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Special Issue "Biological Effects of Non-ionizing Radiation"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Biophysics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 6152

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Lukas H. Margaritis
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Guest Editor
Department of Cell Biology & Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Non-ionizing radiation (NIR) contains frequencies from 1 Hz up to distant ultraviolet 100 nm waves, where the ionizing part of the spectrum starts. Starting from the beginning of the 20th century, human-made products have led to the release of amounts of such radiation that are potentially harmful to the biological systems and pose health hazards. This includes ELF (extremely low frequencies, mainly magnetic or electric fields deriving from the power lines), RF (radio frequencies, deriving from radio and TV antennas), MW (microwaves, the vast majority of which is produced at an exponentially growing amount by telecommunication devices—cell phones, cell phone masts, Wi-Fi routers, wireless phones, RADARS, satellites), up to millimeter 100 GHz waves especially containing the new 5G applications. This Special Issue aims at selecting manuscripts dealing with the biological effects, in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo, especially addressing radiation-induced non-thermal changes in:

  • Oxidative stress;
  • DNA damage/genotoxicity;
  • Enzyme activity;
  • Gene/protein expression and modification.

Special attention should be given to papers dealing with the currently in use pulsed telecommunication signals (PTS) of the cell phone’s 3G, 4G, 4G-LTE, 5G, and Wi-Fi technologies, an issue that is under very active research due to the profound public health interest.

Prof. Dr. Lukas H. Margaritis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • GSM
  • UMTS
  • microwaves
  • cell phones
  • radiation
  • DNA damage
  • free radicals
  • ROS
  • gene expression
  • cell cultures

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Protective Effects of EMF-LTE against DNA Double-Strand Break Damage In Vitro and In Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(10), 5134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105134 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
With the rapid growth of the wireless communication industry, humans are extensively exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) comprised of radiofrequency (RF). The skin is considered the primary target of EMFs given its outermost location. Recent evidence suggests that extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMF can [...] Read more.
With the rapid growth of the wireless communication industry, humans are extensively exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) comprised of radiofrequency (RF). The skin is considered the primary target of EMFs given its outermost location. Recent evidence suggests that extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMF can improve the efficacy of DNA repair in human cell-lines. However, the effects of EMF-RF on DNA damage remain unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of EMF-long term evolution (LTE, 1.762 GHz, 8 W/kg) irradiation on DNA double-strand break (DSB) using the murine melanoma cell line B16 and the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. EMF-LTE exposure alone did not affect cell viability or induce apoptosis or necrosis. In addition, DNA DSB damage, as determined by the neutral comet assay, was not induced by EMF-LTE irradiation. Of note, EMF-LTE exposure can attenuate the DNA DSB damage induced by physical and chemical DNA damaging agents (such as ionizing radiation (IR, 10 Gy) in HaCaT and B16 cells and bleomycin (BLM, 3 μM) in HaCaT cells and a human melanoma cell line MNT-1), suggesting that EMF-LTE promotes the repair of DNA DSB damage. The protective effect of EMF-LTE against DNA damage was further confirmed by attenuation of the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX after exposure to EMF-LTE in HaCaT and B16 cells. Most importantly, irradiation of EMF-LTE (1.76 GHz, 6 W/kg, 8 h/day) on mice in vivo for 4 weeks reduced the γ-H2AX level in the skin tissue, further supporting the protective effects of EMF-LTE against DNA DSB damage. Furthermore, p53, the master tumor-suppressor gene, was commonly upregulated by EMF-LTE irradiation in B16 and HaCaT cells. This finding suggests that p53 plays a role in the protective effect of EMF-LTE against DNA DSBs. Collectively, these results demonstrated that EMF-LTE might have a protective effect against DNA DSB damage in the skin, although further studies are necessary to understand its impact on human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Effects of Non-ionizing Radiation)
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Article
Exposure to 2.45 GHz Radiation Triggers Changes in HSP-70, Glucocorticoid Receptors and GFAP Biomarkers in Rat Brain
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(10), 5103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105103 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
Brain tissue may be especially sensitive to electromagnetic phenomena provoking signs of neural stress in cerebral activity. Fifty-four adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ELISA and immunohistochemistry testing of four relevant anatomical areas of the cerebrum to measure biomarkers indicating induction of heat shock [...] Read more.
Brain tissue may be especially sensitive to electromagnetic phenomena provoking signs of neural stress in cerebral activity. Fifty-four adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ELISA and immunohistochemistry testing of four relevant anatomical areas of the cerebrum to measure biomarkers indicating induction of heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70), glucocorticoid receptors (GCR) or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) after single or repeated exposure to 2.45 GHz radiation in the experimental set-up. Neither radiation regime caused tissue heating, so thermal effects can be ruled out. A progressive decrease in GCR and HSP-70 was observed after acute or repeated irradiation in the somatosensory cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus. In the limbic cortex; however, values for both biomarkers were significantly higher after repeated exposure to irradiation when compared to control animals. GFAP values in brain tissue after irradiation were not significantly different or were even lower than those of nonirradiated animals in all brain regions studied. Our results suggest that repeated exposure to 2.45 GHz elicited GCR/HSP-70 dysregulation in the brain, triggering a state of stress that could decrease tissue anti-inflammatory action without favoring glial proliferation and make the nervous system more vulnerable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Effects of Non-ionizing Radiation)
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Article
The Influence of the Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031342 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
The development of new technologies and industry is conducive to the increase in the number and variety of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources in our environment. The main sources of EMF are high-voltage lines, household appliances, audio/video devices, mobile phones, radio stations, and radar [...] Read more.
The development of new technologies and industry is conducive to the increase in the number and variety of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources in our environment. The main sources of EMF are high-voltage lines, household appliances, audio/video devices, mobile phones, radio stations, and radar devices. In the growing use of electronic devices, scientists are increasingly interested in the effects of EMF on human health. Even though many studies on the effects of EMF have already been carried out, none of them has shown a significant effect on mammals, including humans. Moreover, it is not entirely clear how EMF influences cell behavior. The International Agency for Research on Cancer on 31 May 2011, classified PEM as a possible carcinogenic factor. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the electromagnetic field on morphological and functional changes in clear cell renal carcinoma. The research was carried out on in vitro cultures of four cell lines: HEK293, 786-O 769-P, and Caki1. The results of the research showed that the EMF of low frequency had a slight effect on the viability of cells. EMF, which induced cell arrest in the G1 phase, increased the number of early apoptotic cells and decreased the number of viable cells in the 786-O line. EMF did not affect the proliferation and viability of HEK293 cells. Extreme low-frequency EMF (ELF-EMF) also showed an inhibitory effect on the migration and metastatic properties of clear cell kidney cancer cells. Moreover, shortly after the end of ELF-EMF exposure, significant increases in ROS levels were observed in all tested cell lines. As part of the work, it was shown that low-frequency EMF shows an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of primary cancer cells, diminishing their migratory, invasive, and metastatic abilities. It also increases the apoptosis of cancer cells and the amount of reactive oxygen species. Based on the results of our research, we want to point up that the effect of ELF-EMF depends on a specific metabolic state or at a specific stage in the cell cycle of the cells under study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Effects of Non-ionizing Radiation)
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Review

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Review
Oxidative Stress and NADPH Oxidase: Connecting Electromagnetic Fields, Cation Channels and Biological Effects
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 10041; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221810041 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) disrupt the electrochemical balance of biological membranes, thereby causing abnormal cation movement and deterioration of the function of membrane voltage-gated ion channels. These can trigger an increase of oxidative stress (OS) and the impairment of all cellular functions, including DNA [...] Read more.
Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) disrupt the electrochemical balance of biological membranes, thereby causing abnormal cation movement and deterioration of the function of membrane voltage-gated ion channels. These can trigger an increase of oxidative stress (OS) and the impairment of all cellular functions, including DNA damage and subsequent carcinogenesis. In this review we focus on the main mechanisms of OS generation by EMF-sensitized NADPH oxidase (NOX), the involved OS biochemistry, and the associated key biological effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Effects of Non-ionizing Radiation)
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