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The Consequences of Infections on the Host Immune Microenvironment

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2022) | Viewed by 7467

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Unit of Experimental Medicine, de Duve Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, SSS/DDUV – ICP, Av. Hippocrate 75, bte B1.75.02, 1200 Brussels, Belgium
Interests: research in development; infectious diseases; viruses; parasites; immune microenvironment; hygiene hypothesis; cytokines; immune regulatory mechanisms; immunopathology; autoimmune diseases
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mammalian hosts respond to infection through a specific immune response aimed at controlling or eliminating the invading infectious agent. However, the molecular and cellular components of this immune response may modify the global immune microenvironment of this host. As a result, infections may enhance susceptibility to some diseases, but prevent the development of others. Similar modulations of the host immune microenvironment are triggered by the commensal flora, especially in the gut. The purpose of this Special Issue is to analyse, at the molecular and cellular level, these relationships between microorganisms and the immune microenvironment, and their consequences on unrelated diseases that develop concomitantly in the infected host. This includes, but is not restricted to, the hygiene hypothesis, with its consequences on autoimmune and allergic diseases and on the immunosurveillance of some cancers; the interaction between distinct agents simultaneously infecting the same host; the immune bystander effects of infections and their consequences on the noninfectious diseases of the host; the involvement of infectious agents in the multistep development of diseases with an immune component.

Prof. Jean-Paul Coutelier
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • infectious agents
  • immune microenvironment
  • hygiene hypothesis
  • autoimmune diseases
  • cancer immunosurveillance
  • infection-immunity crosstalk
  • infection-induced immunopathology
  • diseases with immune component
  • immune bystander effect
  • multistep disease development
  • gut microbiome

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

19 pages, 1089 KiB  
Review
A Review: Highlighting the Links between Epigenetics, COVID-19 Infection, and Vitamin D
by Ashmika Foolchand, Siyanda Mazaleni, Terisha Ghazi and Anil A. Chuturgoon
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(20), 12292; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232012292 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3057
Abstract
The highly transmittable and infectious COVID-19 remains a major threat worldwide, with the elderly and comorbid individuals being the most vulnerable. While vaccines are currently available, therapeutic drugs will help ease the viral outbreak and prevent serious health outcomes. Epigenetic modifications regulate gene [...] Read more.
The highly transmittable and infectious COVID-19 remains a major threat worldwide, with the elderly and comorbid individuals being the most vulnerable. While vaccines are currently available, therapeutic drugs will help ease the viral outbreak and prevent serious health outcomes. Epigenetic modifications regulate gene expression through changes in chromatin structure and have been linked to viral pathophysiology. Since epigenetic modifications contribute to the life cycle of the virus and host immune responses to infection, epigenetic drugs are promising treatment targets to ameliorate COVID-19. Deficiency of the multifunctional secosteroid hormone vitamin D is a global health threat. Vitamin D and its receptor function to regulate genes involved in immunity, apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Amassed evidence also indicates the biological relations of vitamin D with reduced disease risk, while its receptor can be modulated by epigenetic mechanisms. The immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D suggest a role for vitamin D as a COVID-19 therapeutic agent. Therefore, this review highlights the epigenetic effects on COVID-19 and vitamin D while also proposing a role for vitamin D in COVID-19 infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Consequences of Infections on the Host Immune Microenvironment)
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15 pages, 779 KiB  
Review
Dual Nature of Relationship between Mycobacteria and Cancer
by Marek Fol, Piotr Koziński, Jakub Kulesza, Piotr Białecki and Magdalena Druszczyńska
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 8332; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158332 - 3 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3536
Abstract
Although the therapeutic effect of mycobacteria as antitumor agents has been known for decades, recent epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that mycobacterium-related chronic inflammation may be a possible mechanism of cancer pathogenesis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous Mycobacterium avium complex infections have been [...] Read more.
Although the therapeutic effect of mycobacteria as antitumor agents has been known for decades, recent epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that mycobacterium-related chronic inflammation may be a possible mechanism of cancer pathogenesis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous Mycobacterium avium complex infections have been implicated as potentially contributing to the etiology of lung cancer, whereas Mycobacterium ulcerans has been correlated with skin carcinogenesis. The risk of tumor development with chronic mycobacterial infections is thought to be a result of many host effector mechanisms acting at different stages of oncogenesis. In this paper, we focus on the nature of the relationship between mycobacteria and cancer, describing the clinical significance of mycobacteria-based cancer therapy as well as epidemiological evidence on the contribution of chronic mycobacterial infections to the increased lung cancer risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Consequences of Infections on the Host Immune Microenvironment)
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