Special Issue "Advance in Sedimentology and Coastal and Marine Geology"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Geological Oceanography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2022) | Viewed by 10864

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Gemma Aiello
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Sezione Secondaria di Napoli, Calata Porta di Massa, Porto di Napoli, 80133 Naples, Italy
Interests: seismic stratigraphy; sedimentology; marine geology and geophysics; geological mapping; basin analysis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The objective of this Special Issue is to collect research papers in the field of sedimentology and coastal and marine geology, including seismic and sequence stratigraphy, geological mapping, tephrostratigraphy and facies analysis, both onshore and offshore. We will focus on the Italian continental margins, including both the southern Tyrrhenian Sea and the southern Adriatic Sea, but we also acknowledge research papers on extra-Mediterranean examples. The interaction of the control factors controlling the sedimentation on the continental margins, including volcanism, tectonics, sedimentary supply and sea-level fluctuations, represents another important topic of this Special Issue. Possibly, geoarchaeology in coastal sectors will provide another important research topic, also if genetically related to the sea level changes. Tephrostratigraphy, as a method to calibrate the seismic horizons through gravity core analysis, represents another topic of this Special Issue.

Dr. Gemma Aiello
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Sedimentology
  • Facies analysis
  • Seismic stratigraphy
  • Sequence stratigraphy
  • Tephrostratigraphy
  • Geoarchaeology

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
New Seismoacoustic Data on Shallow Gas in Holocene Marine Shelf Sediments, Offshore from the Cilento Promontory (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1992; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121992 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 417
Abstract
High-resolution seismoacoustic data represent a useful tool for the investigations of gas-charged sediments occurring beneath the seabed through the identification of the diagnostic intrasedimentary features associated with them. Acoustic blanking revealed shallow gas pockets in the seismostratigraphic units of the inner shelf off [...] Read more.
High-resolution seismoacoustic data represent a useful tool for the investigations of gas-charged sediments occurring beneath the seabed through the identification of the diagnostic intrasedimentary features associated with them. Acoustic blanking revealed shallow gas pockets in the seismostratigraphic units of the inner shelf off the Northern Cilento promontory. Six main seismostratigraphic units were recognized based on the geological interpretation of the seismic profiles. Large shallow gas pockets, reaching a lateral extension of 1 km, are concentrated at the depocenter of Late Pleistocene–Holocene marine sediments that are limited northwards by the Solofrone River mouth and southwards by the Licosa Cape promontory. A morphobathymetric interpretation, reported in a GIS environment, was constructed in order to show the main morphological lineaments and to link them with the acoustic anomalies interpreted through the Sub-bottom chirp profiles. A newly constructed workflow was assessed to perform data elaboration with Seismic Unix software by comparing and improving the seismic data of the previously processed profiles that used Seisprho software. The identification of these anomalies and the corresponding units from the offshore Cilento promontory represent a useful basis for an assessment of marine geohazards and could help to plan for the mitigation of geohazards in the Cilento region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Sedimentology and Coastal and Marine Geology)
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Article
Coupling Relationship of Geomorphic Evolution and Marine Hydrodynamics in the Stage-Specific Development of Urban Bays: A Modelling Case Study in Quanzhou Bay (1954–2017), China
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1677; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111677 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 406
Abstract
With the development of social economy and human activities, the geomorphology and hydrodynamic conditions of coasts have been dramatically changed, causing serious environmental pollution and resource depletion. Taking Quanzhou Bay as an example, this study combined geomorphologic change with a hydrodynamic model to [...] Read more.
With the development of social economy and human activities, the geomorphology and hydrodynamic conditions of coasts have been dramatically changed, causing serious environmental pollution and resource depletion. Taking Quanzhou Bay as an example, this study combined geomorphologic change with a hydrodynamic model to simulate the change in tidal currents in different periods. The results show a change in the coastline was the main cause of hydrodynamic change during the industrialization reform. During the past 70 years, the tidal prism decreased year by year, and the average velocity of the tidal current in the channel decreased by 33.7% and 30.8% at flood and ebb tide, respectively. In the early stages of industrialization, reclamation land was used in a single way. The tidal prism decreased by 22.2% and 29.8% in the spring and neap tide, respectively. In the middle and later stages, the tidal current velocity increased, and reclamation land was used in a variety of ways. In modern society, the reclamation land-use type was unitary. Based on this research, we show the influence of human activities on the evolution of the bay’s geomorphology and provide suggestions for the management of the bay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Sedimentology and Coastal and Marine Geology)
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Article
Submarine Stratigraphy of the Eastern Bay of Naples: New Seismo-Stratigraphic Data and Implications for the Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei Volcanic Activity
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(10), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101520 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 625
Abstract
The submarine stratigraphy of the eastern Bay of Naples is studied through seismo-stratigraphic data correlated with borehole data. Multichannel seismic profiles are interpreted in order to reconstruct the stratigraphic relationships between the Quaternary marine seismic units and the volcanic acoustic substratum. Seven seismic [...] Read more.
The submarine stratigraphy of the eastern Bay of Naples is studied through seismo-stratigraphic data correlated with borehole data. Multichannel seismic profiles are interpreted in order to reconstruct the stratigraphic relationships between the Quaternary marine seismic units and the volcanic acoustic substratum. Seven seismic units are recognized based on the geological interpretation of seismic profiles and using seismo-stratigraphic criteria. The top of the lowest seismic unit was correlated with the Campanian Ignimbrite (Southern Campania Volcanic Zone). The stratigraphic setting of the eastern Bay of Naples is characterized by NE-SW trending seismic structures, probably corresponding with tuff rings. These tuff rings can be compared with the Porto Miseno, the Archiaverno and Averno, and the Astroni tuff rings (Campi Flegrei). Offshore, the Somma-Vesuvius a seismic unit was interpreted as the fallout deposits representing the base of the AD 79 eruption. However, since a branch of the isopach of 5 m of the “Pomici di Avellino” pyroclastic deposits is very close to the Tyrrhenian coastline and near our GRNA01 and GRNA03 seismic profiles, we cannot exclude that the seismic unit could be also correlated with the deposits of this eruption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Sedimentology and Coastal and Marine Geology)
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Article
Effects of Clay Mineral Composition on the Dynamic Properties and Fabric of Artificial Marine Clay
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(11), 1216; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9111216 - 03 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
Marine clays are easily affected by different mineral composition in cyclic load-based geological hazards. Therefore, based on analyzing the mineral composition of natural marine clay, it is the key to predict the dynamic properties of natural materials under cyclic loading by using quantitated [...] Read more.
Marine clays are easily affected by different mineral composition in cyclic load-based geological hazards. Therefore, based on analyzing the mineral composition of natural marine clay, it is the key to predict the dynamic properties of natural materials under cyclic loading by using quantitated artificial marine clay. In this study, the marine clay found in the South China Sea deltas was investigated. Based on the results of geological conditions and mineral composition analyses, raw non-clay minerals (such as quartz, albite) and clay minerals (such as Na-montmorillonite and kaolinite) were used to produce artificial marine clay, the dynamic properties of which were studied from the impact of mineral composition. Dynamic triaxial laboratory testing for artificial marine clay comprising various clay minerals was performed under identical test conditions. The artificial marine clay with high montmorillonite content exhibited slower development of strain, more sluggish growth in pore water pressure, more rounded hysteresis curves, greater stiffness, and more prolonged viscous energy growth than the clay with low montmorillonite content. In addition, the flocculated fabric of the artificial marine clay with high montmorillonite content demonstrated sufficient pore space changes, more uniform pore distribution, and larger specific surface area than the dispersed fabric of the clay with low montmorillonite content. The factors arising from the influence of montmorillonite may lead to microstructural and fabric changes, hinder the development of pore water, and increase intergranular contact stiffness as well as delay the cyclic strain amplitude at the breakpoint of viscous energy dissipation. In general, the results presented in this study confirm that clay minerals, especially montmorillonite, have significant influence on the dynamic properties of large strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Sedimentology and Coastal and Marine Geology)
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Article
Sedimentary Environmental Evolution of the Western Taiwan Shoal Area since the Late Pleistocene
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101150 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
A new pollen analysis and major and trace element contents were conducted on a 40 m long gravity core recovered from the Taiwan Shoal (sand ridges), south of the Taiwan Strait, beginning in the Late Pleistocene. The changes in the pollen assemblage and [...] Read more.
A new pollen analysis and major and trace element contents were conducted on a 40 m long gravity core recovered from the Taiwan Shoal (sand ridges), south of the Taiwan Strait, beginning in the Late Pleistocene. The changes in the pollen assemblage and concentration represent the climate change around the Taiwan Shoal and the strength of the Zhe-Min Coastal Current, whereas variations in major and trace element contents can imply the source of the sediments in the Taiwan Shoal, which are correlated with the rise or fall of the sea level with increased marine dinoflagellate cysts. The interval of 40–30 m was characterized by high pollen and spore concentrations, and evergreen Quercus was dominant taxon, which indicates a warm sedimentary environment, and the surrounding area of the Taiwan Shoal were covered by a tropical and subtropical broad-leaved forest. There were no pollen and spores from 30–24 m, which indicates a strong hydrodynamic sedimentary environment, and most of the Taiwan Shoal might have been experience subaerial exposure. The interval of 24–17 m was characterized by the reappearance of pollen and spores, as well as marine dinoflagellate cysts and foraminifera, suggesting the climate was warm and wet in the study area and an apparent marine sedimentary environment with relatively high sea level. Deciduous Quercus dominated the interval of 17–12 m, which indicated that the climate was relatively cool, corresponding to the end of Marine isotope stages3 (MIS3) to the Last Glacial Maximum accompanied by weathering and denudation. Above 12 m, the low pollen concentration with increased marine dinoflagellate cysts and foraminifera abundance suggested a marine sedimentary environment in the Taiwan Shoal. The high concentrations in Pinus corresponds to Holocene high sea level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Sedimentology and Coastal and Marine Geology)
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Article
Facies Analysis and Sedimentary Architecture of Hybrid Event Beds in Submarine Lobes: Insights from the Crocker Fan, NW Borneo, Malaysia
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101133 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1090
Abstract
Hybrid event beds represent the combined effect of multiple geological processes, which result in complex depositional geometries and distinct facies distribution in marine environments. Previous work on hybrid event beds highlights the classification, origin, and types of hybrid facies. However, in the present [...] Read more.
Hybrid event beds represent the combined effect of multiple geological processes, which result in complex depositional geometries and distinct facies distribution in marine environments. Previous work on hybrid event beds highlights the classification, origin, and types of hybrid facies. However, in the present study, we discuss the development of hybrid event beds in submarine lobes with an emphasis on the analysis of proximal to distal, frontal to lateral relationships and evolution during lobe progradation. Detailed geological fieldwork was carried out in the classical deep-marine Late Paleogene Crocker Fan to understand the relationship between the character of hybrid bed facies and lobe architecture. The results indicate that hybrid facies of massive or structureless sandstone with mud clasts, clean to muddy sand, and chaotic muddy sand with oversized sand patch alternations (H1–H3) are well developed in proximal to medial lobes, while distal lobes mainly contain parallel to cross-laminated clean to muddy hybrid facies (H3–H5). Furthermore, lateral lobes have less vertical thickness of hybrid beds than frontal lobes. The development of hybrid beds takes place in the lower part of the thickening upward sequence of lobe progradation, while lobe retrogradation contains hybrid facies intervals in the upper part of stratigraphy. Hence, the development of hybrid beds in submarine lobe systems has a significant impact on the characterization of heterogeneities in deep-marine petroleum reservoirs at sub-seismic levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Sedimentology and Coastal and Marine Geology)
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Article
The Depositional Environments in the Cilento Offshore (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) Based on Marine Geological Data
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101083 - 04 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 945
Abstract
The depositional environments offshore of the Cilento Promontory have been reconstructed based on the geological studies performed in the frame of the marine geological mapping of the geological sheet n. 502 “Agropoli”. The littoral environment (toe-of-coastal cliff deposits and submerged beach deposits), the [...] Read more.
The depositional environments offshore of the Cilento Promontory have been reconstructed based on the geological studies performed in the frame of the marine geological mapping of the geological sheet n. 502 “Agropoli”. The littoral environment (toe-of-coastal cliff deposits and submerged beach deposits), the inner continental shelf environment (inner shelf deposits and bioclastic deposits), the outer continental shelf environment (outer shelf deposits and bioclastic deposits), the lowstand system tract and the Pleistocene relict marine units have been singled out. The littoral, inner shelf and outer shelf environments have been interpreted as the highstand system tract of the Late Quaternary depositional sequence. This sequence overlies the Cenozoic substratum (ssi unit), composed of Cenozoic siliciclastic rocks, genetically related with the Cilento Flysch. On the inner shelf four main seismo-stratigraphic units, overlying the undifferentiated acoustic basement have been recognized based on the geological interpretation of seismic profiles. On the outer shelf, palimpsest deposits of emerged to submerged beach and forming elongated dunes have been recognized on sub-bottom profiles and calibrated with gravity core data collected in previous papers. The sedimentological analysis of sea bottom samples has shown the occurrence of several grain sizes occurring in this portion of the Cilento offshore. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Sedimentology and Coastal and Marine Geology)
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Article
Depositional Setting and Cementation Pattern of Al-Mejarma Beachrocks, Saudi Arabia: A Proxy for the Late Quaternary Red Sea Coastal Evolution
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9091012 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
This study utilizes lithofacies characteristics, petrographic, XRD, and stable isotope data of Al-Mejarma beachrocks, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, to interpret its depositional setting, origin of cement, and coastal evolution. The beachrock is 1.15 m thick, medium to very coarse-grained sandstone with scattered granules. [...] Read more.
This study utilizes lithofacies characteristics, petrographic, XRD, and stable isotope data of Al-Mejarma beachrocks, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, to interpret its depositional setting, origin of cement, and coastal evolution. The beachrock is 1.15 m thick, medium to very coarse-grained sandstone with scattered granules. It shows massive to graded bedding, horizontal, ripple, and shore parallel to slightly oblique planar cross-laminations, with a remarkable absence of bioturbation. It was deposited by shore-parallel longshore currents in a relatively high-energy beach environment. The framework comprises quartz, feldspars, and lithic fragments admixed with biogenic remains of algae, mollusca, foraminifera, corals, and echinoids. They are cemented by high magnesium calcite in the form of isopachous rims and pore-filling blades, and rarely, as a meniscus bridge. The mean values of δ18OVPDB and δ13CVPDB are 0.44‰ and 3.65‰, respectively, suggesting a seawater origin for the cement. The framework composition, facies geometry, and association with back-barrier lagoon impose a deposition as a shoreface-beach barrier through two stages corresponding to the middle and late Holocene. The first stage attests landward migrating sediment accumulation and rapid marine cementation. The sediments stored offshore during the early and middle Holocene humid periods migrated landward from offshore and alongshore by onshore waves and longshore drift during the middle and late Holocene sea-level highstand. They were cemented to form beachrock and subsequently emerged as the late Holocene sea-level fell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Sedimentology and Coastal and Marine Geology)
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Article
Beachrock as a Paleoshoreline Indicator: Example from Wadi Al-Hamd, South Al-Wajh, Saudi Arabia
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090984 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
The present study concerns the Holocene inland beachrocks that are exposed in the Red Sea coastal plain at the mouth of Wadi Al-Hamd, South Al-Wajh City, Saudi Arabia, and their utility as an indicator for Holocene climate and sea level changes. In addition, [...] Read more.
The present study concerns the Holocene inland beachrocks that are exposed in the Red Sea coastal plain at the mouth of Wadi Al-Hamd, South Al-Wajh City, Saudi Arabia, and their utility as an indicator for Holocene climate and sea level changes. In addition, the framework composition, and carbon and oxygen isotopic data, are employed to interpret the origin of their cement. The beachrock consists mainly of gravel and coarse-grained terrigenous sediments dominated by lithic fragments of volcanic rocks, cherts and rare limestones along with quartz, feldspars and traces of amphiboles and heavy minerals. In addition, rare skeletal remains dominated by coralline algae, benthic foraminifera and mollusca remains are recognized. The allochems are cemented by high Mg-calcite (HMC) formed mainly in the intertidal zone under active marine phreatic conditions. The cement takes the form of isopachous to anisopachous rinds of bladed crystals, micritic rim non-selectively surrounding siliciclastic and skeletal remains, and pore-filling micrite. Pore-filling micrite cement occasionally displays a meniscus fabric, suggesting a vadose environment. The δ18O and δ13C values of carbonate cement range from −0.35‰ to 1‰ (mean 0.25‰) and −0.09‰ to 3.03‰ (mean 1.85‰), respectively, which are compatible with precipitation from marine waters. The slight depletion in δ18O and δ13C values in the proximal sample may suggest a slight meteoric contribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Sedimentology and Coastal and Marine Geology)
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