Special Issue "Microgrids: Protection, Cyber Physical Issues, and Control"

A special issue of Inventions (ISSN 2411-5134). This special issue belongs to the section "Inventions and Innovation in Electrical Engineering/Energy/Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 2749

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Amin Hajizadeh
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Esbjerg, Denmark
Interests: microgrids operation and control; industrial electronics; smart grids; grid integration; power quality
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Navid Bayati
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Esbjerg, Denmark
Interests: power system; dc microgrids; protection; fault detection; microgrid clusters
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Developments in power electronic converters, energy storage devices, renewable energy sources, and modern control strategies lead to implementing and increasing the penetration of Microgrids in power distribution systems. The existed Microgrids are distinguished from the traditional power systems due to the high penetration of advanced communication links, power electronic devices, control methods, sensors, and measurements. Moreover, due to the increasing penetration of renewable energy resources, the control strategy for congestion management, frequency control, optimal dispatch, and microgrids' energy management has become more complicated. Also, the Microgrids are still faced with several challenges in protecting and isolating faults in the system. Microgrids, due to the low tolerant of power electronic converters, high uncertainties, low length lines, and critical loads, the locating and detecting of faults in Microgrids require more study and research. On the other hand, the increasing power demand increases the importance of significant power-sharing, therefore, the appearance of Microgrid clusters helps power networks to solve this problem. However, the research on microgrid cluster control and protection is a new and challenging issue, which should be solved.

Dr. Amin Hajizadeh
Dr. Navid Bayati
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Microgrids
  • Fault detection and location methods
  • Protection methods
  • Control strategy
  • Islanding Detection
  • Distributed control
  • Communication link
  • Fault isolations
  • DC Microgrid
  • Maritime Microgrids
  • Shipboard Microgrids
  • Machine learning
  • Signal processing
  • Microgrid clusters
  • Fuse

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Improvement of Fault Current Calculation and Static Security Risk for Droop Control of the Inverter-Interfaced DG of Grid-Connected and Isolated Microgrids
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030052 - 29 Jun 2022
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Abstract
The contribution current of an inverter-interfaced distributed generator unit during a fault is one of the significant challenges for two modes: grid-connected and isolated AC microgrid. For this challenge, this article is aimed to study two methods of fault current calculation for two [...] Read more.
The contribution current of an inverter-interfaced distributed generator unit during a fault is one of the significant challenges for two modes: grid-connected and isolated AC microgrid. For this challenge, this article is aimed to study two methods of fault current calculation for two modes: grid-connected and isolated microgrids. These methods include a virtual equivalent impedance and a proposed method. The proposed method is a new technique for calculating the fault current contribution depending on the droop control of inverter-interfaced DG. The proposed method can control the contribution short-circuit current of DG within its limit (2 p.u.) where it is dependent on the voltage value of the DG bus to calculate the short circuit current of DG by using the control criterion. Static security risk and load shedding are calculated after fault clearance using an operation scenario in which the distribution system will be divided into small subsystems and is then grid-connected and isolated due to the removal of the faulted bus by protection devices. The proposed technique is applied to a standard IEEE 33-bus distribution network with five DGs. The results show that the contribution current of inverter-interfaced DG during the fault has more effects than the fault current of the nearest faulted bus to the DG bus. The proposed technique improves the calculated fault current value by about 30% for the grid-connected microgrid and by about 50% for the isolated microgrid from its value of the virtual impedance method. The static security risk is improved after load shedding. The static security risk improved by about 0.025%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Protection, Cyber Physical Issues, and Control)
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Article
A Novel Solution for Day-Ahead Scheduling Problems Using the IoT-Based Bald Eagle Search Optimization Algorithm
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030048 - 23 Jun 2022
Viewed by 308
Abstract
Advances in technology and population growth are two factors responsible for increasing electricity consumption, which directly increases the production of electrical energy. Additionally, due to environmental, technical and economic constraints, it is challenging to meet demand at certain hours, such as peak hours. [...] Read more.
Advances in technology and population growth are two factors responsible for increasing electricity consumption, which directly increases the production of electrical energy. Additionally, due to environmental, technical and economic constraints, it is challenging to meet demand at certain hours, such as peak hours. Therefore, it is necessary to manage network consumption to modify the peak load and tackle power system constraints. One way to achieve this goal is to use a demand response program. The home energy management system (HEMS), based on advanced internet of things (IoT) technology, has attracted the special attention of engineers in the smart grid (SG) field and has the tasks of demand-side management (DSM) and helping to control equality between demand and electricity supply. The main performance of the HEMS is based on the optimal scheduling of home appliances because it manages power consumption by automatically controlling loads and transferring them from peak hours to off-peak hours. This paper presents a multi-objective version of a newly introduced metaheuristic called the bald eagle search optimization algorithm (BESOA) to discover the optimal scheduling of home appliances. Furthermore, the HEMS architecture is programmed based on MATLAB and ThingSpeak modules. The HEMS uses the BESOA algorithm to find the optimal schedule pattern to reduce daily electricity costs, reduce the PAR, and increase user comfort. The results show the suggested system’s ability to obtain optimal home energy management, decreasing the energy cost, microgrid emission cost, and PAR (peak to average ratio). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Protection, Cyber Physical Issues, and Control)
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Article
A Novel Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control-Based Double Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Systems: Real-Time Implementation
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020040 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
Extensive use of wind turbine (WT) systems brings remarkable challenges to the stability and safety of the power systems. Due to the difficulty and complexity of modeling such large plants, the model-independent strategies are preferred for the control of the WT plants which [...] Read more.
Extensive use of wind turbine (WT) systems brings remarkable challenges to the stability and safety of the power systems. Due to the difficulty and complexity of modeling such large plants, the model-independent strategies are preferred for the control of the WT plants which eliminates the need to model identification. This current work proposes a novel model-independent control methodology in the rotor side converter (RSC) part to ameliorate low voltage ride through (LVRT) ability especially for the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) WT. A novel model-independent nonsingular terminal sliding mode control (MINTSMC) was developed based on the principle of the ultra-local pattern. In the suggested controller, the MINTSMC scheme was designed to stabilize the RSC of the DFIG, and a sliding-mode supervisor was adopted to determine the unknown dynamics of the proposed system. An auxiliary dual input interval type 2 fuzzy logic control (DIT2-FLC) was established in a model-independent control structure to remove the estimation error of the sliding mode observer. Real-time examinations have been carried out using a Real-Time Model in Loop (RT-MiL) for validating the applicability of the proposed model-independent control in a real-time platform. To evaluate the usefulness and supremacy of the MINTSMC based DIT2-FLC, the real-time outcomes are compared with outcomes of RSC regulated conventional PI controller and MINTSMC controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Protection, Cyber Physical Issues, and Control)
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Article
Efficient Protection Scheme Based on Y-Source Circuit Breaker in Bi-Directional Zones for MVDC Micro-Grids
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6010018 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
A new bi-directional circuit breaker is presented for medium-voltage dc (MVDC) systems. The Y-source impedance network topology is used to implement the breaker. The current transfer function is derived to show the frequency response and the breaker operation with the high frequencies. Mathematical [...] Read more.
A new bi-directional circuit breaker is presented for medium-voltage dc (MVDC) systems. The Y-source impedance network topology is used to implement the breaker. The current transfer function is derived to show the frequency response and the breaker operation with the high frequencies. Mathematical analysis is achieved with different conditions of coupling among the breaker inductors. The minimum level of the magnetic coupling is determined, which is represented by the null condition. The effect of the turns-ratio on this condition is investigated as well. The breaker is designed with two types of fault conductance slope rates. The Y-source breaker is simulated, and the results verify the breaker operation during the fault condition and the load change. The results also demonstrate the effect of the coupling level on the minimum values of the source current when the fault occurs. Based on the expected fault type in the MVDC systems, the proposed breaker is developed to interrupt the overcurrent due to any of these fault types. A protection scheme is proposed for a 12-bus, two-level micro-grid, where the Y-source breakers are used in the bi-directional zones. The results verify the ability of the breaker to conduct and interrupt the current in both directions of the power flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Protection, Cyber Physical Issues, and Control)
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