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Special Issue "Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kuniaki Ogasawara Website E-Mail
Department of Neurosurgery, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Uchimaru 19-1, 020-8505 Morioka, Japan
Interests: surgery for cerebrovascular diseases; cerebral blood flow and metabolism; brain positron emission tomography; brain single-photon emission tomography; cognitive changes due to cerebrovascular diseases and surgery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the human brain can be imaged using magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission tomography, infrared spectroscopy, and so on. Magnetic resonance, two-dimensionally, displays cerebral metabolism on spectroscopy, as well as cerebral blood flow on arterial spin labeling. Positron emission tomography three-dimensionally shows amino acid, nucleic acid, and neuroreceptor, as well as cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Single-photon emission tomography also three-dimensionally shows neuroreceptor, as well as cerebral blood flow. Infrared spectroscopy two-dimensionally displays a function of cerebral blood flow and metabolism on high time resolution. These two- or three-dimensional cerebral blood flow and metabolism imaging modalities are currently applied for research of physiological brain functions or investigation of pathophysiological brain states in clinical settings. For example, cognitive function in neurodegenerative and cerebrovasvular diseases has been discussed from the viewpoint of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism.

This Special Issue of IJMS provides a comprehensive synopsis of the state-of-the-art in cerebral blood flow and metabolism in human brain, in particular, pathophysiological brain states in clinical settings including mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapy.

Dr. Kuniaki Ogasawara
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • magnetic resonance
  • positron emission tomography
  • single-photon emission tomography
  • infrared spectroscopy
  • neurodegenerative disease
  • cerebrovasvular disease
  • head trauma
  • cognition
  • brain function

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Redistribution of Cerebral Blood Flow during Severe Hypovolemia and Reperfusion in a Sheep Model: Critical Role of α1-Adrenergic Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18051031 - 11 May 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Background: Maintenance of brain circulation during shock is sufficient to prevent subcortical injury but the cerebral cortex is not spared. This suggests area-specific regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) during hemorrhage. Methods: Cortical and subcortical CBF were continuously measured during blood loss (≤50%) [...] Read more.
Background: Maintenance of brain circulation during shock is sufficient to prevent subcortical injury but the cerebral cortex is not spared. This suggests area-specific regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) during hemorrhage. Methods: Cortical and subcortical CBF were continuously measured during blood loss (≤50%) and subsequent reperfusion using laser Doppler flowmetry. Blood gases, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), heart rate and renal blood flow were also monitored. Urapidil was used for α1A-adrenergic receptor blockade in dosages, which did not modify the MABP-response to blood loss. Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions were used to determine adrenergic receptor expression in brain arterioles. Results: During hypovolemia subcortical CBF was maintained at 81 ± 6% of baseline, whereas cortical CBF decreased to 40 ± 4% (p < 0.001). Reperfusion led to peak CBFs of about 70% above baseline in both brain regions. α1A-Adrenergic blockade massively reduced subcortical CBF during hemorrhage and reperfusion, and prevented hyperperfusion during reperfusion in the cortex. α1A-mRNA expression was significantly higher in the cortex, whereas α1D-mRNA expression was higher in the subcortex (p < 0.001). Conclusions: α1-Adrenergic receptors are critical for perfusion redistribution: activity of the α1A-receptor subtype is a prerequisite for redistribution of CBF, whereas the α1D-receptor subtype may determine the magnitude of redistribution responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Carotid Artery Stenting and Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability in Subjects with Chronic Carotid Artery Stenosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18051008 - 08 May 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Failure of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical event in the development and progression of diseases such as acute ischemic stroke, chronic ischemia or small vessels disease that affect the central nervous system. It is not known whether BBB breakdown in subjects [...] Read more.
Failure of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical event in the development and progression of diseases such as acute ischemic stroke, chronic ischemia or small vessels disease that affect the central nervous system. It is not known whether BBB breakdown in subjects with chronic carotid artery stenosis can be restrained with postoperative recovery of cerebral perfusion. The aim of the study was to assess the short-term effect of internal carotid artery stenting on basic perfusion parameters and permeability surface area-product (PS) in such a population. Forty subjects (23 males) with stenosis of >70% within a single internal carotid artery and neurological symptoms who underwent a carotid artery stenting procedure were investigated. Differences in the following computed tomography perfusion (CTP) parameters were compared before and after surgery: global cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), time to peak (TTP) and PS. PS acquired by CTP is used to measure the permeability of the BBB to contrast material. In all baseline cases, the CBF and CBV values were low, while MTT and TTP were high on both the ipsi- and contralateral sides compared to reference values. PS was approximately twice the normal value. CBF was higher (+6.14%), while MTT was lower (−9.34%) on the contralateral than on the ipsilateral side. All perfusion parameters improved after stenting on both the ipsilateral (CBF +22.66%; CBV +18.98%; MTT −16.09%, TTP −7.62%) and contralateral (CBF +22.27%, CBV +19.72%, MTT −14.65%, TTP −7.46%) sides. PS decreased by almost half: ipsilateral −48.11%, contralateral −45.19%. The decline in BBB permeability was symmetrical on the ipsi- and contralateral sides to the stenosis. Augmented BBB permeability can be controlled by surgical intervention in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Improving Cerebral Blood Flow after Arterial Recanalization: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy in Stroke
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122669 - 09 Dec 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
Ischemic stroke is caused by a disruption in blood supply to a region of the brain. It induces dysfunction of brain cells and networks, resulting in sudden neurological deficits. The cause of stroke is vascular, but the consequences are neurological. Decades of research [...] Read more.
Ischemic stroke is caused by a disruption in blood supply to a region of the brain. It induces dysfunction of brain cells and networks, resulting in sudden neurological deficits. The cause of stroke is vascular, but the consequences are neurological. Decades of research have focused on finding new strategies to reduce the neural damage after cerebral ischemia. However, despite the incredibly huge investment, all strategies targeting neuroprotection have failed to demonstrate clinical efficacy. Today, treatment for stroke consists of dealing with the cause, attempting to remove the occluding blood clot and recanalize the vessel. However, clinical evidence suggests that the beneficial effect of post-stroke recanalization may be hampered by the occurrence of microvascular reperfusion failure. In short: recanalization is not synonymous with reperfusion. Today, clinicians are confronted with several challenges in acute stroke therapy, even after successful recanalization: (1) induce reperfusion, (2) avoid hemorrhagic transformation (HT), and (3) avoid early or late vascular reocclusion. All these parameters impact the restoration of cerebral blood flow after stroke. Recent advances in understanding the molecular consequences of recanalization and reperfusion may lead to innovative therapeutic strategies for improving reperfusion after stroke. In this review, we will highlight the importance of restoring normal cerebral blood flow after stroke and outline molecular mechanisms involved in blood flow regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview
Aquaporin-4 Functionality and Virchow-Robin Space Water Dynamics: Physiological Model for Neurovascular Coupling and Glymphatic Flow
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18081798 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
The unique properties of brain capillary endothelium, critical in maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and restricting water permeability across the BBB, have important consequences on fluid hydrodynamics inside the BBB hereto inadequately recognized. Recent studies indicate that the mechanisms underlying brain water dynamics [...] Read more.
The unique properties of brain capillary endothelium, critical in maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and restricting water permeability across the BBB, have important consequences on fluid hydrodynamics inside the BBB hereto inadequately recognized. Recent studies indicate that the mechanisms underlying brain water dynamics are distinct from systemic tissue water dynamics. Hydrostatic pressure created by the systolic force of the heart, essential for interstitial circulation and lymphatic flow in systemic circulation, is effectively impeded from propagating into the interstitial fluid inside the BBB by the tightly sealed endothelium of brain capillaries. Instead, fluid dynamics inside the BBB is realized by aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), the water channel that connects astrocyte cytoplasm and extracellular (interstitial) fluid. Brain interstitial fluid dynamics, and therefore AQP-4, are now recognized as essential for two unique functions, namely, neurovascular coupling and glymphatic flow, the brain equivalent of systemic lymphatics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism)
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