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Article

Experimental Assessment of a Conducting Polymer (PEDOT) and Microbial Biofilms as Deterrents and Facilitators of Macro-Biofouling: Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Notobalanus flosculus (Darwin, 1854) from Central Chile

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Facultad de Ciencia del Mar y de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Borgoño 16344, Viña del Mar 2520000, Chile
2
Marine Energy Research and Innovation Center (MERIC), Las Condes 7550000, Chile
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Centro de Observación Marino para Estudios de Riesgos del Ambiente Costero (COSTA-R), Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso 2520000, Chile
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Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile
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Facultad de Química y de Farmacia, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Chile
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Estación Costera de Investigaciones Marinas (ECIM), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Osvaldo Marin 1672, Las Cruces 2690000, Chile
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Center for Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Bernardo O’Higgins 340, Santiago 2690000, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010082
Received: 7 October 2020 / Revised: 26 December 2020 / Accepted: 6 January 2021 / Published: 14 January 2021
Maritime enterprises have long sought solutions to reduce the negative consequences of the settlement and growth of marine biofouling (micro- and macro-organisms) on virtually all surfaces and materials deployed at sea. The development of biofouling control strategies requires solutions that are cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Polymer-based coatings, such as the poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and its potential applications, have blossomed over the last decade thanks to their low cost, nontoxicity, and high versatility. Here, using multiple-choice larval settlement experiments, we assessed the efficacy of PEDOT against the balanoid barnacle Notobalanus flosculus one of the most common biofouling species in Southeastern Pacific shores, and compared results against a commercially available antifouling (AF) coating, and biofilms at different stages of succession (1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks). We show that larval settlement on PEDOT-coated surfaces was similar to the settlement on AF-coated surfaces, while larvae settled abundantly on roughened acrylic and on early-to-intermediate stages of biofilm (one to four weeks old). These results are promising and suggest that PEDOT is a good candidate for fouling-resistant coating for specific applications at sea. Further studies to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of barnacle larval deterrence, as well as exposure to field conditions, are encouraged. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofouling; environmental protection; coastal waters; larval settlement-biofilm interactions; Notobalanus flosculus; Chile biofouling; environmental protection; coastal waters; larval settlement-biofilm interactions; Notobalanus flosculus; Chile
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baldanzi, S.; Vargas, I.T.; Armijo, F.; Fernández, M.; Navarrete, S.A. Experimental Assessment of a Conducting Polymer (PEDOT) and Microbial Biofilms as Deterrents and Facilitators of Macro-Biofouling: Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Notobalanus flosculus (Darwin, 1854) from Central Chile. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 82. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010082

AMA Style

Baldanzi S, Vargas IT, Armijo F, Fernández M, Navarrete SA. Experimental Assessment of a Conducting Polymer (PEDOT) and Microbial Biofilms as Deterrents and Facilitators of Macro-Biofouling: Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Notobalanus flosculus (Darwin, 1854) from Central Chile. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(1):82. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010082

Chicago/Turabian Style

Baldanzi, Simone; Vargas, Ignacio T.; Armijo, Francisco; Fernández, Miriam; Navarrete, Sergio A. 2021. "Experimental Assessment of a Conducting Polymer (PEDOT) and Microbial Biofilms as Deterrents and Facilitators of Macro-Biofouling: Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Notobalanus flosculus (Darwin, 1854) from Central Chile" J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 9, no. 1: 82. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010082

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