Special Issue "Tsunami Science and Engineering II"

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Valentin Heller

Department of Civil Engineering, University Park, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +44 (0)11 574 860 49
Interests: landslide-tsunamis (impulse waves); experimental and computational fluid dynamics; coastal engineering; wave and tidal energy conversion; fluid-structure interaction; scale effects

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Earthquake-tsunamis, including the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, with over 230,000 casualties, and the 2011 Tōhoku Tsunami in Japan, with over 18,400 people missing or dead, serve as tragic reminders that such waves pose a major natural hazard to human beings. Landslide-tsunamis, including the 1958 Lituya Bay case, may exceed 150 m in height and, if similar waves are generated in lakes or reservoirs (so-called impulse waves), then they may overtop dams and cause significant devastation downstream, such as in the 1963 Vaiont case with around 2000 casualties.

The after-effects caused by such catastrophes are not limited to the region immediately impacted by the wave; for example, the 1963 Vaiont case affected hydropower plant planning and management globally, and the 2011 Tōhoku Tsunami initiated changes to nuclear power plant policies worldwide. Active prevention of the wave generation is extremely unlikely and limited to rare cases where creeping slides were stabilized. Scientists and engineers thus work mainly on passive methods to deal with tsunamis. Such methods include early warning systems, sea walls, reinforced infrastructure and the provision of adequate freeboards of dam reservoirs. The latter methods require detailed knowledge of: (i) wave features as a function of the generation mechanism; (ii) wave propagation; (iii) the shoreline run-up; and (iv) wave–structure interaction. Despite a significant increase in research activities after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, there is certainly scope for—and the necessity of—more research with the aim to reduce the destruction caused by tsunamis to us and our environment.

This Special Issue aims to repeat the success of “Tsunami Science and Engineering” where 12 articles of the 21 full length submissions were published between 2014 and early 2016, after a rigorous peer-review process. Within a relatively short period, these articles were cited four times on average, up to 4.4 thousand times accessed, and released as a Printed Edition. This relaunch “Tsunami Science and Engineering II” aims to reflect our current understanding of tsunamis and tsunami mitigation, irrespective of the mechanism by which they are generated: earthquakes, landslides, underwater slumps, asteroids, etc. We welcome research papers, reviews (state of the art) and case studies addressing tsunamis and/or impulse waves theoretically, experimentally, numerically and/or based on field studies. I sincerely look forward to receiving your original and exciting contributions.

Dr. Valentin Heller
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Earthquake-tsunamis
  • Landslide-generated impulse waves
  • Landslide-tsunamis
  • Long wave run-up
  • Seismic tsunamis
  • Tsunami early warning system
  • Tsunami forecasting
  • Tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation
  • Tsunami-induced overland flow
  • Tsunami loading on structures

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Deciphering the Tsunami Wave Impact and Associated Connection Forces in Open-Girder Coastal Bridges
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040148
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 24 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
In view of the widespread damage to coastal bridges during recent tsunamis (2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 in Japan) large-scale hydrodynamic experiments of tsunami wave impact on a bridge with open girders were conducted in the Large Wave Flume at Oregon State University.
[...] Read more.
In view of the widespread damage to coastal bridges during recent tsunamis (2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 in Japan) large-scale hydrodynamic experiments of tsunami wave impact on a bridge with open girders were conducted in the Large Wave Flume at Oregon State University. The main objective was to decipher the tsunami overtopping process and associated demand on the bridge and its structural components. As described in this paper, a comprehensive analysis of the experimental data revealed that: (a) tsunami bores introduce significant slamming forces, both horizontal (Fh) and uplift (Fv), during impact on the offshore girder and overhang; these can govern the uplift demand in connections; (b) maxFh and maxFv do not always occur at the same time and contrary to recommended practice the simultaneous application of maxFh and maxFv at the center of gravity of the deck does not yield conservative estimates of the uplift demand in individual connections; (c) the offshore connections have to withstand the largest percentage of the total induced deck uplift among all connections; this can reach 91% and 124% of maxFv for bearings and columns respectively, a finding that could explain the damage sustained by these connections and one that has not been recognized to date; (e) the generation of a significant overturning moment (OTM) at the initial impact when the slamming forces are maximized, which is the main reason for the increased uplift in the offshore connections; and (f) neither maxFv nor maxOTM coincide always with the maximum demand in each connection, suggesting the need to consider multiple combinations of forces with corresponding moments or with corresponding locations of application in order to identify the governing scenario for each structural component. In addition the paper presents “tsunami demand diagrams”, which are 2D envelopes of (Fh, Fv) and (OTM, Fv) and 3D envelopes of (Fh, Fv, OTM), as visual representations of the complex variation of the tsunami loading. Furthermore, the paper reveals the existence of a complex bridge inundation mechanism that consists of three uplift phases and one downward phase, with each phase maximizing the demand in different structural components. It then develops a new physics-based methodology consisting of three load cases, which can be used by practicing engineers for the tsunami design of bridge connections, steel bearings and columns. The findings in this paper suggest the need for a paradigm shift in the assessment of tsunami risk to coastal bridges to include not just the estimation of total tsunami load on a bridge but also the distribution of this load to individual structural components that are necessary for the survival of the bridge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering II)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Numerical Landslide-Tsunami Hazard Assessment Technique Applied on Hypothetical Scenarios at Es Vedrà, Offshore Ibiza
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040111
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
This study presents a numerical landslide-tsunami hazard assessment technique for applications in reservoirs, lakes, fjords, and the sea. This technique is illustrated with hypothetical scenarios at Es Vedrà, offshore Ibiza, although currently no evidence suggests that this island may become unstable. The two
[...] Read more.
This study presents a numerical landslide-tsunami hazard assessment technique for applications in reservoirs, lakes, fjords, and the sea. This technique is illustrated with hypothetical scenarios at Es Vedrà, offshore Ibiza, although currently no evidence suggests that this island may become unstable. The two selected scenarios include two particularly vulnerable locations, namely: (i) Cala d’Hort on Ibiza (3 km away from Es Vedrà) and (ii) Marina de Formentera (23 km away from Es Vedrà). The violent wave generation process is modelled with the meshless Lagrangian method smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Further offshore, the simulations are continued with the less computational expensive code SWASH (Simulating WAves till SHore), which is based on the non-hydrostatic non-linear shallow water equations that are capable of considering bottom friction and frequency dispersion. The up to 133-m high tsunamis decay relatively fast with distance from Es Vedrà; the wave height 5 m offshore Cala d’Hort is 14.2 m, reaching a maximum run-up height of over 21.5 m, whilst the offshore wave height (2.7 m) and maximum inundation depth at Marina de Formentera (1.2 m) are significantly smaller. This study illustrates that landslide-tsunami hazard assessment can nowadays readily be conducted under consideration of site-specific details such as the bathymetry and topography, and intends to support future investigations of real landslide-tsunami cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering II)
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Open AccessArticle Capturing Physical Dispersion Using a Nonlinear Shallow Water Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6030084
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
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Abstract
Predicting the arrival time of natural hazards such as tsunamis is of very high importance to the coastal community. One of the most effective techniques to predict tsunami propagation and arrival time is the utilization of numerical solutions. Numerical approaches of Nonlinear Shallow
[...] Read more.
Predicting the arrival time of natural hazards such as tsunamis is of very high importance to the coastal community. One of the most effective techniques to predict tsunami propagation and arrival time is the utilization of numerical solutions. Numerical approaches of Nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (NLSWEs) and nonlinear Boussinesq-Type Equations (BTEs) are two of the most common numerical techniques for tsunami modeling and evaluation. BTEs use implicit schemes to achieve more accurate results compromising computational time, while NLSWEs are sometimes preferred due to their computational efficiency. Nonetheless, the term accounting for physical dispersion is not inherited in NLSWEs, calling for their consideration and evaluation. In the present study, the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE, which utilizes NLSWEs, is applied to previously reported problems in the literature using different grid sizes to investigate dispersion effects. Following certain conditions for grid size, time step and water depth, the simulation results show a fairly good agreement with the available models showing the capability of NAMI DANCE to capture small physical dispersion. It is confirmed that the current model is an acceptable alternative for BTEs when small dispersion effects are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering II)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. The 1755 Tsunami in Lisbon Downtown, Portugal

Angela Santos

Abstract: The November 1st, 1755 earthquake triggered a tsunami that hit the entire Portuguese coastline. According to the historical records, in Lisbon, the combined effects of the earthquake, tsunami, and fire caused significant damage to the buildings, destroying about 82% of the city. In addition, the disaster killed more than 10, 000 people. The 18th Century census data show that Lisbon had 109, 754 - 157, 192 residents (older than 7 years old). Thus, the fatalities due to the 1755 disaster correspond to 6.4-9.1 % of the resident population. On the other hand, although the historical accounts are very vast regarding the earthquake and fire, the tsunami description in Lisbon is quite scarce. The recovery process started immediately after the disaster, and in 1758 the “new” downtown was completed. However, with the new streets and buildings, many features of the disaster have been lost in time. Therefore, the objective of this research is to analyze the comprehensive tsunami behavior in Lisbon downtown. Furthermore, this research is a collaboration between the Academia and the Lisbon Museum, which is quite innovative in Portugal. The aim of this research is to provide a permanent archive at the museum to become available for the public and the generations to come so that the memory and knowledge of the 1755 tsunami will be preserved. [...]

 

2. Experimental investigation of debris damming in steady-state flow conditions

Gabriella Mauti, Jacob Stolle, Tomoyuki Takabatake, Ioan Nistor, Nils Goseberg, Majid Mohammadian

Abstract: The entrainment of debris in tsunami-induced floods or in storm surges can result in their accumulation onto structures, a phenomenon known as debris damming. Research on debris loading has primarily focused on debris impact loads. However, limited research has been conducted regarding the loading due to the formation of debris dams in extreme hydrodynamic events. Such dams have been shown to decrease the stability of impacted structures by increasing the area of flow obstruction, resulting thus in increased resistance forces. The formation of debris dams can also result in upstream (backwater) rise and increased flow accelerations around the structure, reducing the structure’s stability. This research analyzes the impact of debris dams formed around a circular column in steady-state flow conditions. The work examines the influence of various debris dam shape, height, and porosity on the induced loads, flow accelerations, and changes in the free water surface. Additionally, it investigates the drag coefficient of the various debris dams. The authors finally conclude that the properties of the debris dam have a significant importance with respect to the flow resistance forces and structural response. The implications of these findings are expected to be of significant interest for engineers designing critical infrastructure.

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