Special Issue "Promoting Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyles in Sports, Leisure-Time and Physical Education"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. João Martins
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon, Cruz Quebrada 1499-002, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: physical education; physical activity; physical literacy; health education; epidemiology
Dr. João Costa
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
School of Education, University College Cork, 2 Lucan Place, Western Road, Cork, Ireland. T12 KX72
Interests: physical education; teacher education; sport pedagogy; physical activity; health education; sport psychology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The health benefits of a physically active lifestyle are well established. Nevertheless, adolescents, adults, and older adults worldwide present high levels of physical inactivity. In most countries, inactivity levels have been stable, or their reduction too slow. With physical inactivity representing an increased risk for health issues, urgent action is needed to effectively promote physically active and healthy lifestyles. In this regard, research seeking to further understand the multiple influences of diverse types of physical activity (PA) is important to design specific evidence-based PA interventions.

In this Special Issue, we look forward to receiving high-quality original research studies (e.g., longitudinal, randomized control trials; mixed-methods; qualitative; cross-sectional; systematic reviews and meta-analyses) focused on all forms of PA in different contexts (e.g., in leisure time, at work, at school, in the household, active transportation) across all population subgroups in diverse cultural contexts, related (but not limited) to the following topics:

  1. Links between PA, health outcomes, and quality of life;
  2. Prevalence of and trends in PA;
  3. Correlates and determinants of PA;
  4. Interventions, effective strategies, and best practices to promote PA;
  5. Physical education, school-based PA, and healthy lifestyle promotion;
  6. Youth and adult experiences, perspectives, and recommendations on PA;
  7. Translation of research into public health actions to promote PA.

Dr. João Martins
Dr. João Costa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • physical education
  • correlates
  • determinants
  • interventions
  • health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA)
  • health
  • lifestyle

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Article
Barriers and Motivators to Physical Activity Prior to Starting a Community-Based Walking Program
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10659; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010659 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 214
Abstract
Despite the clear benefits of an active lifestyle, most American adults fail to meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. Because of its safety and ease, walking is a promising population-level strategy to increase PA. There is a need to further understand why adults do [...] Read more.
Despite the clear benefits of an active lifestyle, most American adults fail to meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. Because of its safety and ease, walking is a promising population-level strategy to increase PA. There is a need to further understand why adults do and do not participate in walking. This study provides a broader understanding of barriers and motivators of walking prior to starting a walking program. Four years of baseline data from a community-based walking program were analyzed (n = 1491). Descriptive statistics summarized participant characteristics, barriers, reinforcements, and current PA. Chi-square tests were used to assess differences in the barrier and reinforcement responses between participant’s PA level and age categories. Open-ended responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. On average, participants were white (96%), middle-aged (52 ± 13 years old) females (92%). Poor weather and time were frequently reported barriers to walking. Open-ended responses (n = 141) identified additional barriers of lack of motivation (n = 37), joint issues (n = 29), fatigue (n = 24), safety or lack of environmental supports (n = 17), family or work demands (n = 15), and lacking a walking partner (n = 9). Good weather, health, and weight loss were frequently reported motivators. Additional motivators (n = 282) identified included stress relief and mental health (n = 82), social time (n = 70), dog care (n = 41), other health benefits (n = 38), connect with nature (n = 19), enjoyment (14), occupation (n = 11), and environmental and community supports (n = 6). Findings highlight the importance of understanding participant barriers and motivators for PA before starting a program. Future research should examine how reported barriers and motivators are related to program completion and adherence. Tailoring community-based programs to address specific barriers and motivators may enable more participants to effectively change and maintain PA. Full article
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Article
A Survey on Stretching Practices in Women and Men from Various Sports or Physical Activity Programs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 3928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083928 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2057
Abstract
Recommendations for prescribing stretching exercises are regularly updated. It appears that coaches progressively follow the published guidelines, but the real stretching practices of athletes are unknown. The present study aimed to investigate stretching practices in individuals from various sports or physical activity programs. [...] Read more.
Recommendations for prescribing stretching exercises are regularly updated. It appears that coaches progressively follow the published guidelines, but the real stretching practices of athletes are unknown. The present study aimed to investigate stretching practices in individuals from various sports or physical activity programs. A survey was completed online to determine some general aspects of stretching practices. The survey consisted of 32 multiple-choice or open-ended questions to illustrate the general practices of stretching, experiences and reasons for stretching. In total, 3546 questionnaires were analyzed (47.3% women and 52.7% men). Respondents practiced at the national/international level (25.2%), regional level (29.8%), or recreationally (44.9%). Most respondents (89.3%) used stretching for recovery (74.9%) or gains of flexibility (57.2%). Stretching was generally performed after training (72.4%). The respondents also indicated they performed stretching as a pre-exercise routine (for warm-up: 49.9%). Static stretching was primarily used (88.2%) but when applied for warm-up reasons, respondents mostly indicated performing dynamic stretching (86.2%). Only 37.1% of the respondents indicated being supervised. Finally, some gender and practice level differences were noticed. The present survey revealed that the stretching practices were only partly in agreement with recent evidence-based recommendations. The present survey also pointed out the need to improve the supervision of stretching exercises. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Korean Fencing Club Members’ Participation Intention Using the TPB Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 2813; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062813 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 742
Abstract
This study aims to investigate effects of three factors from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)—attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control—on 233 fencing club members’ intention to continue participation, while considering fencing’s low popularity as a sport in Korea. This study analyzed [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate effects of three factors from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)—attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control—on 233 fencing club members’ intention to continue participation, while considering fencing’s low popularity as a sport in Korea. This study analyzed data from members of fencing clubs in Seoul, Gyeonggi, Daegu, and Busan, using frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlational analysis, and multiple regression with SPSS Windows 25.0 software. Results indicate that selected TPB model factors—specifically attitude and subjective norms—positively affected intention to continue participating. Moreover, significant influences of attitude and subjective norms were found in both men and women. Attitude significantly influenced intention in participants in their twenties, thirties, and forties or over; subjective norms significantly influenced intention in participants in their twenties and forties or over; and perceived behavioral control significantly influenced intention in participants in their thirties. Lastly, attitude and subjective norms significantly influenced intention when subjects participated once a week or twice a week and at least three times a week, and perceived behavioral control significantly influenced intention only when they participated at least three times a week. This suggests that members perceived their participation in fencing favorably and that the people around them encouraged them to continue participation in fencing and viewed it as a positive activity. The findings may be useful for understanding how to further popularize fencing in Korea and encourage current club members to maintain or increase their participation levels. Full article
Article
The Associations of Built Environment with Older People Recreational Walking and Physical Activity in a Chinese Small-Scale City of Yiwu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052699 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 806
Abstract
Physical activity would bring in plenty of health benefits, especially recreational physical activity (RPA). Previous studies have suggested that built environment would affect older people’s recreational walking (RW) and RPA, but how the effects exist in a small-scale Chinese city remains unclear. Two [...] Read more.
Physical activity would bring in plenty of health benefits, especially recreational physical activity (RPA). Previous studies have suggested that built environment would affect older people’s recreational walking (RW) and RPA, but how the effects exist in a small-scale Chinese city remains unclear. Two hundred and fifty-two older participants were recruited in the city of Yiwu using cross-sectional survey of random samples in 2019. RW and RPA level of participants and perceived scores of built environments were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, respectively. Linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the association of built environment with older people’s RW and RPA. The results showed that two main factors affecting older people’s RW and RPA were residential density and aesthetics. Additionally, access to services was related to RW, and street connectivity was correlated with RPA. The associations of RW with built environment varied slightly with demographic variables included in the regression model. All the results suggested that lower residential density, better aesthetics environment, and higher street connectivity would motivate older people to engage more in RW and RPA. The better access to services encourages only RW, not RPA, in older people. These findings would be helpful for policy decision makers in the urban construction process in Yiwu. More studies are needed to enlarge the scientific evidence base about small-scale cities in China. Full article
Article
Association of the Use of the Mobile Phone with Physical Fitness and Academic Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031042 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyse the association of the use of the mobile phone with physical fitness (PF) and academic performance in secondary school students and its gender-related differences. A total of 501 high school students participated in the study [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyse the association of the use of the mobile phone with physical fitness (PF) and academic performance in secondary school students and its gender-related differences. A total of 501 high school students participated in the study (236 girls and 265 boys; 12–18 years). Use of the mobile phone and sample distributions were done with the Mobile-Related Experience Questionnaire (CERM): low use of mobile phone (LMP = 10–15 points), medium use of mobile phone (MMP = 16–23 points) and high use of mobile phone (HMP = 24–40 points). PF via Eurofit test battery and academic performance were recorded, and gender was used as a differentiating factor. The HMP group registered lower values than the LMP group for academic performance (Spanish: 4.78 ± 2.26 vs. 3.90 ± 1.96 points; p = 0.007, Mathematics: 4.91 ± 2.23 vs. 4.00 ± 1.84 points; p = 0.007) and PF (Abdominals: 6.83 ± 2.40 vs. 5.41 ± 2.46 points; p < 0.001, Broad jump: 6.24 ± 3.02 vs. 4.94 ± 2.28 points; p = 0.013). The boy students showed greater values than girl students for PF in the LMP (medicine-ball-throw: 6.34 ± 2.24 vs. 5.28 ± 1.86 points, p = 0.007) and MMP (medicine-ball-throw: 6.49 ± 2.52 vs. 5.02 ± 1.68 points; p < 0.001) groups, but no gender-related differences were found in the HMP group. In conclusion, high use of the mobile phone was related to worse results in the PF tests and academic performance. Gender-related differences were found for academic performance regardless of the use of the mobile, but for physical fitness no gender differences were found in HMP group. Full article
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Article
“That’s What the Program Is All about… Building Relationships”: Exploring Experiences in an Urban Offering of the Indigenous Youth Mentorship Program in Canada
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020733 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
Peer mentorship is an effective approach for delivering health promotion programs that may be particularly useful among underrepresented populations. Advancing the peer-led approach, the Indigenous Youth Mentorship Program (IYMP) is a communal-led program rooted in Indigenous values aimed at the promotion of healthy [...] Read more.
Peer mentorship is an effective approach for delivering health promotion programs that may be particularly useful among underrepresented populations. Advancing the peer-led approach, the Indigenous Youth Mentorship Program (IYMP) is a communal-led program rooted in Indigenous values aimed at the promotion of healthy lifestyles in children and youth. The program includes layers of multi-age mentoring (i.e., elementary students, high school student mentors, and young adult health leaders [YAHLs]) and incorporates three core components: physical activity, healthy eating, and cultural teachings. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore elementary student, mentor, and YAHL experiences in an urban IYMP offering. Eleven sharing circles were conducted; six with elementary students (n = 23; grade 4 and 5 students), two with mentors (n = 3; students enrolled in a grade 10 wellness girls class), and three with YAHLs (n = 6; undergraduate university students). Focus groups were also held with respective school teachers and principals. An inductive content analysis generated three themes that represent the perceived impacts of this urban IYMP offering: (1) Fostering Wellness, (2) Strengthening Meaningful Connections, and (3) Exploring Leadership. Findings are positioned within a communal mentorship framework that is circular and multi-directional. By bringing together Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples, this program offering supports Indigenous cultural relevance in an urban-based wellness program. Full article
Article
Psychometric Properties of the Malay-Language Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Scale: A Confirmatory Study on Malaysian Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020622 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 826
Abstract
The objective of this study was to validate the translated Malay version of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q-M) scale among Malaysian primary school children using the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The Q-LES-Q-M measures the level of enjoyment and satisfaction [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to validate the translated Malay version of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q-M) scale among Malaysian primary school children using the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The Q-LES-Q-M measures the level of enjoyment and satisfaction experienced with relation to physical health, feelings, homework, and leisure. The participants were 607 Malay students, 240 (39.5%) boys and 367 (60.5%) girls, with an age range from 10 to 11 years old. The original version of the Q-LES-Q was translated into the Malay language by forward to backward translation procedures with consideration for the local culture and suitable vocabulary for primary school students. The participants then completed the Q-LES-Q-M. CFA was performed using Mplus 8 software. Using CFA, the initial model did not result in a good data fit. Further analysis of the CFA suggested some changes to the model to improve the fit indices. Model modification included the deletion of three problematic items and co-varying some error items. This resulted in improved fit indices and 40 items remained in the final model. The final model showed good reliability based on two indicators of composite reliability (CR) and Cronbach’s alpha (CA). The factors with their CR and CA were physical activity (CR = 0.857, CA = 0.854), feelings (CR = 0.808, CA = 0.813), homework (CR = 0.837, CA = 0.837) and leisure (CR = 0.742, CA = 0.737). The final measurement consists of 40 items. The retained items were deemed suitable for Malay primary school children. The revised Q-LES-Q-M with 40 items is suitable for measuring the levels of children’s involvement in determining the enjoyment and satisfaction of learning and physical activity. Full article
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Article
Children’s Independent Mobility to School in Seven European Countries: A Multinomial Logit Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239149 - 07 Dec 2020
Viewed by 940
Abstract
The determinants of children’s independent school mobility and the contextual discrepancies between these determinants have not been comprehensively investigated in previous studies. It is important to examine these determinants because independent school mobility is associated with children’s physical activity, according to the literature. [...] Read more.
The determinants of children’s independent school mobility and the contextual discrepancies between these determinants have not been comprehensively investigated in previous studies. It is important to examine these determinants because independent school mobility is associated with children’s physical activity, according to the literature. This paper examined the associations of different groups of variables such as household, mobility, perceptions, and the built environment with independent school mobility of children between 9 and 12 years using a sample of 1304 girls (50.9%) and boys (49.1%) in seven European countries. The sample was analyzed by Multinomial Logistic Regression, Chi-square test of independence, and Proportional Reduction in Error methods. According to the findings, father’s and mother’s commute mode choice, child’s mode choice of commute to school, child’s bike ownership, parent’s perception of safety, parent’s evaluation of bike lane and sidewalk quality, child’s commute distance, number of driving licenses in the household, accessibility of public transport, and population density in the neighborhood and around the school proved to be very strong and significant determinants of children’s independent school mobility in the Europe-wide sample. The comparison of the levels of independent school mobility did not show any significant differences between high-income countries such as Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands, and emerging economies and developing countries like Poland, Greece, Turkey, and Croatia. However, a direct comparison between Poland (emerging economy) (33.6%) and the Netherlands (high-income) (31.7%) revealed significant differences in the level of independent school mobility. This study found the motives for this discrepancy due to the significant difference in bike ownership, the number of household members working outside of the house, household size, commute distances of parents, and driving license possession. Full article
Article
Prompting Pedagogical Change through Promoting Active Lifestyles Paradoxes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217965 - 29 Oct 2020
Viewed by 687
Abstract
This study explored approaches to promoting active lifestyles (PAL) in schools which aimed to inform and develop physical education (PE) trainees and teachers’ health-related philosophies and pedagogies. Thirty-two secondary school PE trainees and teachers involved in a University-based Initial Teacher Education partnership in [...] Read more.
This study explored approaches to promoting active lifestyles (PAL) in schools which aimed to inform and develop physical education (PE) trainees and teachers’ health-related philosophies and pedagogies. Thirty-two secondary school PE trainees and teachers involved in a University-based Initial Teacher Education partnership in England participated in this study during the period 2015–2019. The participants were involved in professional development which included an introduction to research-informed PAL ‘paradoxes’ associated with promoting active lifestyles. Participants were asked to review their own health-related philosophies and practices in light of these paradoxes and were encouraged to use them to influence their own pedagogies as well as those of colleagues/peers. Participants found the PAL paradoxes interesting, surprising and perplexing; expressed a keen desire to address and solve them; and experienced the joys and challenges of influencing colleagues’/peers’ health-related philosophies and pedagogies. The findings suggest that this innovative low-cost, flexible and accessible approach to pedagogical change has the potential to engage PE teachers, increase their effectiveness as promoters of physical activity, and to greatly enhance the subject’s contribution to public health. This is significant, given calls for new pedagogical approaches and teachers’ previously reported lack of engagement in professional development in this area. Full article
Article
Gaelic4Girls—The Effectiveness of a 10-Week Multicomponent Community Sports-Based Physical Activity Intervention for 8 to 12-Year-Old Girls
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186928 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1431
Abstract
Girls are less active than boys throughout childhood and adolescence, with limited research focusing on female community sports-based programs. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component, community sports-based intervention for increasing girl’s physical activity (PA) levels, fundamental movement skill (FMS) [...] Read more.
Girls are less active than boys throughout childhood and adolescence, with limited research focusing on female community sports-based programs. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component, community sports-based intervention for increasing girl’s physical activity (PA) levels, fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency, and psychological wellbeing, as relative to a second treatment group (the traditionally delivered national comparative program), and a third control group. One hundred and twenty female-only participants (mean age = 10.75 ± 1.44 years), aged 8 to 12 years old from three Ladies Gaelic Football (LGF) community sports clubs (rural and suburban) were allocated to one of three conditions: (1) Intervention Group 1 (n = 43) received a novel, specifically tailored, research-informed Gaelic4Girls (G4G) intervention; (2) Intervention Group 2 (n = 44) used the traditionally delivered, national G4G program, as run by the Ladies Gaelic Football (LGF) Association of Ireland; and (3) Control Group 3 (n = 33) received no G4G intervention (group 1 or 2) conditions and were expected to carry out their usual LGF community sports activities. Primary outcome measurements (at both pre- and 10-week follow up) examining the effectiveness of the G4G intervention included (1) PA, (2) FMS and (3) Psychological correlates (enjoyment levels, self-efficacy, peer and parental support). Following a two (pre to post) by three (intervention group 1, intervention group 2, and control group 3) mixed-model ANOVA, it was highlighted that intervention group 1 significantly increased in PA (p = 0.003), FMS proficiency (p = 0.005) and several psychological correlates of PA (p ≤ 0.005). The findings demonstrate that the 10-week, specifically tailored, research-informed G4G intervention is a feasible and efficacious program, leading to a positive effect on the physical and psychological wellbeing of pre-adolescent Irish girls, relative to the traditionally delivered national G4G comparative program and control group conditions. Full article
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Article
Promoting Health-Related Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Physical Education: The Role of Class Intensity and Habitual Physical Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186852 - 19 Sep 2020
Viewed by 799
Abstract
Physical education (PE) has the potential to promote health-related fitness, however, its contribution is still not clear. The aim of this study was to assess whether students’ health-related cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) improved from the beginning to the end of the school year, and [...] Read more.
Physical education (PE) has the potential to promote health-related fitness, however, its contribution is still not clear. The aim of this study was to assess whether students’ health-related cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) improved from the beginning to the end of the school year, and to examine the role of PE class intensity and habitual physical activity (PA) in promoting students’ CRF. This observational study employed a longitudinal design. Participants were 212 7th and 8th grade students (105 boys), mean age 12.9 years old, followed during one school year, from September 2017 to June 2018. The Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) was used to assess CRF at baseline and follow-up. PA was measured using accelerometers. PE class intensity was assessed using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time. Findings indicated that from the beginning to the end of the school year, a greater percentage of participants were in the CRF healthy fitness zone (73.1% to 79.7%, p = 0.022). Among boys, participating in organized sports (B = 4.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.33, 8.88) and the percentage of PE time being very active (B = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.44, 1.35) were positively associated with the change in PACER laps. Among girls, daily vigorous PA (B = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.60) and participating in organized sports (B = 4.10, 95% CI: 0.93, 7.27) were also positively associated with PACER change, while being overweight or obese (B = −5.11, 95% CI: −8.28, −1.93) was negatively associated. In conclusion, PE was demonstrated to have a positive role in the promotion of CRF, especially among boys, while for girls, habitual PA seems to have a greater contribution. Nevertheless, results and conclusions should be considered carefully, taking into account study limitations, such as the non-direct measures of PE class intensity, CRF, and school setting. Full article
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Article
Physical Activity Changes and Its Risk Factors among Community-Dwelling Japanese Older Adults during the COVID-19 Epidemic: Associations with Subjective Well-Being and Health-Related Quality of Life
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6591; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186591 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 3804
Abstract
Psychological distress caused by decreased physical activity (PA) is a growing concern among the elderly due to public health measures since the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aimed to (1) assess how public health restrictions impact PA, subjective well-being (SWB), and health-related quality of [...] Read more.
Psychological distress caused by decreased physical activity (PA) is a growing concern among the elderly due to public health measures since the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aimed to (1) assess how public health restrictions impact PA, subjective well-being (SWB), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of community-dwelling elderly, and (2) investigate risk factors that lead to a decline in PA. Self-administered questionnaires assessed the changes in PA, SWB, HRQoL. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant associated risk factors for decreased PA. Of 165 participants (valid response rate, 41.3%; mean age, 78.5 ± 8.0 years), 47.3% became less active, 23.0% became more active, and 29.7% maintained PA levels. There was a significant decrease in SWB at baseline and follow-up after COVID-19 restrictions in the less active group (p < 0.01). Higher levels of moderate or strenuous exercise/sports activity at baseline (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.24), and lower mental component HRQoL scores at baseline (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93–0.99) were associated with an increased risk of decreased PA. Public health restrictions impact the PA of the elderly, especially those who had higher levels of exercise/sports activity and lower HRQoL before COVID-19. Decreased PA was strongly associated with lower SWB. Full article
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Article
Factors Related to Sports Participation in Brazil: An Analysis Based on the 2015 National Household Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6011; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176011 - 19 Aug 2020
Viewed by 851
Abstract
The academic interest in analyzing the correlates of sports participation in several countries has increased recently. Nevertheless, in developing countries, which do not monitor sportive data, this type of investigation is still scarce. This study aims to analyze socioeconomic, motivational, and supportive factors [...] Read more.
The academic interest in analyzing the correlates of sports participation in several countries has increased recently. Nevertheless, in developing countries, which do not monitor sportive data, this type of investigation is still scarce. This study aims to analyze socioeconomic, motivational, and supportive factors related to sports participation in Brazil. Data from the 2015 National Household Survey—Supplementary Questionnaire of Sports and Physical Activities are examined. In the survey, 71,142 individuals older than 15 years were interviewed (mean age 43.12 years; 53.83% women and 46.17% men). Logistic regression is used for analyzing the data. Results demonstrate a low participation in sports (23.38%). Sports participation declines with increasing age (2% less per year), increases with higher educational level (graduated 5.9 times more), and males prevail in the sporting context (2.3 times more). The main obstacle to women’s participation is the lack of sports facilities, and for men the lack of time and health problems. Men practice sports mainly due to socialization, fun, and competition, and women due to medical recommendation. Soccer was the most practiced sport (28.1%), predominating among men. Public policies on sports promotion for fun and socialization may increase male participation, and investments in sports facilities may increase female participation. Full article
Article
The Motor and Leisure Time Conditioning of Young Table Tennis Players’ Physical Fitness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165733 - 08 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to assess the association between physical fitness and the lifestyle determinants of elite junior table tennis players. The basic anthropometric characteristics (body height and body weight) were collected of 87 Polish table tennis players (girls, n = [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to assess the association between physical fitness and the lifestyle determinants of elite junior table tennis players. The basic anthropometric characteristics (body height and body weight) were collected of 87 Polish table tennis players (girls, n = 38 and boys, n = 49, at different stages of sport training, targeted and specialized) aged 11–17 years. The level of special fitness tests from the Table Tennis Specific Battery Test were used, assessing reaction speed and displacement speed. All eight International Physical Fitness Test trials were also used to determine the level of general fitness of the participants. Selected questions from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children questionnaire were asked to measure factors associated with leisure time. The findings confirm a relationship between sedentary forms of leisure time activity and the training of young players at the targeted stage (Z = −2.93, p = 0.003 school days and Z = −2.12, p = 0.034 days off). Moreover, competitors with longer training experience more often chose active forms of spending free time. Knowledge of the global physical activity undertaken by young athletes during their leisure time provides a better understanding of their individual needs and may help young table tennis players to succeed at a world-class level in the future. Full article
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Article
A Comparative Study of Participation in Physical Education Classes among 170,347 Adolescents from 54 Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5579; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155579 - 02 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
Given the need for comparative research on the participation of adolescents in physical education (PE) classes as a privileged space for physical activity (PA) promotion, this study sought to estimate, analyse and compare the prevalence of participation in PE classes among adolescents from [...] Read more.
Given the need for comparative research on the participation of adolescents in physical education (PE) classes as a privileged space for physical activity (PA) promotion, this study sought to estimate, analyse and compare the prevalence of participation in PE classes among adolescents from 54 countries and to examine sex, age, country income and world regions disparities. Data from the Global Students Health Survey (2010–2015) were used, comprising 170,347 adolescents (90,305 girls, aged 13–17 years) from nationally representative samples of 54 countries—of which 7 are low-income, 23 lower-middle-income, 14 upper-middle-income and 10 high-income—and six world regions. The weighted percentages of adolescents participating in PE classes (never, 1–2 days/week, 3–4 days/week, 5 or more days/week) were estimated along 95% confidence intervals and compared across sex, age, country income, region, and country. Most adolescents reported to participate in PE on 1–2 days/week (55.2%), but almost 20% of adolescents reported never participating in PE. Girls, compared to boys, presented a lower prevalence for participating ≥5 days/week (girls 16.8%, boys 20.0%). The prevalence of participating in PE on ≥3 days/week was higher among adolescents aged 13–14 years when compared to adolescents aged 15–17 years (boys: 30.9% vs. 24.6%; girls: 26.1% vs. 18.2%). Concerning the countries’ income, the prevalence of never participating in PE was higher in high-income countries, and participating on ≥3 days/week was higher in low-income countries, but further research is recommended. The findings suggest that national, regional and worldwide data highlight the importance of improving participation in PE, particularly for girls and older adolescents. An improved and continued monitoring of PE policies and their actual implementation is needed worldwide. Full article
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Article
The Dark Side of Motivational Practices in Exercise Professionals: Mediators of Controlling Strategies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5377; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155377 - 26 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
According to the Self-Determination Theory, perceived job pressures can coerce professionals to develop more controlled motivations towards their work, and consequently increase the probability of using controlling motivational strategies. This study sought to analyze work-related motivations as mediators between two types of perceived [...] Read more.
According to the Self-Determination Theory, perceived job pressures can coerce professionals to develop more controlled motivations towards their work, and consequently increase the probability of using controlling motivational strategies. This study sought to analyze work-related motivations as mediators between two types of perceived job pressures: organizational constraints and perceptions of clients’ controlled motivation and the use of controlling motivational strategies by exercise professionals. Using a cross-sectional design, involving 366 exercise professionals (172 women), mediation paths were assessed following Preacher and Hayes statistical procedures. Models were adjusted for gender, work experience (years), and the internal tendency to feel events as pressuring. Organizational constraints were associated with lower autonomous motivation for work and the use of controlling strategies. Perceptions of clients’ controlled motivation were associated with work-related amotivation and the use of controlling strategies. Amotivation mediated the association between organizational constraints and controlling strategies. Overall, results support theoretical predictions and previous research, extending it to the exercise domain, highlighting the interplay between job pressures, work-related motivations, and the use of controlling strategies. The understanding of what influences exercise professionals’ motivation, and consequently the motivational strategies they use, is of paramount importance for exercise promotion and the benefit of those who seek their expert guidance. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Scoping Review on Interventions for Physical Activity and Physical Literacy Components in Brazilian School-Aged Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8349; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168349 - 06 Aug 2021
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Abstract
This scoping review mapped the existing evidence on interventions to promote physical activity (PA) and/or components of physical literacy (PL) in Brazilian school-aged children and adolescents. Nine electronic databases and gray literature were consulted in May 2020, with no limit on year or [...] Read more.
This scoping review mapped the existing evidence on interventions to promote physical activity (PA) and/or components of physical literacy (PL) in Brazilian school-aged children and adolescents. Nine electronic databases and gray literature were consulted in May 2020, with no limit on year or language. School-based intervention studies (6 to 18 years old, primarily) that assessed PA or PL components (PA-related factors or attributes) were eligible. The studies were stratified by children (<12 years of age) and adolescents (≥12 years of age). A total of 63 documents were included, which refer to 42 different intervention studies. Twenty-five interventions focused on adolescents and 17 on children. The most-used strategies in the interventions were changes in physical and environmental education classes, extracurricular PA sessions, and health education. No study has analyzed all components of PL or evaluated PL using specific protocols or instruments. PA attributes were the most studied components (30 studies). This review identified the need to conduct interventions with strategies that target all components of PL, representing important elements for a research agenda that underlies school interventions that contribute to an active lifestyle. Full article
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Review
Factors Influencing Physical Activity Participation among Midlife Immigrant Women: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115590 - 24 May 2021
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Abstract
Immigrant women are less likely to be physically active and face many barriers to participation in physical activity. This systematic review aims to identify the influencing factors and adaption approaches of physical activity interventions among midlife immigrant women. A systematic literature search was [...] Read more.
Immigrant women are less likely to be physically active and face many barriers to participation in physical activity. This systematic review aims to identify the influencing factors and adaption approaches of physical activity interventions among midlife immigrant women. A systematic literature search was performed using various databases, such as MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL, in February 2021. Studies were included if they investigated midlife immigrant women participating in physical activity interventions and were published in an English peer-reviewed journal in or after 2000. Twenty-two papers were included in this review. Guided by the Ecosocial theory, thematic analysis was utilized for data analysis. Among midlife immigrant women, influencing factors associated with physical activity participation included individual factors (a lack of time, current health status, motivation, and a lack of proficiency in various life skills), familial factors (familial support and seasonality), and community factors (social support and neighbourhood environment). The appropriate adaptation of physical activity interventions included adjustments in language, physical activity intensity, physical activity duration, logistical intervention adjustments and other potential technology-based adjustments. The findings can inform community stakeholders, healthcare professionals and researchers to design appropriate physical activity interventions that meet the needs of midlife immigrant women and improve their health outcomes. Full article
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Review
Adolescents’ Perspectives on the Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity: An Updated Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4954; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094954 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 1235
Abstract
Listening to adolescents’ voices has been important to promote meaningful physical activity (PA) opportunities. Therefore, an updated systematic review of the available qualitative literature on adolescents’ perspectives on the barriers and facilitators of PA was conducted, according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic [...] Read more.
Listening to adolescents’ voices has been important to promote meaningful physical activity (PA) opportunities. Therefore, an updated systematic review of the available qualitative literature on adolescents’ perspectives on the barriers and facilitators of PA was conducted, according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies published between 2014 (date of the last systematic review) and 2020 were searched in the Web of Science, EBSCO, and SCOPUS databases. Based on the inclusion criteria applied, 30 out of 8069 studies were included in the review. A thematic analysis was used to inductively and deductively analyze the perspectives of ~1250 adolescents (13–18 years). The studies took place in 13 countries from different continents. The main PA barriers and facilitators of PA were presented and discussed around five higher-order themes: (1) Individual factors (e.g., psychological—motivation, self—efficacy; cognitive—knowledge, understanding; physical—motor skills); (2) social and relational factors (family, friends, significant others); (3) PA nature factors (fun, school-based PA and physical education); (4) life factors (time and competing activities; life-course); and (5) sociocultural and environmental factors (e.g., availability/access to PA facilities, programs; urban/rural zones). By transnationally framing adolescents’ voices, this study provides updated evidence and discusses innovative implications for developing tailored interventions and pedagogical strategies aimed at promoting active and healthy lifestyles. Full article
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