Landscape Design, Evaluation and Management Created by Novel Technologies

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X). This special issue belongs to the section "Land Planning and Landscape Architecture".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 26 June 2024 | Viewed by 9847

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Architecture, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
Interests: the changing meaning of place; technology in landscape architecture; design education; contemporary theory and novel landscape typologies

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Guest Editor
Harvard Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Interests: technology in landscape architecture; brownfield remediation; design theory
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74077, USA
Interests: data science; social value of places; design theory
Department of Landscape Architecture & Urban Planning, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840, USA
Interests: data science; social value of places; design theory
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Landscape Architecture, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Interests: economic, ecological, and social systems that shape an ever-changing city

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are excited to announce a Special Issue, entitled “Landscape Design, Evaluation and Management Created using Novel Technologies”, scheduled for publication in the peer-reviewed Land journal. We are inviting researchers from leading universities and research institutions around the world to contribute their scientific research investigations and achievements that expand the boundaries of and re-frame landscape architecture education.

Landscape architecture has undergone continuous expansion beyond the confines of the 19th-century arts–science binary narrative. At present, the remarkable surplus of available data and the rapidly evolving technological context offer unprecedented opportunities for the field to broaden its scope and drive innovation. The interdisciplinary integration of technology in landscape design, evaluation, and management is pivotal in redefining the boundaries of this discipline. Therefore, it is crucial to explore diverse technologies, propose novel inquiry methods, and develop innovative design strategies to support the growth and advancement of landscape architecture. However, the existing scholarly literature seems to overlook the central role of novel technology in this field, highlighting a significant knowledge gap.

This Special Issue aims to fill this literature gap by revealing the changing norms in landscape design, evaluation and management, and by exploring ways to re-frame  the dimensions of landscape architecture. Despite various efforts in professional design and research to foster the development of the allied professions working in the built environment in the face of novel and constantly changing technologies, substantial challenges persist in synchronizing outcomes among the information industry, design academia, and design practice. The requirements imposed by professional organizations concerning disciplinary management standards, evaluation procedures, and design strategies, coupled with the evolving emphasis on novel technologies integrated from allied disciplines, such as ecology, geology, data science, artificial intelligence, etc., hinder the advancement of landscape architecture. Moreover, these challenges undermine the essential role of championing social and environmental justice in a more accurate and convincing way. Thus, it is essential to scrutinize the current normative standards for landscape architecture, particularly related to design and research, and their structure. This Special Issue welcomes articles that explore research outcomes that could be applied to the practice of landscape architecture. Reviews and perspective articles that discuss the development and importance of identifying technologies for landscape architecture, especially as regards the design, evaluation, management and other related topics, are also welcome.

Dr. Xiwei Shen
Dr. Mary Padua
Prof. Dr. Niall Kirkwood
Dr. Bo Zhang
Dr. Yang Song
Dr. Rosalea Monacella
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • landscape design
  • conservation and management
  • innovated technology

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 6565 KiB  
Article
A Semantic Analysis Method of Public Public Built Environment and Its Landscape Based on Big Data Technology: Kimbell Art Museum as Example
by Zhongzhong Zeng, Meizhu Wang, Dingyi Liu, Xuan Yu and Bo Zhang
Land 2024, 13(5), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13050655 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 417
Abstract
Based on big data, a new public space evaluation method is proposed. Using programming technology to collect visitor reviews from the travel website TripAdvisor to build a database, based on the data of 99,240 words in 1573 visitor reviews in 10 years, the [...] Read more.
Based on big data, a new public space evaluation method is proposed. Using programming technology to collect visitor reviews from the travel website TripAdvisor to build a database, based on the data of 99,240 words in 1573 visitor reviews in 10 years, the connection between data and reality is established through systematic data classification and visualization. Following an assessment of the Kimbell Art Museum’s functionality, architectural design, and landscape design, along with visitor feedback, a new evaluation methodology was formulated for application to public buildings with landscapes. By utilizing the unique advantages of big data, it provides convenient and efficient analysis methods for public spaces with similar data foundations and opens the way for the optimization of the built environment in the information age. Full article
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24 pages, 3035 KiB  
Article
Transformative Impact of Technology in Landscape Architecture on Landscape Research: Trends, Concepts and Roles
by Xiwei Shen, Mary G. Padua and Niall G. Kirkwood
Land 2024, 13(5), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13050630 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 677
Abstract
The role of technology in landscape architecture (TLA) has significantly evolved since the 19th century, increasingly integrating with digital tools and technologies in the 21st century. Despite its growing importance, there is a notable deficiency in the scholarly literature regarding the progression of [...] Read more.
The role of technology in landscape architecture (TLA) has significantly evolved since the 19th century, increasingly integrating with digital tools and technologies in the 21st century. Despite its growing importance, there is a notable deficiency in the scholarly literature regarding the progression of TLA trends and their interplay with the core domains and research themes within landscape research. The influence of TLA on landscape research remains ambiguous, especially concerning its ability to generate new knowledge and impact design and sustainability practices. Furthermore, there is a critical need to delineate how TLA differs from allied general digital technology tools and to identify specific specializations that are emerging within the TLA field. To explore the above gaps, this study utilized a mixed methods approach involving secondary data from peer-reviewed publications, primary data from the archival research of winning projects, and expert interviews based on the two major research types of “Research through Design (RTD)” and “Research for Design (RFD)” to explore the TLA’s contribution. This research is significant as it: (1) identified the trend of TLA; (2) conceptualized the TLA, and (3) identified its role in relation to the core domains and research themes of landscape research. Full article
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17 pages, 3500 KiB  
Article
Assessing Inequality in Urban Green Spaces with Consideration for Physical Activity Promotion: Utilizing Spatial Analysis Techniques Supported by Multisource Data
by Yunjing Hou, Yiming Liu, Yuxin Wu and Lei Wang
Land 2024, 13(5), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13050626 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Urban green spaces (UGSs) play a significant role in promoting public health by facilitating outdoor activities, but issues of spatial and socioeconomic inequality within UGSs have drawn increasing attention. However, current methods for assessing UGS inequality still face challenges such as data acquisition [...] Read more.
Urban green spaces (UGSs) play a significant role in promoting public health by facilitating outdoor activities, but issues of spatial and socioeconomic inequality within UGSs have drawn increasing attention. However, current methods for assessing UGS inequality still face challenges such as data acquisition difficulties and low identification accuracy. Taking Harbin as a case study, this research employs various advanced technologies, including Python data scraping, drone imagery collection, and Amap API, to gather a diverse range of data on UGSs, including photos, high-resolution images, and AOI boundaries. Firstly, elements related to physical activity within UGSs are integrated into a supply adjustment index (SAI), based on which UGSs are classified into three categories. Then, a supply–demand improved two-step floating catchment area (SD2SFCA) method is employed to more accurately measure the accessibility of these three types of UGSs. Finally, using multiple linear regression analysis and Mann–Whitney U tests, socioeconomic inequalities in UGS accessibility are explored. The results indicate that (1) significant differentiation exists in the types of UGS services available in various urban areas, with a severe lack of small-scale, low-supply UGSs; (2) accessibility of all types of UGSs is significantly positively associated with housing prices, with higher-priced areas demonstrating notably higher accessibility compared to lower-priced ones; (3) children may be at a disadvantage in accessing UGSs with medium-supply levels. Future planning efforts need to enhance attention to vulnerable groups. This study underscores the importance of considering different types of UGSs in inequality assessments and proposes a method that could serve as a valuable tool for accurately assessing UGS inequality. Full article
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19 pages, 6599 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Impact of Multimodal Access on Property and Land Economies in Shanghai’s Inner Ring Districts: Leveraging Advanced Spatial Analysis Techniques
by Wei He, Ruqing Zhao and Shu Gao
Land 2024, 13(3), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13030311 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 887
Abstract
This study explores the impact of accessibility on property pricing and land economies by advanced spatial analysis techniques, focusing on Shanghai as a representative metropolis. Despite the impact of metro systems on residential property values, which has been frequently assessed, a research gap [...] Read more.
This study explores the impact of accessibility on property pricing and land economies by advanced spatial analysis techniques, focusing on Shanghai as a representative metropolis. Despite the impact of metro systems on residential property values, which has been frequently assessed, a research gap exists in understanding this phenomenon in Asian, particularly Chinese, urban contexts. Addressing this gap is crucial for shaping effective urban land use policy and improving the land economy rationally in China and similar settings facing urban challenges. To assess the impact of metro station accessibility on property prices in Shanghai, with extensive rail transit, and to deeply explore the overall impact of land value varieties driven by metro on urban development, we conducted a comprehensive analysis, with discussion about future aspirations for land planning and management along with landscape and facility design, and measures to improve land economy. The procedures involved creating neighborhood centroids to represent accessibility and using the Euclidean distance analysis to determine the shortest paths to metro stations. Our evaluation incorporated a hedonic pricing model, considering variables like neighborhood characteristics, housing attributes, and socio-economic factors. Advanced spatial analysis encompassing Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression and XGBoost analysis were employed to explore spatial effects, and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) helped examine spatial patterns and address autocorrelation challenges. Results revealed a negative association between distance to metro station and property prices, indicating a non-linear and spatially clustered relationship and heterogeneous spatial pattern. We dissected the non-linear results in detail, which complemented the conclusion in existing research. This study provides valuable insights into the dynamic interplay between metro accessibility and housing market behaviors in a significant Asian urban context, offering targeted suggestions for urban planners and governors to decide on more reasonable land use planning and management strategies, along with landscape and infrastructure design, to promote not only the healthy growth of the real estate market but also the sustainable urban development in China and similar regions. Full article
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16 pages, 3196 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Urban Landscape Design: A GAN-Based Approach for Rapid Color Rendering of Park Sketches
by Ran Chen, Jing Zhao, Xueqi Yao, Yueheng He, Yuting Li, Zeke Lian, Zhengqi Han, Xingjian Yi and Haoran Li
Land 2024, 13(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13020254 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1287
Abstract
In urban ecological development, the effective planning and design of living spaces are crucial. Traditional color plan rendering methods, mainly using generative adversarial networks (GANs), rely heavily on edge extraction. This often leads to the loss of important details from hand-drawn drafts, significantly [...] Read more.
In urban ecological development, the effective planning and design of living spaces are crucial. Traditional color plan rendering methods, mainly using generative adversarial networks (GANs), rely heavily on edge extraction. This often leads to the loss of important details from hand-drawn drafts, significantly affecting the portrayal of the designer’s key concepts. This issue is especially critical in complex park planning. To address this, our study introduces a system based on conditional GANs. This system rapidly converts black-and-white park sketches into comprehensive color designs. We also employ a data augmentation strategy to enhance the quality of the output. The research reveals: (1) Our model efficiently produces designs suitable for industrial applications. (2) The GAN-based data augmentation improves the data volume, leading to enhanced rendering effects. (3) Our unique approach of direct rendering from sketches offers a novel method in urban planning and design. This study aims to enhance the rendering aspect of an intelligent workflow for landscape design. More efficient rendering techniques will reduce the iteration time of early design solutions and promote the iterative speed of designers’ thinking, thus improving the speed and efficiency of the whole design process. Full article
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25 pages, 10129 KiB  
Article
Influence of Urban Park Pathway Features on the Density and Intensity of Walking and Running Activities: A Case Study of Shanghai City
by Junqi Chen, Zheng Tao, Wenrui Wu, Ling Wang and Dan Chen
Land 2024, 13(2), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13020156 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 837
Abstract
Walking and running activities (W&RAs), encompassing strolling, slow walking, brisk walking, jogging, and running, hold significant importance as popular forms of exercise within urban parks. Recognized for their efficacy in promoting public health and preventing chronic diseases, understanding the nuanced impact of pathway [...] Read more.
Walking and running activities (W&RAs), encompassing strolling, slow walking, brisk walking, jogging, and running, hold significant importance as popular forms of exercise within urban parks. Recognized for their efficacy in promoting public health and preventing chronic diseases, understanding the nuanced impact of pathway features on W&RAs is crucial for advancing health-centric urban park planning. Based on extensive, high-frequency field observation data, we utilize multiple OLS regression models and univariate OLS regression models to investigate the relationship between urban park pathway features and variations in W&RAs, specifically examining activity density and intensity. Subsequently, we propose corresponding pathway optimization strategies. Our findings highlight the primary determinants, with vegetation coverage ratio, path type, and security facility density influencing activity density; and control value, time required to reach the nearest entrance, and pavement type influencing activity intensity. Significantly, increased vegetation coverage enhances density, while interconnected spaces and improved accessibility elevate intensity. In conclusion, our study delineates key features that merit prioritization, specifies their optimal ranges and proposes optimization design strategies for urban park pathways. By shedding light on these considerations, our research contributes valuable insights to the realm of health-oriented urban park planning and design. Full article
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25 pages, 4411 KiB  
Article
Managing Landscape Urbanization and Assessing Biodiversity of Wildlife Habitats: A Study of Bobcats in San Jose, California
by Yongli Zheng, Yuxi Wang, Xinyi Wang, Yuhan Wen and Shuying Guo
Land 2024, 13(2), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13020152 - 28 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1536
Abstract
In the rapid process of urbanization, crucial habitats for mid-sized felids such as bobcats are increasingly compromised. This study employs Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and Machine Learning to investigate the subtle impacts of urbanization on bobcat habitats. Focused on the San Jose [...] Read more.
In the rapid process of urbanization, crucial habitats for mid-sized felids such as bobcats are increasingly compromised. This study employs Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and Machine Learning to investigate the subtle impacts of urbanization on bobcat habitats. Focused on the San Jose area, our extensive geospatial analysis has developed a complex ecological model for bobcat habitats. Our findings emphasize the significant influence of factors like vegetation cover, water body distribution, road traffic volume, and intersection density on the suitability of habitats for bobcats. Specifically, we discovered that while vegetation cover typically supports habitat suitability, its proximity to busy roads significantly undermines this advantage, indicating a need for strategic urban planning that incorporates wildlife mobility. By synthesizing natural and urban elements, we offer fresh insights into urban ecosystem management and propose specific conservation tactics: identifying optimal wildlife crossings, integrating corridors with urban infrastructure, and placing fencing and signage strategically to facilitate wildlife movement safely. These measures aim to reduce road-related threats and enhance the integrity of natural habitats, strengthening bobcat conservation efforts. More than its direct implications for bobcat conservation, this study offers actionable insights for urban wildlife conservation and introduces innovative methods for assessing and mitigating the broader ecological impacts of urbanization. Full article
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18 pages, 7473 KiB  
Article
Landscape Architecture Professional Knowledge Abstraction: Accessing, Applying and Disseminating
by Yue Qiu, Zheng Cong, Karla Nicole Opiniano, Xuesong Qiao and Zheng Chen
Land 2023, 12(11), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112061 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1234
Abstract
Rigorous abstract knowledge, such as academic knowledge, is vital to a profession’s resilience against other modern professional competition. In the field of landscape architecture, a growing number of concerns about a lack of rigorous knowledge have been observed, which may jeopardise the jurisdiction [...] Read more.
Rigorous abstract knowledge, such as academic knowledge, is vital to a profession’s resilience against other modern professional competition. In the field of landscape architecture, a growing number of concerns about a lack of rigorous knowledge have been observed, which may jeopardise the jurisdiction of its professional practice. A study was conducted that collected behaviours and attitudes from various members of the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) regarding how they accessed, disseminated, and applied knowledge in practice. Their responses concerning the knowledge were analysed by dividing and ranking the options according to the degree of knowledge abstraction. Knowledge abstraction refers to theories and commonplace best practices that are established within a profession through shared knowledge, experience, and research. The results showed that (1) most practitioners tended to access new knowledge through tacit experience, which is indicative of a lower level of abstraction in their practice; (2) design decisions were based less on higher and rigorously abstracted knowledge such as research findings and, in circumstances where it was deployed in the design process, such knowledge was seldom used to guide design independently; (3) the majority of practitioners rarely share knowledge through high-abstracted publications; and (4) compared with accessing relatively diverse levels of knowledge abstraction, practitioners were less resourceful in knowledge application and even less in dissemination. The knowledge acquired, used and circulated in the workplace of landscape architects—as indicated by this survey—is still not comprehensively abstracted to a rigorous level, which may provide an insight into the concerns of practitioners regarding this profession’s breadth of knowledge and jurisdiction. Full article
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19 pages, 3852 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of Perceptions of Destination Image Based on Content Mining: Fengjing Ancient Town and Zhaojialou Ancient Town as Examples
by Jiahui Ding, Zheng Tao, Mingming Hou, Dan Chen and Ling Wang
Land 2023, 12(10), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12101954 - 23 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Ancient canal towns in Jiangnan have become important tourist destinations due to their unique water town scenery and historical value. Creating a unique tourist image boosts these ancient towns’ competitive edge in tourism and contributes significantly to their preservation and growth. The vast [...] Read more.
Ancient canal towns in Jiangnan have become important tourist destinations due to their unique water town scenery and historical value. Creating a unique tourist image boosts these ancient towns’ competitive edge in tourism and contributes significantly to their preservation and growth. The vast amount of data from social media has become an essential source for uncovering tourism perceptions. This study takes two ancient towns in Shanghai, Zhaojialou and Fengjing, as case study areas. In order to explore and compare the destination images of the towns, in the perception of tourists and in official publicity, machine learning approaches like word embedding and K-means clustering are adopted to process the comments on Sina Weibo and publicity articles, and statistical analysis and correspondence analysis are used for comparative study. The results reveal the following: (1) Using k-means clustering, destination perceptions were categorized into 16 groups spanning three dimensions, “space, activity, and sentiment”, with the most keywords in “activity” and the fewest in “sentiment”. (2) The perception of tourists often differs significantly from the official promotional materials. Official promotions place a strong emphasis on shaping the image of ancient towns based on their historical resources, presenting a more general picture. Tourist perception, which is fragmented, highlights emerging elements and the experiential activities, along with the corresponding emotional experiences. (3) Comparing the two towns, Fengjing Ancient Town stands out, with more diverse tourist perceptions and richer emotional experiences. This underscores the effectiveness of tourism activities that use space as a media to evoke emotions, surpassing the impact of the spaces themselves. Full article
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