Special Issue "Personalized and Targeted Atherosclerosis Treatments"

A special issue of Journal of Personalized Medicine (ISSN 2075-4426).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Hana Totary-Jain

Department of Molecular Pharmacology & Physiology, University of South Florida, Morsani College of Medicine
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Guest Editor
Dr. Despina Sanoudou

Clinical Genomics and Pharmacogenomics Unit, 4^th Department of Internal Medicine – “Attikon” Hospital, Medical School – National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Atherosclerosis affects millions of individuals worldwide, with a third of all deaths of Americans older than 35 being due to coronary artery disease, and stroke ranking 5th among all causes of death in the US. Despite available treatments, patient response rates are limited, and adverse drug reactions are considerable. The technological and scientific advances over recent years are setting the stage for new generations of atherosclerosis treatments that will be personalized and targeted at the cellular and molecular level. This Special Issue will be focusing on new technologies, concepts and strategies currently pursued towards these goals.

Dr. Hana Totary-Jain
Dr. Despina Sanoudou
Guest editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Personalized Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • atherosclerosis
  • precision medicine
  • non-coding RNA
  • nanoparticles
  • antibodies
  • reconstituted HDL
  • biomedical engineering

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Personalized Assessment of the Coronary Atherosclerotic Arteries by Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging: Hunting the Vulnerable Plaque
J. Pers. Med. 2019, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm9010008
Received: 25 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
The term “vulnerable plaque” is commonly used to refer to an atherosclerotic plaque that is prone to rupture and the formation of thrombosis, which can lead to several cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Coronary artery atherosclerosis has a wide variety of different phenotypes among [...] Read more.
The term “vulnerable plaque” is commonly used to refer to an atherosclerotic plaque that is prone to rupture and the formation of thrombosis, which can lead to several cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Coronary artery atherosclerosis has a wide variety of different phenotypes among patients who may have a substantially variable risk for plaque rupture and cardiovascular events. Mounting evidence has proposed three distinctive histopathological mechanisms: plaque rupture, plaque erosion and calcified nodules. Studies have demonstrated the characteristics of plaques with high vulnerability such as the presence of a thin fibrous cap, a necrotic lipid-rich core, abundant infiltrating macrophages and neovascularization. However, traditional coronary angiographic imaging fails to determine plaque vulnerability features, and its ability to individualize treatment strategies is limited. In recent decades, catheter-based intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS) modalities have been developed to identify vulnerable plaques and ultimately vulnerable patients. The aim is to individualize prediction, prevention and treatment of acute coronary events based on the identification of specific features of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques, and to identify the most appropriate interventional procedures for their treatment. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss how personalized assessment of coronary atherosclerotic arteries can be achieved by intravascular ultrasound imaging focusing on vulnerable plaque detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized and Targeted Atherosclerosis Treatments)
Open AccessReview Current and Emerging Reconstituted HDL-apoA-I and HDL-apoE Approaches to Treat Atherosclerosis
J. Pers. Med. 2018, 8(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm8040034
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
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Abstract
Atherosclerosis affects millions of people worldwide. However, the wide variety of limitations in the current therapeutic options leaves much to be desired in future lipid-lowering therapies. For example, although statins, which are the first-line treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD), reduce the risk [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis affects millions of people worldwide. However, the wide variety of limitations in the current therapeutic options leaves much to be desired in future lipid-lowering therapies. For example, although statins, which are the first-line treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD), reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in a large percentage of patients, they lead to optimal levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in only about one-third of patients. A new promising research direction against atherosclerosis aims to improve lipoprotein metabolism. Novel therapeutic approaches are being developed to increase the levels of functional high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. This review aims to highlight the atheroprotective potential of the in vitro synthesized reconstituted HDL particles containing apolipoprotein E (apoE) as their sole apolipoprotein component (rHDL-apoE). For this purpose, we provide: (1) a summary of the atheroprotective properties of native plasma HDL and its apolipoprotein components, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoE; (2) an overview of the anti-atherogenic functions of rHDL-apoA-I and apoA-I-containing HDL, i.e., natural HDL isolated from transgenic Apoa1−/− × Apoe−/− mice overexpressing human apoA-I (HDL-apoA-I); and (3) the latest developments and therapeutic potential of HDL-apoE and rHDL-apoE. Novel rHDL formulations containing apoE could possibly present enhanced biological functions, leading to improved therapeutic efficacy against atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized and Targeted Atherosclerosis Treatments)
Open AccessReview 40 Years of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: History and Future Directions
J. Pers. Med. 2018, 8(4), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm8040033
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The field of interventional cardiology has evolved significantly since the first percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was performed 40 years ago. This evolution began with a balloon catheter mounted on a fixed wire and has progressed into bare-metal stents (BMS), first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES), [...] Read more.
The field of interventional cardiology has evolved significantly since the first percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was performed 40 years ago. This evolution began with a balloon catheter mounted on a fixed wire and has progressed into bare-metal stents (BMS), first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES), second- and third-generation biodegradable polymer-based DES, and culminates with the advent of bioabsorbable stents, which are currently under development. Each step in technological advancement has improved outcomes, while new persisting challenges arise, caused by the stent scaffolds, the polymers employed, and the non-selective cytostatic and cytotoxic drugs eluted from the stents. Despite the promising technological advances made in stent technology, managing the balance between reductions in target lesion revascularization, stent thrombosis, and bleeding remain highly complex issues. This review summarizes the evolution of percutaneous coronary intervention with a focus on vascular dysfunction triggered by the non-selective drugs eluted from various stents. It also provides an overview of the mechanism of action of the drugs currently used in DES. We also discuss the efforts made in developing novel cell-selective drugs capable of inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, migration, and infiltration of inflammatory cells while allowing for complete reendothelialization. Lastly, in the era of precision medicine, considerations of patients’ genetic variance associated with myocardial infarction and in-stent restenosis are discussed. The combination of personalized medicine and improved stent platform with cell-selective drugs has the potential to solve the remaining challenges and improve the care of coronary artery disease patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized and Targeted Atherosclerosis Treatments)
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