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Review

Substrate Selection of Ascidian Larva: Wettability and Nano-Structures

1
Department of Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan
2
Department of Human Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0215, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesca Cima
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(6), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060634
Received: 19 May 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 4 June 2021 / Published: 7 June 2021
Ascidians are marine sessile chordates that comprise one of the major benthic animal groups in marine ecosystems. They sometimes cause biofouling problems on artificial structures underwater, and non-indigenous, invasive ascidian species can potentially and seriously alter native faunal communities. Ascidian larvae are usually tadpole-shaped, negatively phototactic, and adhere on substrates by secreting a glue from their adhesive organs. Although larvae often prefer hydrophobic surfaces, such as a silicone rubber, for settlement, hydrophobic materials are often used to reduce occurrence of fouling organisms on artificial structures. This inconsistency may indicate that an attractive surface for larvae is not always suitable for settlement. Micro-scale structures or roughness may enhance the settlement of ascidian larvae, but settlement is significantly reduced by a nano-scale nipple array (or moth-eye structure), suggesting functional properties of similar structures found on the body surfaces of various invertebrates. The substrate preferences of larvae should be one of the important bases in considering measures against biofouling, and this review also discusses the potential uses of materials to safely reduce the impacts of invasive species. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofouling; larval settlement; substrate preference; water wettability; moth-eye structure; MOSMITETM; silicone paradox biofouling; larval settlement; substrate preference; water wettability; moth-eye structure; MOSMITETM; silicone paradox
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hirose, E.; Sensui, N. Substrate Selection of Ascidian Larva: Wettability and Nano-Structures. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 634. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060634

AMA Style

Hirose E, Sensui N. Substrate Selection of Ascidian Larva: Wettability and Nano-Structures. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(6):634. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060634

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hirose, Euichi, and Noburu Sensui. 2021. "Substrate Selection of Ascidian Larva: Wettability and Nano-Structures" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 6: 634. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060634

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