Special Issue "Larval Settlement on Marine Surfaces: The Role of Physico-Chemical Interactions"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 24 August 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Francesca Cima
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biology, University of Padova, via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova, Italy
Interests: marine ecotoxicology; marine biofouling; antifouling systems; marine invertebrate immune system; comparative immunobiology; immunotoxicity; embryotoxicity; evolutionary biology of tunicates

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The ecological succession of the fouling community in coastal marine ecosystems depends on interactions among organisms and hard substrate. The primary fouling is formed of organisms that settle mainly on virgin surfaces. The secondary fouling is represented by organisms that need fouling for their settlement and growth. In all cases, there is a very close relationship between larval settlement and type of substrate.

In this Special Issue, I call for reviews and original research papers that pay attention to various aspects of the evaluation of marine larval settlement on both natural and artificial surfaces, pro-fouling and anti-fouling systems enclosed, with the growing interest in eco-engineering for coastal ecosystem preservation.

Results on inter- and intraspecific competition for substrate; the dominance of invasive species; the effects of color, roughness, wettability, hydrophilicity, oleophilicity, and nanostructure of the substrate; tolerance to repellent substances; and the morphology of adhesive structures are welcome.

Assoc. Prof. Francesca Cima
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Larval settlement
  • Hard-substrate community
  • Biofouling
  • Marine invertebrates
  • Substratum preference
  • Artificial surfaces
  • Invasive species selection

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Application of UVC Used in Synergy with Surface Material to Prevent Marine Biofouling
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(6), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060662 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 179
Abstract
Biofouling is problematic for the shipping industry and can lead to functional and financial setbacks. One possible means of biofouling prevention is the use of ultraviolet-C (UVC) light. Previous studies have investigated UVC with marine coatings, but the synergistic effect with color and [...] Read more.
Biofouling is problematic for the shipping industry and can lead to functional and financial setbacks. One possible means of biofouling prevention is the use of ultraviolet-C (UVC) light. Previous studies have investigated UVC with marine coatings, but the synergistic effect with color and surface material, specifically reflectance, has yet to be determined. This study comprised three parts: UVC and color (red vs. white), UVC and reflectance (stainless steel vs. polycarbonate), and UVC and exposure intervals (weekly intervals and 10 min intervals). There was no variance in the biofouling communities for colored surfaces when exposed to 254 nm UVC. Reflectance studies demonstrated that the surface material plays a role in biofouling settlement. Stainless steel panels had significantly greater macrofouling settlement than polycarbonate, specifically among encrusting bryozoan, tubeworms, and tunicate communities. Panels of both surface materials exposed to indirect UVC significantly differed from controls and those exposed directly to UVC. Exposure intervals were also found to reduce biofouling settlement especially with long frequent intervals (i.e., 10 min/day). UVC can be utilized on various colored surfaces and different surface types, but the effectiveness in preventing biofouling is ultimately determined by the duration and frequency of UVC exposure. Full article
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Communication
A Vital Staining Practice That Discerns Ancestry within Groups of Settling Larvae of a Brooding Coral
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(6), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060616 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 351
Abstract
Xenogeneic and allogeneic encounters following aggregated and clustered settlements of coral larvae (planulae) may carry important ecological consequences in shaping coral reefs’ communities. However, larval settlement behaviors and settlement location choices in the presence of conspecifics or heterospecifics have not been examined in [...] Read more.
Xenogeneic and allogeneic encounters following aggregated and clustered settlements of coral larvae (planulae) may carry important ecological consequences in shaping coral reefs’ communities. However, larval settlement behaviors and settlement location choices in the presence of conspecifics or heterospecifics have not been examined in detail, due to a lack of experimental tools. One potential approach is the employment of vital staining of planulae with dyes that do not impair larval metamorphosis processes, are stable for prolonged periods, and do not diffuse to un-labeled counterpart planulae. For these purposes, we examined the use of neutral red (NR) dye, as an identification marker, on the planulae of Stylophora pistillata, a Red Sea branching coral species. To examine possible NR impacts on larval settlement in the presence of conspecific planulae, we followed the settlement ratios of kin, non-kin, and mixed assemblages, as a proxy for metamorphosis success. We found no differences in settlement rates of stained vs. unstained larvae, lack of stain diffusion to other larvae and that NR stain is maintained for more than a week under a still water regimen. Thus, staining with NR may serve as a useful experimental tool, opening new opportunities in studying larval settlement patterns in sessile marine organisms. Full article
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Article
Experimental Assessment of a Conducting Polymer (PEDOT) and Microbial Biofilms as Deterrents and Facilitators of Macro-Biofouling: Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Notobalanus flosculus (Darwin, 1854) from Central Chile
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010082 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Maritime enterprises have long sought solutions to reduce the negative consequences of the settlement and growth of marine biofouling (micro- and macro-organisms) on virtually all surfaces and materials deployed at sea. The development of biofouling control strategies requires solutions that are cost-effective and [...] Read more.
Maritime enterprises have long sought solutions to reduce the negative consequences of the settlement and growth of marine biofouling (micro- and macro-organisms) on virtually all surfaces and materials deployed at sea. The development of biofouling control strategies requires solutions that are cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Polymer-based coatings, such as the poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and its potential applications, have blossomed over the last decade thanks to their low cost, nontoxicity, and high versatility. Here, using multiple-choice larval settlement experiments, we assessed the efficacy of PEDOT against the balanoid barnacle Notobalanus flosculus one of the most common biofouling species in Southeastern Pacific shores, and compared results against a commercially available antifouling (AF) coating, and biofilms at different stages of succession (1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks). We show that larval settlement on PEDOT-coated surfaces was similar to the settlement on AF-coated surfaces, while larvae settled abundantly on roughened acrylic and on early-to-intermediate stages of biofilm (one to four weeks old). These results are promising and suggest that PEDOT is a good candidate for fouling-resistant coating for specific applications at sea. Further studies to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of barnacle larval deterrence, as well as exposure to field conditions, are encouraged. Full article
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Article
Anatomy and Ultrastructure of the Cyprid Temporary Adhesive System in Two Species of Acorn Barnacle
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8120968 - 27 Nov 2020
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Acorn barnacles are sessile as adults and select their settlement site as a cypris larva. Cyprids are well adapted to exploring surfaces in dynamic environments, using a temporary adhesive secreted from the antennules to adhere during this process. The temporary adhesive and the [...] Read more.
Acorn barnacles are sessile as adults and select their settlement site as a cypris larva. Cyprids are well adapted to exploring surfaces in dynamic environments, using a temporary adhesive secreted from the antennules to adhere during this process. The temporary adhesive and the secretory structures are poorly characterized. This study used serial block-face scanning electron microscopy and three-dimensional modelling to elucidate the anatomy related to temporary adhesion. The temporary adhesive glands of two acorn barnacle species, Balanus amphitrite and Megabalanus coccopoma, were located in the proximal region of the first antennular segment, contrary to previous descriptions that placed them in the more distal second segment. The temporary adhesive systems of these acorn barnacles are therefore similar to that described for the stalked barnacle, Octolasmis angulata, although not identical. Knowledge of the true location of the temporary adhesive glands will underpin future studies of the production, composition and secretion of the adhesive. Full article
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Review

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Review
Substrate Selection of Ascidian Larva: Wettability and Nano-Structures
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(6), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060634 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Ascidians are marine sessile chordates that comprise one of the major benthic animal groups in marine ecosystems. They sometimes cause biofouling problems on artificial structures underwater, and non-indigenous, invasive ascidian species can potentially and seriously alter native faunal communities. Ascidian larvae are usually [...] Read more.
Ascidians are marine sessile chordates that comprise one of the major benthic animal groups in marine ecosystems. They sometimes cause biofouling problems on artificial structures underwater, and non-indigenous, invasive ascidian species can potentially and seriously alter native faunal communities. Ascidian larvae are usually tadpole-shaped, negatively phototactic, and adhere on substrates by secreting a glue from their adhesive organs. Although larvae often prefer hydrophobic surfaces, such as a silicone rubber, for settlement, hydrophobic materials are often used to reduce occurrence of fouling organisms on artificial structures. This inconsistency may indicate that an attractive surface for larvae is not always suitable for settlement. Micro-scale structures or roughness may enhance the settlement of ascidian larvae, but settlement is significantly reduced by a nano-scale nipple array (or moth-eye structure), suggesting functional properties of similar structures found on the body surfaces of various invertebrates. The substrate preferences of larvae should be one of the important bases in considering measures against biofouling, and this review also discusses the potential uses of materials to safely reduce the impacts of invasive species. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Author:HIROSE EUICHI (University of the Ryukyus -Japan)and  Noburu SENSUI

Title:Substrate selection of ascidian larva: wettability and nanostructures

2.  Author:Francesca Cima and Roberta Varello

Title:A laboratory evaluation of common antifouling paints and biocides on ascidian larval settlement and metamorphosis

3.  Author:RINKEVICH BARUCH and Dor Shefy

Title:Developing a vital staining practice to discern ancestry of settling coral larvae

4. Author:AMBROSE WILLIAM G Jr. et al.

Title: Effect of Naturally Occurring Rock Type on Initial Attachment of Fucus spiralis L. Zygotes

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