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Special Issue "Novel Molecular Targets for Cardioprotection 2020: The EU-CARDIOPROTECTION COST Action (CA16225)"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ioanna Andreadou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens,Athens, Greece
Interests: cardiovascular pharmacology and toxicology; myocardial ischemic pre- and postconditioning (cardioprotection); oxidative stress in ischemia–reperfusion injury; molecular toxicology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Derek Hausenloy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Signature Research Program in Cardiovascular & Metabolic Disorders, Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857, Singapore
Interests: cardioprotection; myocardial ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning; ischemia–reperfusion injury; mitochondria as targets for cardioprotection; remote ischemic conditioning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Despite intensive experimental research over the last three to four decades, there is currently no effective therapy for protecting the heart against failure following acute myocardial infarction—also termed cardioprotection. Therefore, novel molecular targets for cardioprotection need to be discovered in order to improve the clinical outcomes of IHD patients. This is the overall objective of our newly established EU-CARDIOPROTECTION COST Action (CA16225 http://www.cardioprotection.eu/), which comprises a European network of 100 leading cardioprotection researchers, dedicated to realizing the therapeutic potential of novel cardioprotective therapies for the benefit of patients. This will be achieved through the discovery of novel therapeutic targets and strategies for cardioprotection (such as combination multitargeted therapies) as well as investigations into the confounding effects of co-morbidities and co-medication on cardioprotection.

Therefore, in this Special Issue “Novel Molecular Targets for Cardioprotection 2020: The EU-CARDIOPROTECTION COST Action (CA16225)” of IJMS, we invite you to submit both review and original preclinical articles on the topic of cardioprotection, with a special focus on novel molecular targets for cardioprotection.

Prof. Dr. Ioanna Andreadou
Prof. Dr. Derek Hausenloy
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mitochondria
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Cyotprotective signaling pathways
  • Cardioprotection
  • Ischemia-Reperfusion injury
  • Acute myocardial infarction
  • Ischemic preconditioning
  • Ischemic postconditioning
  • Remote ischemic conditioning

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Ivabradine Induces Cardiac Protection against Myocardial Infarction by Preventing Cyclophilin-A Secretion in Pigs under Coronary Ischemia/Reperfusion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 2902; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062902 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 309
Abstract
In response to cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, proteolysis mediated by extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and its secreted ligand cyclophilin-A (CyPA) significantly contributes to cardiac injury and necrosis. Here, we aimed to investigate if, in addition to the effect on the funny current (I(f)), Ivabradine [...] Read more.
In response to cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, proteolysis mediated by extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and its secreted ligand cyclophilin-A (CyPA) significantly contributes to cardiac injury and necrosis. Here, we aimed to investigate if, in addition to the effect on the funny current (I(f)), Ivabradine may also play a role against cardiac necrosis by reducing EMMPRIN/CyPA-mediated cardiac inflammation. In a porcine model of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (IR), we found that administration of 0.3 mg/kg Ivabradine significantly improved cardiac function and reduced cardiac necrosis by day 7 after IR, detecting a significant increase in cardiac CyPA in the necrotic compared to the risk areas, which was inversely correlated with the levels of circulating CyPA detected in plasma samples from the same subjects. In testing whether Ivabradine may regulate the levels of CyPA, no changes in tissue CyPA were found in healthy pigs treated with 0.3 mg/kg Ivabradine, but interestingly, when analyzing the complex EMMPRIN/CyPA, rather high glycosylated EMMPRIN, which is required for EMMPRIN-mediated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and increased CyPA bonding to low-glycosylated forms of EMMPRIN were detected by day 7 after IR in pigs treated with Ivabradine. To study the mechanism by which Ivabradine may prevent secretion of CyPA, we first found that Ivabradine was time-dependent in inhibiting co-localization of CyPA with the granule exocytosis marker vesicle-associated membrane protein 1 (VAMP1). However, Ivabradine had no effect on mRNA expression nor in the proteasome and lysosome degradation of CyPA. In conclusion, our results point toward CyPA, its ligand EMMPRIN, and the complex CyPA/EMMPRIN as important targets of Ivabradine in cardiac protection against IR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Identified Circular Transcript of RCAN2, circ-RCAN2, Shows Deviated Expression Pattern in Pig Reperfused Infarcted Myocardium and Hypoxic Porcine Cardiac Progenitor Cells In Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031390 - 30 Jan 2021
Viewed by 445
Abstract
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are crucial in gene regulatory networks and disease development, yet circRNA expression in myocardial infarction (MI) is poorly understood. Here, we harvested myocardium samples from domestic pigs 3 days after closed-chest reperfused MI or sham surgery. Cardiac circRNAs were identified [...] Read more.
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are crucial in gene regulatory networks and disease development, yet circRNA expression in myocardial infarction (MI) is poorly understood. Here, we harvested myocardium samples from domestic pigs 3 days after closed-chest reperfused MI or sham surgery. Cardiac circRNAs were identified by RNA-sequencing of rRNA-depleted RNA from infarcted and healthy myocardium tissue samples. Bioinformatics analysis was performed using the CIRIfull and KNIFE algorithms, and circRNAs identified with both algorithms were subjected to differential expression (DE) analysis and validation by qPCR. Circ-RCAN2 and circ-C12orf29 expressions were significantly downregulated in infarcted tissue compared to healthy pig heart. Sanger sequencing was performed to identify the backsplice junctions of circular transcripts. Finally, we compared the expressions of circ-C12orf29 and circ-RCAN2 between porcine cardiac progenitor cells (pCPCs) that were incubated in a hypoxia chamber for different time periods versus normoxic pCPCs. Circ-C12orf29 did not show significant DE in vitro, whereas circ-RCAN2 exhibited significant ischemia-time-dependent upregulation in hypoxic pCPCs. Overall, our results revealed novel cardiac circRNAs with DE patterns in pCPCs, and in infarcted and healthy myocardium. Circ-RCAN2 exhibited differential regulation by myocardial infarction in vivo and by hypoxia in vitro. These results will improve our understanding of circRNA regulation during acute MI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ivabradine-Stimulated Microvesicle Release Induces Cardiac Protection against Acute Myocardial Infarction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6566; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186566 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 644
Abstract
Ivabradine can reduce heart rate through inhibition of the current I(f) by still unexplored mechanisms. In a porcine model of ischemia reperfusion (IR), we found that treatment with 0.3 mg/kg Ivabradine increased plasma release of microvesicles (MVs) over Placebo, as detected [...] Read more.
Ivabradine can reduce heart rate through inhibition of the current I(f) by still unexplored mechanisms. In a porcine model of ischemia reperfusion (IR), we found that treatment with 0.3 mg/kg Ivabradine increased plasma release of microvesicles (MVs) over Placebo, as detected by flow cytometry of plasma isolated from pigs 7 days after IR, in which a tenfold increase of Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) containing (both high and low-glycosylated) MVs, was detected in response to Ivabradine. The source of MVs was investigated, finding a 37% decrease of CD31+ endothelial cell derived MVs, while CD41+ platelet MVs remained unchanged. By contrast, Ivabradine induced the release of HCN4+ (mostly cardiac) MVs. While no differences respect to EMMPRIN as a cargo component were found in endothelial and platelet derived MVs, Ivabradine induced a significant release of EMMPRIN+/HCN4+ MVs by day 7 after IR. To test the role of EMMPRIN+ cardiac MVs (EMCMV), H9c2 cell monolayers were incubated for 24 h with 107 EMCMVs, reducing apoptosis, and increasing 2 times cell proliferation and 1.5 times cell migration. The in vivo contribution of Ivabradine-induced plasma MVs was also tested, in which 108 MVs isolated from the plasma of pigs treated with Ivabradine or Placebo 7 days after IR, were injected in pigs under IR, finding a significant cardiac protection by increasing left ventricle ejection fraction and a significant reduction of the necrotic area. In conclusion ivabradine induces cardiac protection by increasing at least the release of EMMPRIN containing cardiac microvesicles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
EphrinA1-Fc Attenuates Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction in Chronically Nonreperfused WT but not EphA2-R-M mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5811; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165811 - 13 Aug 2020
Viewed by 699
Abstract
Background: EphrinA1-Fc abolishes acute I/R injury and attenuates nonreperfused cardiac injury 4 days after permanent occlusion in mice. The goal of this study was to assess the capacity of a single intramyocardial administration of ephrinA1-Fc at the time of coronary artery ligation, to [...] Read more.
Background: EphrinA1-Fc abolishes acute I/R injury and attenuates nonreperfused cardiac injury 4 days after permanent occlusion in mice. The goal of this study was to assess the capacity of a single intramyocardial administration of ephrinA1-Fc at the time of coronary artery ligation, to determine the degree to which early salvage effects translate to reduced adverse remodeling after 4 weeks of nonreperfused myocardial infarction (MI) in wild-type B6 and EphA2-R-M (EphA2 receptor null) mice. Methods: At 4 weeks post-MI, echocardiography, histologic and immunohistochemical analyses of B6 mouse hearts were performed. Primary mouse cardiac fibroblasts (FBs) isolated from B6 mice cultured in the presence of low and high dose ephrinA1-Fc, both with and without pro-fibrotic TGF-β stimulation and Western blots, were probed for relative expression of remodeling proteins MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1, in addition to DDR2 and (p)SMAD2/3/totalSMAD2/3. Results: EphrinA1-Fc preserved a significant degree of contractile function, decreased adverse left ventricular remodeling, attenuated excessive compensatory hypertrophy, and decreased interstitial fibrosis in wild-type (WT) B6 mouse hearts. In contrast, most of these parameters were poorer in ephrinA1-Fc-treated EphA2-R-M mice. Of note, fibrosis was proportionately decreased, implying that other EphA receptor(s) are more important in regulating the pro-fibrotic response. Primary FBs showed disparate alteration of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1, as well as DDR2 and p-SMAD2/3/totalSMAD2/3, which indicates that matrix remodeling and cardiac fibrosis in the injured heart are influenced by ephrinA1-Fc. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the capacity of a single administration of ephrinA1-Fc at the onset of injury to attenuate long-term nonreperfused post-MI ventricular remodeling that results in progressive heart failure, and the important role of EphA2 in mitigating the deleterious effects. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
CD40/CD40L and Related Signaling Pathways in Cardiovascular Health and Disease—The Pros and Cons for Cardioprotection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(22), 8533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228533 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 467
Abstract
The CD40–CD40 ligand (CD40L) dyad represents a scientific and clinical field that has raised many controversies in the past and cannot be clearly defined as being an either beneficial or harmful pathway. Being crucially involved in physiological immunological processes as well as pathological [...] Read more.
The CD40–CD40 ligand (CD40L) dyad represents a scientific and clinical field that has raised many controversies in the past and cannot be clearly defined as being an either beneficial or harmful pathway. Being crucially involved in physiological immunological processes as well as pathological inflammatory reactions, the signaling pathway has been recognized as a key player in the development of both autoimmune and cardiovascular disease. Even though the possibilities of a therapeutic approach to the dyad were recognized decades ago, due to unfortunate events, detailed in this review, pharmacological treatment targeting the dyad, especially in patients suffering from atherosclerosis, is not available. Despite the recent advances in the treatment of classical cardiovascular risk factors, such as arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, the treatment of the associated low-grade inflammation that accounts for the progression of atherosclerosis is still challenging. Low-grade inflammation can be detected in a significant portion of patients that suffer from cardiovascular disease and it is therefore imperative to develop new therapeutic strategies in order to combat this driver of atherosclerosis. Of note, established cardiovascular drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or statins have proven beneficial cardiovascular effects that are also related to their pleiotropic immunomodulatory properties. In this review, we will discuss the setbacks encountered as well as new avenues discovered on the path to a different, inflammation-centered approach for the treatment of cardiovascular disease with the CD40–CD40L axis as a central therapeutic target. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Molecular Mechanisms of Iron Metabolism and Its Role in Cardiac Dysfunction and Cardioprotection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 7889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21217889 - 24 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Iron is an essential mineral participating in different functions of the organism under physiological conditions. Numerous biological processes, such as oxygen and lipid metabolism, protein production, cellular respiration, and DNA synthesis, require the presence of iron, and mitochondria play an important role in [...] Read more.
Iron is an essential mineral participating in different functions of the organism under physiological conditions. Numerous biological processes, such as oxygen and lipid metabolism, protein production, cellular respiration, and DNA synthesis, require the presence of iron, and mitochondria play an important role in the processes of iron metabolism. In addition to its physiological role, iron may be also involved in the adaptive processes of myocardial “conditioning”. On the other hand, disorders of iron metabolism are involved in the pathological mechanisms of the most common human diseases and include a wide range of them, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and accelerate the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, iron also exerts potentially deleterious effects that may be manifested under conditions of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, myocardial infarction, heart failure, coronary artery angioplasty, or heart transplantation, due to its involvement in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, iron has been recently described to participate in the mechanisms of iron-dependent cell death defined as “ferroptosis”. Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death that is distinct from apoptosis, necroptosis, and other types of cell death. Ferroptosis has been shown to be associated with I/R injury and several other cardiac diseases as a significant form of cell death in cardiomyocytes. In this review, we will discuss the role of iron in cardiovascular diseases, especially in myocardial I/R injury, and protective mechanisms stimulated by different forms of “conditioning” with a special emphasis on the novel targets for cardioprotection. Full article
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