Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 17th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery"

A special issue of International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power (ISSN 2504-186X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (7 February 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Gerard Bois
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Guest Editor
Professor Emeritus, ENSAM Lille Campus, Arts et Métiers ParisTech 8, Bd louis XIV 59046 Lille, France
Tel. + 33 3 20 62 22 23; Fax: + 33 3 20 62 22 40
Interests: rotor-stator interactions; pumps and pump-turbines; transient phenomena in axial compressors, inducers and pumps; transonic axial and centrifugal compressors; experimental techniques in turbomachinery
Prof. Olivier Coutier-Delgosha
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering, Blacksburg, VA 24061 and Arts et Metiers ParisTech, Campus of Lille, 8 Boulevard Louis XIV, 59046 Lille cedex, France
Interests: modeling of cavitating flows; physical mechanisms of unsteady hydrodynamic cavitation; cavitating behavior of rotating machinery; small-scale mechanisms; environmental flows

Special Issue Information

Selected Papers from the 17th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery

Dear Colleagues,

The International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery is a recurrent event organized every two years in Hawaii (USA) since 1985. The 17th Symposium (ISROMAC 17) was held in Maui, on 16–21 December 2017. The conference was structured into 35 forums that covered all topics related to rotating machinery, including gas and steam turbines, fans and compressors, hydraulic machinery and propellers. Various scientific areas were, thus, involved, from acoustics to fluid dynamics, heat transfers, multiphase flows, combustion, transport phenomena, rotor dynamics, fluid–structure interactions, and flow control to name only a few. About 250 talks were given, related either to full papers or “presentation only” contributions. Some of the best papers from the conference, corresponding to the IJTPP scope, are collected in this Special Issue.

Prof. Gerard Bois
Prof. Olivier Coutier-Delgosha
Guest Editors

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Improved Turbulence Prediction in Turbomachinery Flows and the Effect on Three-Dimensional Boundary Layer Transition
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2018, 3(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp3030018 - 02 Jul 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
For the numerical prediction of turbomachinery flows, a two-equation turbulence model in combination with a proper transition model to account for laminar boundary layers and their transition to turbulence is state of the art. This paper presents the ability of such a method [...] Read more.
For the numerical prediction of turbomachinery flows, a two-equation turbulence model in combination with a proper transition model to account for laminar boundary layers and their transition to turbulence is state of the art. This paper presents the ability of such a method (k-ω + γ-ReΘ) for turbulence prediction and the effect on three-dimensional boundary layer behavior. For this purpose, both applied models (turbulence and transition) are improved to better account for turbulence length scale effects and three-dimensional transition prediction (Bode et al., 2014 and 2016), since these are the main deficiencies in predicting such kinds of flows. The improved numerical method is validated and tested on existing turbine cascades with detailed experimental data for the viscous regions and additionally on a low-speed axial compressor rig where wake-induced transition takes place. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Front- and Rear-Stage High Pressure Compressor Deterioration on Jet Engine Performance
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2018, 3(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp3020015 - 23 May 2018
Abstract
Current civil aviation is characterized by rising cost and competitive pressure, which is partly passed to the MRO (Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul) companies. To improve the maintenance, condition-based maintenance is established, which is characterized by tailored maintenance actions for each part of the [...] Read more.
Current civil aviation is characterized by rising cost and competitive pressure, which is partly passed to the MRO (Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul) companies. To improve the maintenance, condition-based maintenance is established, which is characterized by tailored maintenance actions for each part of the jet engine, depending on the individual engine history and operating conditions. Thereby, prediction models help engineers to authorize maintenance actions as effectively as possible. This paper will help to improve these prediction models. Therefore, the influence of specific deterioration of a high pressure compressor (HPC) to jet engine performance parameters such as exhaust gas temperature (EGT) and specific fuel consumption (SFC) will be investigated. For this purpose, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations of deteriorated HPC geometries are carried out and serve as a basis to scale the reference HPC performance characteristics to deteriorated ones. To evaluate the changes in performance parameters, a modular performance synthesis model is set up. In this model, the HPC map is exchanged with deteriorated ones. As a result, the influence of geometric deviations to the design intent can be determined, and the MRO companies are able to focus on the most relevant sections of the compressor blading. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity Analysis of BLISK Airfoil Wear
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2018, 3(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp3020014 - 16 May 2018
Abstract
The decreasing performance of jet engines during operation is a major concern for airlines and maintenance companies. Among other effects, the erosion of high-pressure compressor (HPC) blades is a critical one and leads to a changed aerodynamic behavior, and therefore to a change [...] Read more.
The decreasing performance of jet engines during operation is a major concern for airlines and maintenance companies. Among other effects, the erosion of high-pressure compressor (HPC) blades is a critical one and leads to a changed aerodynamic behavior, and therefore to a change in performance. The maintenance of BLISKs (blade-integrated-disks) is especially challenging because the blade arrangement cannot be changed and individual blades cannot be replaced. Thus, coupled deteriorated blades have a complex aerodynamic behavior which can have a stronger influence on compressor performance than a conventional HPC. To ensure effective maintenance for BLISKs, the impact of coupled misshaped blades are the key factor. The present study addresses these effects on the aerodynamic performance of a first-stage BLISK of a high-pressure compressor. Therefore, a design of experiments (DoE) is done to identify the geometric properties which lead to a reduction in performance. It is shown that the effect of coupled variances is dependent on the operating point. Based on the DoE analysis, the thickness-related parameters, the stagger angle, and the max. profile camber as coupled parameters are identified as the most important parameters for all operating points. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Characterization of Unsteady Forces Triggered by Cavitation on a Centrifugal Pump
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2018, 3(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp3020013 - 07 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The paper presents an experimental campaign aimed at the characterization of the relationship between cavitation-induced instabilities and forces acting on the shaft, relevant to space application turbopumps. The experiments have been carried out on a six-bladed unshrouded centrifugal turbopump. Pressure fluctuations are analyzed [...] Read more.
The paper presents an experimental campaign aimed at the characterization of the relationship between cavitation-induced instabilities and forces acting on the shaft, relevant to space application turbopumps. The experiments have been carried out on a six-bladed unshrouded centrifugal turbopump. Pressure fluctuations are analyzed in their frequency content for understanding the instability nature (axial, rotating) and their main characteristics (e.g., amplitude, rotating direction). The spectral analysis of the force components highlights a strong relationship of the z-component (along the rotating axis) with axial instabilities. On the other hand, rotating cavitation may involve force oscillations along all the three components leading to unwanted and dangerous fluctuating unbalances perpendicular to the rotating axis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Component-Specific Preliminary Engine Design Taking into Account Holistic Design Aspects
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2018, 3(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp3020012 - 27 Apr 2018
Abstract
Efficient aero engine operation requires not only optimized components like compressor, combustor, and turbine, but also an optimal balance between these components. Therefore, a holistic coupled optimization of the whole engine involving all relevant components would be advisable. Due to its high complexity [...] Read more.
Efficient aero engine operation requires not only optimized components like compressor, combustor, and turbine, but also an optimal balance between these components. Therefore, a holistic coupled optimization of the whole engine involving all relevant components would be advisable. Due to its high complexity and wide variety of design parameters, however, such an approach is not feasible, which is why today’s aero engine design process is typically split into different component-specific optimization sub-processes. To guarantee the final functionality, components are coupled by fixed aerodynamic and thermodynamic interface parameters predefined by simplified performance calculations early in the design process and held constant for all further design steps. In order not to miss the optimization potential of variable interface parameters and the unlimited design space on higher-fidelity design levels, different coupling and optimization strategies are investigated and demonstrated for a reduced compressor-combustor test case problem by use of 1D and 2D aero design tools. The new holistic design approach enables an exchange of information between components on a higher-fidelity design level than just simple thermodynamic equations, as well as the persecution of global engine design objectives like efficiency or emissions, and provides better results than separated component design with fixed interfaces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vortex Structure and Kinematics of Encased Axial Turbomachines
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2018, 3(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp3020011 - 27 Apr 2018
Abstract
This paper models the kinematics of the vortex system of an encased axial turbomachine at part load and overload applying analytical methods. Thus far, the influence of the casing and the tip clearance on the kinematics have been solved separately. The vortex system [...] Read more.
This paper models the kinematics of the vortex system of an encased axial turbomachine at part load and overload applying analytical methods. Thus far, the influence of the casing and the tip clearance on the kinematics have been solved separately. The vortex system is composed of a hub, bound and tip vortices. For the nominal operating point φ φ opt and negligible induction, the tip vortices transform into a screw. For part load operation φ 0 the tip vortices wind up to a vortex ring, i.e., the pitch of the screw vanishes. The vortex ring itself is generated by bound vortices rotating at the angular frequency Ω . The hub vortex induces a velocity on the vortex ring causing a rotation at the sub-synchronous frequency Ω ind = 0.5 Ω . Besides, the vortex ring itself induces an axial velocity. Superimposed with the axial main flow this results in a stagnation point at the tube wall. This stagnation point may wrongly be interpreted as dynamic induced wall stall. For overload operation φ the vortex system of the turbomachine forms a horseshoe, i.e., the pitch of the screw becomes infinite. Both hub and tip vortices are semi-infinite, straight vortex filaments. The tip vortices rotate against the rotating direction of the turbomachine due to the induction of the hub vortex yielding the induced frequency Ω ind = 0.5 Ω / s with the tip clearance s. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation on Thrust and Moment Coefficients of a Centrifugal Turbomachine
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2018, 3(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp3020009 - 11 Apr 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
In radial pumps and turbines, the centrifugal through-flow in both the front and the back chambers is quite common. It strongly impacts the core swirl ratio, pressure distribution, axial thrust and frictional torque. In order to investigate these relationships experimentally, a test rig [...] Read more.
In radial pumps and turbines, the centrifugal through-flow in both the front and the back chambers is quite common. It strongly impacts the core swirl ratio, pressure distribution, axial thrust and frictional torque. In order to investigate these relationships experimentally, a test rig was designed at the University of Duisburg-Essen and described in this paper. Based on both the experimental and numerical results, correlations are determined to predict the impacts of the centrifugal through-flow on the core swirl ratio, the thrust coefficient and the moment coefficient. Two correlations respectively are determined to associate the core swirl ratio with the local through-flow coefficient for both Batchelor type flow and Stewartson type flow. The correlations describing the thrust coefficient and the moment coefficient in a rotor-stator cavity with centripetal through-flow (Hu et al., 2017) are modified for the case of centrifugal through-flow. The Daily and Nece diagram distinguishing between different flow regimes in rotor-stator cavities is extended with a through-flow coordinate into 3D. The achieved results provide a comprehensive data base which is intended to support the calculation of axial thrust and moment coefficients during the design process of radial pumps and turbines in a more accurate manner. Full article
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