glassmakers used a viscosity as guidance. Nowadays, techniques of differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) routinely yield heat capacities, temperatures and enthalpies of phase transformations in the temperature range from −150 to 1500 °C.

This Special Issue will provide readers with up-to-date information on the recent progress in the thermal analysis field on alloys, ceramics, and polymers from different perspectives spanning materials sciences, thermodynamics, catalysis, and geochemistry.

Contributing papers are solicited in the following areas:

  • Differential thermal analysis and scanning calorimetry
  • Dilatometry, thermomechanical analysis, and rheology 
  • High-temperature X-ray and neutron diffraction 
  • Thermogravimetric and evolved gas analysis 
  • Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity
  • Thermo-optical analysis

Measurement of any physical property as a function of temperature brings the method in the realm of thermal analysis. We particularly encourage contributions on combinations of thermal analysis techniques and their applications for measurements of thermodynamic and kinetic properties and phase diagram determinations.

Dr. Sergey V. Ushakov
Prof. Shmuel Hayun
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Thermal analysis
  • Scanning calorimetry
  • Thermal diffusivity
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Thermo-optical analysis
  • Thermogravimetry
  • Evolved gas analysis

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Spark Plasma Sintering Apparatus Used for High-temperature Compressive Creep Tests
Materials 2020, 13(2), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020396 - 15 Jan 2020
Abstract
Creep is a time dependent, temperature-sensitive mechanical response of a material in the form of continuous deformation under constant load or stress. To study the creep properties of a given material, the load/stress and temperature must be controlled while measuring strain over time. [...] Read more.
Creep is a time dependent, temperature-sensitive mechanical response of a material in the form of continuous deformation under constant load or stress. To study the creep properties of a given material, the load/stress and temperature must be controlled while measuring strain over time. The present study describes how a spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus can be used as a precise tool for measuring compressive creep of materials. Several examples for using the SPS apparatus for high-temperature compressive creep studies of metals and ceramics under a constant load are discussed. Experimental results are in a good agreement with data reported in literature, which verifies that the SPS apparatus can serve as a tool for measuring compressive creep strain of materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Analysis of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Robust Interferometry for Testing Thermal Expansion of Dual-Material Lattices
Materials 2020, 13(2), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020313 - 09 Jan 2020
Abstract
Dual-material lattices with tailorable coefficients of thermal expansion have been applied to a wide range of modern engineering systems. As supporting techniques for fabricating dual-material lattices with given coefficients of thermal expansion, the current existing methods for measuring the coefficient of thermal expansion [...] Read more.
Dual-material lattices with tailorable coefficients of thermal expansion have been applied to a wide range of modern engineering systems. As supporting techniques for fabricating dual-material lattices with given coefficients of thermal expansion, the current existing methods for measuring the coefficient of thermal expansion have limited anti-interference ability. They ignore the measuring error caused by micro-displacement between the measurement sensor and the test sample. In this paper, we report a robust interferometric test method which can eliminate the measurement error caused by micro-displacement between the measurement sensor and the test sample. In the presented method, two parallel plane lenses are utilized to avoid the measurement error caused by translation, and the right lens is utilized as an angle detector to eliminate the measurement error caused by rotation. A robust interferometric testing setup was established using a distance measuring set and two plane lenses. The experiment results indicated that the method can avoid the measurement error induced by translation and has the potential to eliminate the measurement error induced by rotation using the rotational angle. This method can improve the anti-interference ability and accuracy by eliminating the measurement error. It is especially useful for high-precision thermal expansion measurement of dual-material lattices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Analysis of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermophysical Measurements in Liquid Alloys and Phase Diagram Studies
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3999; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12233999 - 02 Dec 2019
Abstract
Towards the construction of pressure-dependent phase diagrams of binary alloy systems, both thermophysical measurements and thermodynamic modeling are employed. High-accuracy measurements of sound velocity, density, and electrical resistivity were performed for selected metallic elements from columns III to V and their alloys in [...] Read more.
Towards the construction of pressure-dependent phase diagrams of binary alloy systems, both thermophysical measurements and thermodynamic modeling are employed. High-accuracy measurements of sound velocity, density, and electrical resistivity were performed for selected metallic elements from columns III to V and their alloys in the liquid phase. Sound velocity measurements were made using ultrasonic techniques, density measurements using the gamma radiation attenuation method, and electrical resistivity measurements were performed using the four probe method. Sound velocity and density data, measured at ambient pressure, were incorporated into a thermodynamic model to calculate the pressure dependence of binary phase diagrams. Electrical resistivity measurements were performed on binary systems to study phase separation and identify phase transitions in the liquid state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Analysis of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
A Different Approach to Estimate Temperature-Dependent Thermal Properties of Metallic Materials
Materials 2019, 12(16), 2579; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12162579 - 13 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Thermal conductivity, λ, and volumetric heat capacity, ρcp, variables that depend on temperature were simultaneously estimated in a diverse technique applied to AISI 1045 and AISI 304 samples. Two distinctive intensities of heat flux were imposed to provide a more [...] Read more.
Thermal conductivity, λ, and volumetric heat capacity, ρcp, variables that depend on temperature were simultaneously estimated in a diverse technique applied to AISI 1045 and AISI 304 samples. Two distinctive intensities of heat flux were imposed to provide a more accurate simultaneous estimation in the same experiment. A constant heat flux was imposed on the upper surface of the sample while the temperature was measured on the opposite insulated surface. The sensitivity coefficients were analyzed to provide the thermal property estimation. The Broydon-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) optimization technique was applied to minimize an objective function. The squared difference objective function of the numerical and experimental temperatures was defined considering the error generated by the contact resistance. The temperature was numerically calculated by using the finite difference method. In addition, the reliability of the results was assured by an uncertainty analysis. Results showing a difference lower than 7% were obtained for λ and ρcp, and the uncertainty values were above 5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Analysis of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Intermetallic Compounds on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Al–Cu Composite Materials Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091546 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Aluminium–copper composite materials were successfully fabricated using spark plasma sintering with Al and Cu powders as the raw materials. Al–Cu composite powders were fabricated through a ball milling process, and the effect of the Cu content was investigated. Composite materials composed of Al–20Cu, [...] Read more.
Aluminium–copper composite materials were successfully fabricated using spark plasma sintering with Al and Cu powders as the raw materials. Al–Cu composite powders were fabricated through a ball milling process, and the effect of the Cu content was investigated. Composite materials composed of Al–20Cu, Al–50Cu, and Al–80Cu (vol.%) were sintered by a spark plasma sintering process, which was carried out at 520 °C and 50 MPa for 5 min. The phase analysis of the composite materials by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) indicated that intermetallic compounds (IC) such as CuAl2 and Cu9Al4 were formed through reactions between Cu and Al during the spark plasma sintering process. The mechanical properties of the composites were analysed using a Vickers hardness tester. The Al–50Cu composite had a hardness of approximately 151 HV, which is higher than that of the other composites. The thermal conductivity of the composite materials was measured by laser flash analysis, and the highest value was obtained for the Al–80Cu composite material. This suggests that the Cu content affects physical properties of the Al–Cu composite material as well as the amount of intermetallic compounds formed in the composite material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Analysis of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Scanning Rate Extension of Conventional DSCs through Indirect Measurements
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071085 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this work, a method is presented which allows the determination of calorimetric information, and thus, information about the precipitation and dissolution behavior of aluminum alloys during heating rates that could not be previously measured. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an established method [...] Read more.
In this work, a method is presented which allows the determination of calorimetric information, and thus, information about the precipitation and dissolution behavior of aluminum alloys during heating rates that could not be previously measured. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an established method for in-situ recording of dissolution and precipitation reactions in various aluminum alloys. Diverse types of DSC devices are suitable for different ranges of scanning rates. A combination of the various available commercial devices enables heating and cooling rates from 10−4 to 5 Ks−1 to be covered. However, in some manufacturing steps of aluminum alloys, heating rates up to several 100 Ks−1 are important. Currently, conventional DSC cannot achieve these high heating rates and they are still too slow for the chip-sensor based fast scanning calorimetry. In order to fill the gap, an indirect measurement method has been developed, which allows the determination of qualitative information, regarding the precipitation state, at various points of any heat treatment. Different rapid heat treatments were carried out on samples of an alloy EN AW-6082 in a quenching dilatometer and terminated at defined temperatures. Subsequent reheating of the samples in the DSC enables analysis of the precipitation state of the heat-treated samples. This method allows for previously un-measurable heat treatments to get information about the occurring precipitation and dissolution reactions during short-term heat treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Analysis of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydration Kinetics of Composite Cementitious Materials Containing Copper Tailing Powder and Graphene Oxide
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2499; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122499 - 08 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The hydration heat evolution curves of composite cementitious materials containing copper tailing powder (CT) and graphene oxide (GO) with different contents are measured and analyzed in this paper. The hydration rate and total hydration heat of the composite cementitious materials decrease with the [...] Read more.
The hydration heat evolution curves of composite cementitious materials containing copper tailing powder (CT) and graphene oxide (GO) with different contents are measured and analyzed in this paper. The hydration rate and total hydration heat of the composite cementitious materials decrease with the increase of CT dosage, but improve with the increase of CT fineness and GO dosage. The hydration process of the cementitious systems undergoes three periods, namely nucleation and crystal growth (NG), phase boundary reaction (I), and diffusion (D), which can be simulated well using the Krstulovic–Dabic model. The hydration rates of the three controlling processes of the composite cementitious system decrease with the increase of CT content, but improve slightly with the increase of CT fineness. GO enhances the controlling effect of the NG process of the cementitious systems with or without CT, thus promotes the early hydration as a whole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Analysis of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Accelerating Cementite Precipitation during the Non-Isothermal Process by Applying Tensile Stress in GCr15 Bearing Steel
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2403; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122403 - 28 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this work, the non-isothermal process of GCr15 bearing steel after quenching and tempering (QT) under different tensile stress (0, 20, 40 MPa) was investigated by kinetic analysis and microstructural observation. The Kissinger method and differential isoconversional method were employed to assess the [...] Read more.
In this work, the non-isothermal process of GCr15 bearing steel after quenching and tempering (QT) under different tensile stress (0, 20, 40 MPa) was investigated by kinetic analysis and microstructural observation. The Kissinger method and differential isoconversional method were employed to assess the kinetic parameters of the microstructural evolution during the non-isothermal process with and without applied stress. It is found that the activation energy of retained austenite decomposition slightly increases from 109.4 kJ/mol to 121.5 kJ/mol with the increase of tensile stress. However, the activation energy of cementite precipitation decreases from 179.4 kJ/mol to 94.7 kJ/mol, proving that tensile stress could reduce the energy barrier of cementite precipitation. In addition, the microstructural observation based on scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) shows that more cementite has formed for the specimens with the applied tensile stress, whereas there is still a large number of ε carbides existing in the specimens without stress. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) also verify that carbon in martensite diffuses more and participates in the formation of cementite under the applied tensile stress, which thus are in good agreement with the kinetic analysis. The mechanisms for the differences in cementite precipitation behaviors may lie in the acceleration of carbon atoms migration and the reduction of the nucleation barrier by applying tensile stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Analysis of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Pyrolysis and Combustion of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Sheath for New and Aged Cables via Thermogravimetric Analysis-Fourier Transform Infrared (TG-FTIR) and Calorimeter
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1997; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101997 - 16 Oct 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
To fill the shortages in the knowledge of the pyrolysis and combustion properties of new and aged polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheaths, several experiments were performed by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), and cone calorimetry. The results show [...] Read more.
To fill the shortages in the knowledge of the pyrolysis and combustion properties of new and aged polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheaths, several experiments were performed by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), and cone calorimetry. The results show that the onset temperature of pyrolysis for an aged sheath shifts to higher temperatures. The value of the main derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) peak of an aged sheath is greater than that of a new one. The mass of the final remaining residue for an aged sheath is also greater than that of a new one. The gas that is released by an aged sheath is later but faster than that of a new one. The results also show that, when compared with a new sheath, the heat release rate (HRR) is lower for an aged one. The total heat release (THR) of aged sheath is reduced by 16.9–18.5% compared to a new one. In addition, the cone calorimetry experiments illustrate that the ignition occurrence of an aged sheath is later than that of a new one under different incident heat fluxes. This work indicates that an aged sheath generally pyrolyzes and it combusts more weakly and incompletely. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Analysis of Materials)
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