Efficiency in Kinesiology: Innovative Approaches in Enhancing Motor Skills for Athletic Performance

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142). This special issue belongs to the section "Kinesiology and Biomechanics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 24220

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Guest Editor
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, 50134 Florence, Italy
Interests: motor control; motor timing; cognitive-motor mechanisms; adaptive control; kinematics; excellent performance; neurorehabilitation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

On behalf of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, I am leading a Special Issue about the implementation of innovative applied research to improve motor skills for reaching superior sporting performances.

Investigations from the last several decades have provided enough evidence for the use of certain means as the training foundation for sharpening athletic performance, both from a biomotor and from a technical standpoint.

However, as the field of sports science continues to grow, new methodologies, technologies, and applications for evaluating, improving, or even predicting motor performance draw the attention of the academic realm, infield operators, and general audiences. Nevertheless, sometimes these new means gain wide popularity without apt scientific support, and sometimes the opposite is true—that is, cutting-edge approaches which are well-validated in the lab fail to transfer within the sporting environments.

Seeing the unceasingly evolving nature of sports science as well as the continuous demand for ever-better competitive performance, the development of novel scientific approaches to improve athletes’ motor skills and performances is desired, and their promulgation is of utmost importance for trainers and scientists. Thus, further research is required to grant a deeper understanding of the advantages and limitations in using particular means when aiming to evaluate, predict, and model sporting performance in both amateur and professional/elite athletes.

In this Special Issue, we are looking for original investigations and reviews which introduce novel approaches to defining how leveraging either extrinsic (socio-economic, geographic, early sporting specialization etc.) or intrinsic factors (training periodization, training methodology, equipment, cross-training, recovery management etc.) may help to upgrade athletes’ motor skills to obtain their best athletic performance. Thank Mr. Vincenzo Sorgente as assistant editor for the special issue.

Dr. Diego Minciacchi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • kinesiology
  • sport science
  • sport performance
  • biomechanics
  • training periodization
  • training prescription
  • exercise physiology
  • athletic performance
  • motor performance
  • motor skills

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 215 KiB  
Editorial
Efficiency in Kinesiology: Innovative Approaches in Enhancing Motor Skills for Athletic Performance
by Vincenzo Sorgente and Diego Minciacchi
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030111 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1367
Abstract
The inaugural edition of the Special Issue titled “Efficiency in Kinesiology: Innovative approaches in enhancing motor skills for Athletic Performance” has been effectively concluded [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

16 pages, 937 KiB  
Article
Visual Search Strategies of Elite Fencers: An Exploratory Study in Ecological Competitive Situation
by Pierre Bagot, Jean F. Fournier, Thibault Kerivel, Cyril Bossard, Gilles Kermarrec, Guillaume Martinent and Marjorie Bernier
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030106 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
This study investigates the visual activity of fencers in conditions resembling official competitions. Previous research in experimental conditions has shown that experts focus on specific areas of the torso and the armed arm to control movement initiation. Eight right-handed fencers (epee: two males, [...] Read more.
This study investigates the visual activity of fencers in conditions resembling official competitions. Previous research in experimental conditions has shown that experts focus on specific areas of the torso and the armed arm to control movement initiation. Eight right-handed fencers (epee: two males, one female; foil: one male; sabre: two males, two females) participated in a simulated competition, wearing an eye tracker during one bout. The findings showed that the main fixation in foil and sabre is the upper torso, while in epee, it is the lower torso. In epee and sabre, the upper torso is viewed about 50% of the time, with three other areas also observed, while in foil, the fixation is totally directed to the upper torso. Additionally, two new areas of interest were identified: the score machine and an area involving fixations other than the opponent. The study found no direct link between visual activity and performance. The visual search strategy varies among weapons, with foil using a gaze anchor or foveal spot and epee and sabre utilizing a visual pivot due to the discipline’s inherent rules. The study also emphasizes that competition-like conditions can disrupt visual activity with external stimuli, possibly affecting performance. Full article
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11 pages, 994 KiB  
Article
Accumulated Workload Differences in Collegiate Women’s Soccer: Starters versus Substitutes
by Maxine Furtado Mesa, Jeffrey R. Stout, Michael J. Redd and David H. Fukuda
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020078 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1185
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to estimate the workloads accumulated by collegiate female soccer players during a competitive season and to compare the workloads of starters and substitutes. Data from 19 college soccer players (height: 1.58 ± 0.06 m; body mass: 61.57 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the workloads accumulated by collegiate female soccer players during a competitive season and to compare the workloads of starters and substitutes. Data from 19 college soccer players (height: 1.58 ± 0.06 m; body mass: 61.57 ± 6.88 kg) were extracted from global positioning system (GPS)/heart rate (HR) monitoring sensors to quantify workload throughout the 2019 competitive season. Total distance, distance covered in four speed zones, accelerations, and time spent in five HR zones were examined as accumulated values for training sessions, matches, and the entire season. Repeated-measures ANOVA and Student’s t tests were used to determine the level of differences between starter and substitute workloads. Seasonal accumulated total distance (p < 0.001), sprints (≥19.00 km/h; p < 0.001), and high-speed distance (≥15.00 km/h; p = 0.005) were significantly greater for starters than substitutes. Accumulated training load (p = 0.08) and training load per minute played in matches (p = 0.08) did not differ between starters and substitutes. Substitutes had similar accumulated workload profiles during training sessions but differed in matches from starters. Coaches and practitioners should pursue strategies to monitor the differences in workload between starters and substitutes. Full article
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13 pages, 625 KiB  
Article
Countermovement Jump Performance Is Related to Ankle Flexibility and Knee Extensors Torque in Female Adolescent Volleyball Athletes
by Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos and Eleni Bassa
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020076 - 07 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
Ankle flexibility and isokinetic knee torque/power generating capacity were previously suggested to contribute or to be correlated to the vertical countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the passive ankle joint dorsi flexion (θPDF [...] Read more.
Ankle flexibility and isokinetic knee torque/power generating capacity were previously suggested to contribute or to be correlated to the vertical countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the passive ankle joint dorsi flexion (θPDF) and the knee muscle’s isokinetic torque and power on the CMJ in adolescent female volleyball players. The θPDF at a knee extension angle of 140 degrees were measured for 37 female post-pubertal volleyball players. Then, the players were assigned to either the flexible (n = 10) or inflexible (n = 14) groups according to earlier recommended criteria. Testing included the CMJ with and without an arm swing, and maximal knee extensions and flexions in 3 angular velocities on an isokinetic dynamometer. CMJ height performed with or without an arm swing (r(22) = 0.563, p = 0.040 and r(22) = 0.518, p = 0.009, respectively) and relative power (r(22) = 0.517, p = 0.010 and r(22) = 0.446, p = 0.030, respectively) were positively correlated with the extensors’ torque at 180°/s and were negatively correlated with the flexibility level of the dominant side ankle (r(22) = −0.529, p = 0.008 and r(22) = −0.576, p = 0.030, respectively). A moderate positive correlation was also revealed between the CMJ height with and without an arm swing and the power of the non-dominant knee extensors (r(22) = 0.458, p = 0.024 and r(22) = 0.402, p = 0.049, respectively) and flexors (r(22) = 0.484, p = 0.016 and r(22) = 0.477, p = 0.018, respectively). Results of the 2 × 2 repeated ANOVA measurements revealed that flexible players jumped significantly (p < 0.05) higher during the CMJs, whilst there was a group effect only on the isokinetic knee extensor muscles’ torque. In conclusion, a more flexible ankle joint and a higher isokinetic knee extensor’s torque generating capacity resulted in higher CMJ performance. Therefore, ankle flexibility should be emphasized in training and is suggested to be included in preseason screening tests of youth female volleyball players. Full article
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9 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
Inter-Device Reliability of a Three-Dimensional Markerless Motion Capture System Quantifying Elementary Movement Patterns in Humans
by Nicolas M. Philipp, Dimitrije Cabarkapa, Damjana V. Cabarkapa, Drake A. Eserhaut and Andrew C. Fry
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020069 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
With advancements in technology able to quantify wide-ranging features of human movement, the aim of the present study was to investigate the inter-device technological reliability of a three-dimensional markerless motion capture system (3D-MCS), quantifying different movement tasks. A total of 20 healthy individuals [...] Read more.
With advancements in technology able to quantify wide-ranging features of human movement, the aim of the present study was to investigate the inter-device technological reliability of a three-dimensional markerless motion capture system (3D-MCS), quantifying different movement tasks. A total of 20 healthy individuals performed a test battery consisting of 29 different movements, from which 214 different metrics were derived. Two 3D-MCS located in close proximity were utilized to quantify movement characteristics. Independent sample t-tests with selected reliability statistics (i.e., intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), effect sizes, and mean absolute differences) were used to evaluate the agreement between the two systems. The study results suggested that 95.7% of all metrics analyzed revealed negligible or small between-device effect sizes. Further, 91.6% of all metrics analyzed showed moderate or better agreement when looking at the ICC values, while 32.2% of all metrics showed excellent agreement. For metrics measuring joint angles (198 metrics), the mean difference between systems was 2.9 degrees, while for metrics investigating distance measures (16 metrics; e.g., center of mass depth), the mean difference between systems was 0.62 cm. Caution is advised when trying to generalize the study findings beyond the specific technology and software used in this investigation. Given the technological reliability reported in this study, as well as the logistical and time-related limitations associated with marker-based motion capture systems, it may be suggested that 3D-MCS present practitioners with an opportunity to reliably and efficiently measure the movement characteristics of patients and athletes. This has implications for monitoring the health/performance of a broad range of populations. Full article
11 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
Effects of Age and Popularity of Sport on Differences among Wrestlers’ Parental Support: An Exploratory Study
by Ivica Biletic, Hrvoje Karnincic and Mario Baic
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020065 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
No research was previously performed on wrestling related to parental support. It is not known whether there are differences in support between younger and older children. The popularity of a sport can be reflected in parental support, and parents may be more inclined [...] Read more.
No research was previously performed on wrestling related to parental support. It is not known whether there are differences in support between younger and older children. The popularity of a sport can be reflected in parental support, and parents may be more inclined towards popular sports. The aim of this research was to examine differences in parental support among wrestlers of different age categories and between those coming from communities in which wrestling is a popular sport versus communities in which it is less popular. The sample of participants consisted of 172 wrestlers. The Parental Support Scale for Children in Sports was applied. Parental willingness to set an example was lower. As far as age is concerned, the period of entry into specialisation is sensitive. At this age, children perceive less parental support (p = 0.04) and lower parental belief in the benefits of sports (p = 0.01). The popularity of the sport is related to parental support. In environments in which wrestling is popular, parents know the sport better and can participate; therefore, children perceive more parental support. The findings of this study may help coaches to better understand athlete–parent relationships. Full article
11 pages, 1639 KiB  
Article
New Specific Kinesthetic Differentiation Tests for Female Volleyball Players: Reliability, Discriminative Ability, and Usefulness
by Karla Đolo, Zoran Grgantov and Goran Kuvačić
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020063 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability and discriminative ability of five sport-specific kinesthetic differentiation ability tests in female volleyball players. The sample of participants consisted of 98 female volleyball players aged 15.20 ± 1 years from six clubs in Bosnia and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability and discriminative ability of five sport-specific kinesthetic differentiation ability tests in female volleyball players. The sample of participants consisted of 98 female volleyball players aged 15.20 ± 1 years from six clubs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Kinesthetic differentiation ability was determined by the overhead passing test, forearm passing test, float service with a net test, float service without a net test, and float service 6 m from the net test. To estimate test-retest reliability, a sub-sample of 13 players performed all tests on two testing occasions. Furthermore, the discriminative ability of the tests was determined by analyzing the performance between players of different playing positions and situational performances. Parameters of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were excellent (0.87–0.78) in all tests except for the float service with the net test, whose reliability was good (0.66). For the absolute reliability estimates, the SEM was higher than SWC (0.2) for all variables except the float service 6 m from the net test, and the SEM was lower than SWC (0.6, 1.2). One-way ANOVA detected no statistically significant inter-positional differences in all five tests (p > 0.05). A significant difference was found between less and more successful players (p < 0.01) for all applied tests. The results of this study show that a specific battery test is a reliable and valid measure and can be used to monitor kinesthetic differentiation ability in young female volleyball players. Full article
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10 pages, 2494 KiB  
Article
Countermovement, Hurdle, and Box Jumps: Data-Driven Exercise Selection
by M. Tino Janikov, Jan Pádecký, Valentin Doguet and James J. Tufano
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020061 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1902
Abstract
Apart from squat jumps, countermovement jumps (CMJ), and drop jumps, differences among other jump variations are not as well researched, making data-driven exercise selection difficult. To address this gap, this study compared selected concentric and eccentric jump parameters of maximal effort CMJ, hurdle [...] Read more.
Apart from squat jumps, countermovement jumps (CMJ), and drop jumps, differences among other jump variations are not as well researched, making data-driven exercise selection difficult. To address this gap, this study compared selected concentric and eccentric jump parameters of maximal effort CMJ, hurdle jumps over 50 cm hurdle (HJ), and box jumps onto a 50 cm box (BJ). Twenty recreationally trained men (25.2 ± 3.5 years) performed 3 repetitions of CMJs, HJs, and BJs, each on separate days. The data were collected using force platforms and a linear position transducer. The mean of 3 trials of each jump variation was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and Cohen’s d. Countermovement depth was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) and peak horizontal force significantly lower during CMJ compared to HJ and BJ. However, there were no differences in peak velocity, peak vertical and resultant force, and total impulsion time. Finally, BJ significantly decreased peak impact force by ~51% compared to CMJ and HJ. Therefore, the propulsive parameters of HJ and BJ seem to be similar to CMJ, despite CMJ having a greater countermovement depth. Furthermore, overall training load can be decreased dramatically by using BJ, which reduced peak impact force by approximately half. Full article
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9 pages, 479 KiB  
Article
Differences between Elite and Professional Male Handball Players in Kinematic Parameters of Single Fake Movement
by Ante Burger, Dario Vrdoljak, Nikola Foretić, Miodrag Spasić and Vladimir Pavlinović
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020047 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Feint movement is an important factor for offensive players to outplay their guard, and score. So far, there is no evidence of feint biomechanical analysis on a sample of elite players in handball or other team sports. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Feint movement is an important factor for offensive players to outplay their guard, and score. So far, there is no evidence of feint biomechanical analysis on a sample of elite players in handball or other team sports. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate kinematic parameters of single side fake movement between elite and professional level handball players. The sample of participants consisted of 10 handball players divided into two subsamples: elite handball players (100.00 ± 8.00 kg; 196.00 ± 4.64 cm) and professional handball players (91.20 ± 3.42 kg; 192.4 ± 7.30 cm). The kinematic analysis was conducted using a GAIT—LaBACS software system. Variables consisted of two phases (fake phase and actual phase) of feint single change of direction. Both phases included seven kinematic parameters that were observed. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistic parameters. The differences between elite and professional handball players were analyzed by multivariate and univariate variance analysis. Results showed significant differences between elite and professional players (λ = 0.44, p = 0.00), in fake phase (i.e., 1. Phase). The results also indicate that in there is no statistically significant difference between both groups (λ = 0.64, p = 0.22). Two variables had significant differences between elite and professional players (i.e., step length of the stride leg (p = 0.02) and moving the leg opposite the throwing arm in space (p = 0.00)). To conclude, the article examines specific movement patterns of single side fake movement in elite players and the confirmed importance of efficient skill execution in top level handball. On the contrary, less skilled players use more space for the same technical element. Full article
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12 pages, 3939 KiB  
Article
EMG Amplitude–Force Relationship of Lumbar Back Muscles during Isometric Submaximal Tasks in Healthy Inactive, Endurance and Strength-Trained Subjects
by Tim Schönau and Christoph Anders
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010029 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Previous data suggest a correlation between the cross-sectional area of Type II muscle fibers and the degree of non-linearity of the EMG amplitude–force relationship (AFR). In this study we investigated whether the AFR of back muscles could be altered systematically by using different [...] Read more.
Previous data suggest a correlation between the cross-sectional area of Type II muscle fibers and the degree of non-linearity of the EMG amplitude–force relationship (AFR). In this study we investigated whether the AFR of back muscles could be altered systematically by using different training modalities. We investigated 38 healthy male subjects (aged 19–31 years) who regularly performed either strength or endurance training (ST and ET, n = 13 each) or were physically inactive (controls (C), n = 12). Graded submaximal forces on the back were applied by defined forward tilts in a full-body training device. Surface EMG was measured utilizing a monopolar 4 × 4 quadratic electrode scheme in the lower back area. The polynomial AFR slopes were determined. Between-group tests revealed significant differences for ET vs. ST and C vs. ST comparisons at the medial and caudal electrode positions, but not for ET vs. C. Further, systematic main effects of the “electrode position” could be proven for ET and C groups with decreasing x2 coefficients from cranial to caudal and lateral to medial. For ST, there was no systematic main effect of the “electrode position”. The results point towards training-related changes to the fiber-type composition of muscles in the strength-trained participants, particularly for their paravertebral region. Full article
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13 pages, 982 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Maximum Force–Velocity Exertion and Swimming Performances among Four Strokes over Medium and Short Distances: The Stronger on Dry Land, the Faster in Water?
by Vincenzo Sorgente, Aaron Agudo-Ortega, Alejandro Lopez-Hernandez, Jesus Santos del Cerro, Diego Minciacchi and José María González Ravé
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010020 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Evaluating force–velocity characteristics on dry-land is of the utmost importance in swimming, because higher levels of these bio-motor abilities positively affect in-water performance. However, the wide range of possible technical specializations presents an opportunity for a more categorized approach that has yet to [...] Read more.
Evaluating force–velocity characteristics on dry-land is of the utmost importance in swimming, because higher levels of these bio-motor abilities positively affect in-water performance. However, the wide range of possible technical specializations presents an opportunity for a more categorized approach that has yet to be seized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify feasible differences in maximum force–velocity exertion based on swimmers’ stroke and distance specialization. To this scope, 96 young male swimmers competing at the regional level were divided into 12 groups, one for each stroke (butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke, and front crawl) and distance (50 m, 100 m, and 200 m). They performed two single pull-up tests, 5-min before and after competing in a federal swimming race. We assessed force (N) and velocity (m/s) exertion via linear encoder. There were no significant differences between pre-post maximum force–velocity exertions, despite the decreasing trend. Force-parameters highly correlated with each other and with the swimming performance time. Moreover, both force (t = −3.60, p < 0.001) and velocity (t = −3.90, p < 0.001) were significant predictors of swimming race time. Sprinters (both 50 m and 100 m) of all strokes could exert significantly higher force–velocity compared to 200 m swimmers (e.g., 0.96 ± 0.06 m/s performed by sprinters vs. 0.66 ± 0.03 m/s performed by 200 m swimmers). Moreover, breaststroke sprinters presented significantly lower force–velocity compared to sprinters specialized in the other strokes (e.g., 1047.83 ± 61.33 N performed by breaststroke sprinters vs. 1263.62 ± 161.23 N performed by butterfly sprinters). This study could provide the foundation for future research regarding the role of stroke and distance specializations in modeling swimmers’ force–velocity abilities, thus influencing paramount elements for specific training and improvement towards competitions. Full article
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10 pages, 707 KiB  
Article
Association of Strength Performance in Bench Press and Squat with Anthropometric Variables between Resistance-Trained Males and Females
by Hallvard Nygaard Falch, Markus Estifanos Haugen, Stian Larsen and Roland van den Tillaar
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010019 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2635
Abstract
Individual differences in the appropriate percentage of 1-RM for a given repetition range could be a result of variation in anthropometrics and/or sex. Strength endurance is the term used to describe the ability to perform a number of repetitions prior to failure (AMRAP) [...] Read more.
Individual differences in the appropriate percentage of 1-RM for a given repetition range could be a result of variation in anthropometrics and/or sex. Strength endurance is the term used to describe the ability to perform a number of repetitions prior to failure (AMRAP) in sub-maximal lifts and is important in determining the appropriate load for the targeted repetition range. Earlier research investigating the association of AMRAP performance and anthropometric variables was often performed in a sample of pooled sexes or one sex only or by utilizing tests with low ecological validity. As such, this randomized cross-over study investigates the association of anthropometrics with different measures of strength (maximal and relative strength and AMRAP) in the squat and bench press for resistance-trained males (n = 19, 24.3 ± 3.5 years, 182 ± 7.3 cm, 87.1 ± 13.3 kg) and females (n = 17, 22.1 ± 3 years, 166.1 ± 3.7 cm, 65.5 ± 5.6 kg) and whether the association differs between the sexes. Participants were tested for 1-RM strength and AMRAP performance, with 60% of 1-RM in the squat and bench press. Correlational analysis revealed that for all participants, lean mass and body height were associated with 1-RM strength in the squat and bench press (0.66, p ≤ 0.01), while body height was inversely associated with AMRAP performance (r ≤ −0.36, p ≤ 0.02). Females had lower maximal and relative strength with a greater AMRAP performance. In the AMRAP squat, thigh length was inversely associated with performance in males, while fat percentage was inversely associated with performance in females. It was concluded that associations between strength performance and anthropometric variables differed for males and females in fat percentage, lean mass, and thigh length. Full article
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13 pages, 1987 KiB  
Article
Pivot Step Jump: A New Test for Evaluating Jumping Ability in Young Basketball Players
by Apostolos S. Theodorou, Hariklia-Parthenia Rizou, Emmanouil Zacharakis, Ioannis Ktistakis, Evangelos Bekris, Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos, Panagiotis Strouzas, Dimitrios I. Bourdas and Nikolaos Kostopoulos
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040116 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
Jumping ability in basketball is usually assessed using standardized vertical jump tests. However, they lack specificity and do not consider the player’s basketball skills. Several studies have suggested performing specific jump tests, which are tailored to the movement patterns and requirements of a [...] Read more.
Jumping ability in basketball is usually assessed using standardized vertical jump tests. However, they lack specificity and do not consider the player’s basketball skills. Several studies have suggested performing specific jump tests, which are tailored to the movement patterns and requirements of a basketball game. The pivot step jump test (PSJT) is a novel test designed to evaluate the specific jumping abilities of basketball players by combining a pivot step on one leg with a maximum bilateral vertical jump. This study had two aims: to determine the reliability and validity of the PSJT using typical jump tests as the criterion measure and to demonstrate the PSJT as a practical test to evaluate specific jumping ability in young male and female basketball players. Twenty female (EGA; 14.0 ± 0.7 years, 59.3 ± 7.9 kg, 162.1 ± 5.5 cm) and fifteen male (EGB; 14.0 ± 0.7 years, 58.1 ± 7.7 kg, 170.3 ± 6.4 cm) basketball players participated in the study. The test–retest reliability of the PSJT within sessions (intrasession reliability) and across sessions (intersession reliability) was assessed within EGA. For the evaluation of validity, EGB performed the PSJT and a series of criterion jumping tests. For EGA, no changes (p > 0.05) were found in PSJT performance between test sessions and excellent intra- and intersession reliability was observed (ICCs > 0.75). Correlation coefficients indicated high factorial validity between the jumping tests and PSJT (r = 0.71–0.91, p < 0.001). The PSJT appears to offer a valid assessment of jumping ability in basketball and is a practical test for assessing sport-specific jumping skills in young basketball players. Full article
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12 pages, 1139 KiB  
Article
Congested Period in Professional Youth Soccer Players Showed a Different High Decelerations Profile in the Group Performance and a Specific Positional Behaviour
by Borja Muñoz-Castellanos, Alberto Rabano-Muñoz, Bernardo Requena, Luis Suarez-Arrones and Jose A. Asian-Clemente
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040108 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1149
Abstract
Present soccer demands are increasing in terms of running requirements and the number of matches until youth soccer players experience several periods of fixture congestion during the season. Currently, congested periods have not been extensively studied in this population. For this reason, this [...] Read more.
Present soccer demands are increasing in terms of running requirements and the number of matches until youth soccer players experience several periods of fixture congestion during the season. Currently, congested periods have not been extensively studied in this population. For this reason, this study aimed to compare the running demands of professional youth soccer players in congested periods according to their specific playing positions. Twenty youth players were grouped according to their position: Central Defenders (CD), Fullbacks (FB), Midfielders (MF), Wide Midfielders (WM) and Strikers (ST). A GPS system was used to monitor the players during the first (M1), second (M2) and third (M3) matches played during a congested period, measuring their total distance covered (TDC), DC 18.0–20.9 km·h−1, DC 21.0–23.9 km·h−1, DC > 24.0 km·h−1, number of high accelerations (>2.5 m·s−2), number of high decelerations (<2.5 m·s−2) and peak speed (km·h−1). M1, M2 and M3 showed the same TDC, DC 18.0–20.9 km·h−1, DC 21.0–23.9 km·h−1, DC > 24.0 km·h−1, number of high accelerations, and peak speed (p > 0.05). The statistical analysis showed significant differences between M1, M2 and M3 in the decelerations recorded between M1 and M3 (p < 0.05). Likewise, each position showed specific behaviours during the congested period, with all showing at least one difference in DC 18.0–20.9 km·h−1, 21.0–23.9 km·h−1 or >24.0 km·h−1 between M1, M2 and M3 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, coaches should pay attention to the fatigue produced by the number of high decelerations. Secondly, an individualized training protocol should be considered according to the running requirements of each position when youth professional soccer players are involved in a congested period. Full article
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Case Report
Use of Robot-Assisted Ankle Training in a Patient with an Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report
by Kazunori Koseki, Kazushi Takahashi, Satoshi Yamamoto, Kenichi Yoshikawa, Atsushi Abe and Hirotaka Mutsuzaki
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010031 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
Rehabilitation interventions are crucial in promoting neuroplasticity after spinal cord injury (SCI). We provided rehabilitation with a single-joint hybrid assistive limb (HAL-SJ) ankle joint unit (HAL-T) in a patient with incomplete SCI. The patient had incomplete paraplegia and SCI (neurological injury height: L1, [...] Read more.
Rehabilitation interventions are crucial in promoting neuroplasticity after spinal cord injury (SCI). We provided rehabilitation with a single-joint hybrid assistive limb (HAL-SJ) ankle joint unit (HAL-T) in a patient with incomplete SCI. The patient had incomplete paraplegia and SCI (neurological injury height: L1, ASIA Impairment Scale: C, ASIA motor score (R/L) L4:0/0, S1:1/0) following a rupture fracture of the first lumbar vertebra. The HAL-T consisted of a combination of ankle plantar dorsiflexion exercises in the sitting position, knee flexion, and extension exercises in the standing position, and stepping exercises in the standing position with HAL assistance. The plantar dorsiflexion angles of the left and right ankle joints and electromyograms of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles were measured and compared using a three-dimensional motion analyzer and surface electromyography before and after HAL-T intervention. Phasic electromyographic activity was developed in the left tibialis anterior muscle during plantar dorsiflexion of the ankle joint after the intervention. No changes were observed in the left and right ankle joint angles. We experienced a case in which intervention using HAL-SJ induced muscle potentials in a patient with a spinal cord injury who was unable to perform voluntary ankle movements due to severe motor–sensory dysfunction. Full article
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