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Exclusive Papers Collection of Editorial Board Members in Section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 33877

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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Vizcaya, Spain
Interests: community nutrition; nutrition education; food habits; diet; lifestyle related behavior; diet intake; obesity; chronic disease prevention; community-based interventions
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Dear Colleagues, 

I am pleased to announce this Collection titled “Exclusive Papers Collection of Editorial Board Members in Section ‘Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion’”. This issue will be a collection of papers from our Section Editorial Board Members and researchers invited by the Editorial Board Members. The aim is to provide a venue for networking and communication between IJERPH and scholars in the field of Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion. All papers will be published with fully open access after peer review.

Prof. Dr. Carmen Pérez-Rodrigo
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 858 KiB  
Article
Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Validation of the Constipation Assessment Scale among Chinese Adult Psychiatric Patients
by Wai Kit Wong, Jing Qin, Daniel Bressington, Wing Fai Yeung, Ning Liu, Bryan Ying Wai Ho, Surui Liang and Yan Li
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032703 - 2 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Background: Constipation is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that presents with signs and symptoms, which are typically assessed subjectively. Various measurement scales, such as the Constipation Assessment Scale (CAS), are commonly used to evaluate constipation among the general population. However, the instruments should be [...] Read more.
Background: Constipation is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that presents with signs and symptoms, which are typically assessed subjectively. Various measurement scales, such as the Constipation Assessment Scale (CAS), are commonly used to evaluate constipation among the general population. However, the instruments should be culturally and contextually relevant in adult psychiatric patients to generate valid and reliable evidence. Purpose: This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and psychometrically validate the traditional Chinese version of the CAS among adult psychiatric patients in Hong Kong. Method: Using the Brislin protocol and Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) guidelines, the CAS was translated into traditional Chinese and tested for internal consistency, test–retest reliability, content validity, and construct validity among psychiatric patients in Hong Kong. Results: The CAS was successfully translated into CAS-TC. The CAS-TC version demonstrated good content validity (scale level CVI = 97%), internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79), and test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.722 [95% CI, 0.587–0.812]). The CAS-TC showed a two-factor loading for the construct validity, which explained 54% of the total variance. Conclusions: The CAS-TC is valid and reliable and can be employed to assess constipation among adult psychiatric patients. Full article
22 pages, 747 KiB  
Article
Promoting Healthy Behaviors in Older Adults to Optimize Health-Promoting Lifestyle: An Intervention Study
by Fan Chia, Wei-Yang Huang, Hsuan Huang and Cheng-En Wu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(2), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20021628 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3560
Abstract
Introduction: Exercise intervention is the easiest and most effective way to promote human health. This study combined technology and exercise to improve the health behavior of the older adults through a physical activity intervention and to enhance a health-promoting lifestyle. Materials and methods: [...] Read more.
Introduction: Exercise intervention is the easiest and most effective way to promote human health. This study combined technology and exercise to improve the health behavior of the older adults through a physical activity intervention and to enhance a health-promoting lifestyle. Materials and methods: A quasi-experimental research method was used to openly recruit 120 healthy male and female older adults over 65 years old (average age of males: 71.6 ± 1.25 years; average age of females: 72.3 ± 1.28 years), all of whom wore smart bracelets. The participants were monitored by special personnel during the same period of walking every Monday to Friday. All participants recorded their daily steps, distance walked, and calorie consumption data for a period of 8 weeks. Results: After 8 weeks of walking, all participants showed a positive medium–high correlation of various factors between healthy behaviors and the health-promoting lifestyle scales. In the post-tests of each factor of two scales, males had the highest correlation between regular physical activity and physical activity, and females had the highest correlation between regular physical activity and social support. The variabilities in the explanatory power of the health behaviors of males and females on the health-promoting lifestyle were R2 = 70.9% (p < 0.01) and R2 = 74.1% (p < 0.01), indicating that the variables of healthy behaviors have a positive effect on health-promoting lifestyles in male and female older adults. Conclusions: Walking interventions positively affect the health behaviors of older adults and encourage health-promoting lifestyles. The value of this study is in its contribution to health promotion and public health recommendations for older adults. Full article
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10 pages, 629 KiB  
Article
A Newly Developed Scale for Assessing Experienced and Anticipated Sexual Stigma in Health-Care Services for Gay and Bisexual Men
by Mei-Feng Huang, Yu-Ping Chang, Chung-Ying Lin and Cheng-Fang Yen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 13877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192113877 - 25 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1340
Abstract
Gay and bisexual men’s experiences and worries of sexual stigma by health-care providers may delay them from seeking health-care assistance. Our study developed the Experienced and Anticipated Sexual Stigma Scale in Health-care Services (EASSSiHS) and examined its psychometric properties. The six-item EASSSiHS was [...] Read more.
Gay and bisexual men’s experiences and worries of sexual stigma by health-care providers may delay them from seeking health-care assistance. Our study developed the Experienced and Anticipated Sexual Stigma Scale in Health-care Services (EASSSiHS) and examined its psychometric properties. The six-item EASSSiHS was first developed on the basis of the results of focus group interviews with 24 participants. Parallel analysis was used to determine the number of factors. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed to examine the factor structure. The internal consistency was examined using McDonald’s omega coefficient. Concurrent validity was examined using Pearson correlations with perceived sexual stigma from family and friends, depression, anxiety, and loneliness. The results of parallel analysis and EFA indicated that the factor structure of the EASSSiHS included two factors: experienced stigma and anticipated stigma. The result of CFA further confirmed the two-factor structure. The EASSSiHS had good internal consistency and acceptable concurrent validity. The anticipated stigma factor had stronger associations with perceived sexual stigma from family members and friends, depression, anxiety, and loneliness, when compared with the experienced stigma factor. The results of this study supported the psychometric properties of the EASSSiHS for assessing experienced and anticipated sexual stigma in health-care services among gay and bisexual men. The experience and worry of sexual stigma in health-care services were not rare among gay and bisexual men; therefore, interventions to enhance the cultural competency of health-care workers are urgently required. Full article
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10 pages, 1619 KiB  
Article
Examining the Associations between Post-Stroke Cognitive Function and Common Comorbid Conditions among Stroke Survivors
by Helena W. Morrison, Melissa M. White, Janet L. Rothers and Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(20), 13445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192013445 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1961
Abstract
A considerable complication for stroke survivors is the subsequent development of cognitive decline or dementia. In this study, the relationship between the inflammation-centered comorbidity burden on post-stroke cognitive function among community-dwelling stroke survivors capable of independent living was examined. Data for this secondary [...] Read more.
A considerable complication for stroke survivors is the subsequent development of cognitive decline or dementia. In this study, the relationship between the inflammation-centered comorbidity burden on post-stroke cognitive function among community-dwelling stroke survivors capable of independent living was examined. Data for this secondary analysis were collected from stroke survivors (n = 97) participating in a randomized clinical trial. Participants provided baseline responses, regarding cognitive function (mini-mental status exam, MMSE; Montreal cognitive assessment, MoCA), history of stroke comorbid conditions, and the Stroke Prognosis Instrument-II (SPI-II), an index of stroke comorbidity and recurrent stroke risk within the next two years. Relationships and differences between groups were tested for significance using Spearman’s correlation, Kruskal–Wallis, or Mann–Whitney U tests. Most stroke survivors (69%) had multiple comorbidities. Total SPI-II scores were negatively correlated to both MoCA and MMSE scores (r = −0.25, p = 0.01; r = −0.22, p = 0.03, respectively), and differences in MoCA scores among SPI-II risk groups (low, medium, high) were evident (p = 0.05). In contrast, there were no differences in MoCA or MMSE scores when comorbid conditions were examined individually. Lastly, no gender differences were evident in cognitive assessments. Our data support the premise that comorbidity’s burden impacts post-stroke cognitive decline, more than a single comorbid condition. Inflammation may be an important component of this comorbidity burden. Future studies that operationalize this concept will better illuminate the complex phenomenon of post-stroke cognitive decline for improved clinical rehabilitation modalities. Full article
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10 pages, 584 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Physical Activity on Sleep Quality among Older Stroke Survivors: Secondary Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Trial
by Srujitha Marupuru, Melanie L. Bell, Michael A. Grandner and Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(20), 13320; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192013320 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
Poor sleep quality constitutes one of the most common difficulties faced by stroke survivors. Physical activity has been shown to improve sleep quality among healthy adults. The study objective was to examine the effect of physical activity on sleep outcomes in community-dwelling stroke [...] Read more.
Poor sleep quality constitutes one of the most common difficulties faced by stroke survivors. Physical activity has been shown to improve sleep quality among healthy adults. The study objective was to examine the effect of physical activity on sleep outcomes in community-dwelling stroke survivors previously enrolled in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Secondary analysis of data collected in the RCT was used to examine the effects of physical activity (PA) on sleep outcomes using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), compared to usual care (controls). Unadjusted and adjusted mixed effects models were used to model changes in sleep quality between groups. At baseline, poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) was reported by about half of the participants (PA group = 48.5%, n = 47/97; controls = 56.3%, n = 27/48). Results from the unadjusted and adjusted models for sleep quality were similar and showed no statistically significant differences between groups (p > 0.05). In the unadjusted model, the difference between groups (change from baseline to 24 weeks) showed that the PA group had better sleep quality than the controls (difference= −1.02 points, 95% CI −2.12, 0.07, p = 0.07). In the model adjusted for age, social support, and marital status, the difference between groups (change from baseline to 24 weeks) showed that the PA group had better sleep quality than the controls (difference= −1.07 points, 95% CI −2.19, 0.05, p = 0.06). PA did not significantly improve sleep quality in older community-dwelling stroke survivors. Further research is needed to confirm or refute these findings. Full article
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12 pages, 356 KiB  
Article
Gay Community Stress Scale with Its Cultural Translation and Adaptions in Taiwan
by Chung-Ying Lin, Yu-Te Huang, Chiu-Hsiang Lee, Chia-Wei Fan and Cheng-Fang Yen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11649; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811649 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1685
Abstract
The present study aimed to adapt the Gay Community Stress Scale (GCSS) into the traditional Chinese version for measuring gay community stress experienced. Additionally, we examined its psychometric propensities among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Taiwan. In total, 736 GBM participated in [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to adapt the Gay Community Stress Scale (GCSS) into the traditional Chinese version for measuring gay community stress experienced. Additionally, we examined its psychometric propensities among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Taiwan. In total, 736 GBM participated in this study and completed the 35-item traditional Chinese version of the GCSS (29 items from the original GCSS and six items from the results of the focus group interviews among GBM in Taiwan); the Measure of Internalized Sexual Stigma for Lesbians and Gay Men (MISS-LG); the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI); and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Exploratory factor analysis results suggest a five-factor structure (i.e., Sex, Status, Competition, Exclusion, and Externals) for the 32-item traditional Chinese version of the GCSS among Taiwanese GBM; three items were deleted due to low factor loadings (i.e., <0.3). The five-factor “Externals” were not observed in the original GCSS. Moreover, the concurrent validity of the traditional Chinese version was supported by the positive correlations with MISS-LG, STAI, and CES-D. In conclusion, the traditional Chinese version of the GCSS showed relatively satisfactory psychometric properties. However, further research is needed to investigate the reasons for the possible etiology account for the different factor structures between the traditional Chinese version and the original GCSS. Full article
10 pages, 562 KiB  
Communication
Regional Research-Practice-Policy Partnerships in Response to Climate-Related Disparities: Promoting Health Equity in the Pacific
by Lawrence A. Palinkas, Meaghan O’Donnell, Susan Kemp, Jemaima Tiatia, Yvonette Duque, Michael Spencer, Rupa Basu, Kristine Idda Del Rosario, Kristin Diemer, Bonifacio Doma, Jr., David Forbes, Kari Gibson, Joshua Graff-Zivin, Bruce M. Harris, Nicola Hawley, Jill Johnston, Fay Lauraya, Nora Elizabeth F. Maniquiz, Jay Marlowe, Gordon C. McCord, Imogen Nicholls, Smitha Rao, Angela Kim Saunders, Salvatore Sortino, Benjamin Springgate, David Takeuchi, Janette Ugsang, Vivien Villaverde, Kenneth B. Wells and Marleen Wongadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159758 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2866
Abstract
Although climate change poses a threat to health and well-being globally, a regional approach to addressing climate-related health equity may be more suitable, appropriate, and appealing to under-resourced communities and countries. In support of this argument, this commentary describes an approach by a [...] Read more.
Although climate change poses a threat to health and well-being globally, a regional approach to addressing climate-related health equity may be more suitable, appropriate, and appealing to under-resourced communities and countries. In support of this argument, this commentary describes an approach by a network of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers dedicated to promoting climate-related health equity in Small Island Developing States and low- and middle-income countries in the Pacific. We identify three primary sets of needs related to developing a regional capacity to address physical and mental health disparities through research, training, and assistance in policy and practice implementation: (1) limited healthcare facilities and qualified medical and mental health providers; (2) addressing the social impacts related to the cooccurrence of natural hazards, disease outbreaks, and complex emergencies; and (3) building the response capacity and resilience to climate-related extreme weather events and natural hazards. Full article
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9 pages, 335 KiB  
Article
The Association between Ultra-Processed Foods, Quality of Life and Insomnia among Adolescent Girls in Northeastern Iran
by Katie Elizabeth Lane, Ian Glynn Davies, Zahra Darabi, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Sayyed Saeid Khayyatzadeh and Mohsen Mazidi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6338; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106338 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2761
Abstract
Ultra-processed foods have been associated with increased risk of chronic disease, poor overall health and psychological outcomes. This study explored the association of ultra-processed foods with quality of life in adolescent girls from northeastern Iran. In an interdisciplinary cross-sectional study, n = 733 [...] Read more.
Ultra-processed foods have been associated with increased risk of chronic disease, poor overall health and psychological outcomes. This study explored the association of ultra-processed foods with quality of life in adolescent girls from northeastern Iran. In an interdisciplinary cross-sectional study, n = 733 adolescent girls were recruited by random cluster sampling. Assessments were completed for demographics, physical activity, anthropometric and biochemical parameters, psychological health and dietary intake. The participants were categorized into quartiles of ultra-processed food intake, and multivariable logistic regression was used in several models to investigate the association between ultra-processed food intake and psychological health. The mean age of the participants was 14 years. There were no significant differences in participant demographics for the quartiles of ultra-processed food intake including weight, waist–hip ratio, waist circumference, depression, insomnia and cardiometabolic markers related to cardiovascular disease risk. Adjusted logistic regression showed participants in the highest category of ultra-processed food consumption had an increased likelihood of reduced quality of life (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.13–3.11), with a greater chance for insomnia (OR: 4.04, 95% CI: 1.83–8.94) across all models. However, no significant associations were observed between consumption of ultra-processed foods and daytime sleepiness. We highlight the association between ultra-processed food consumption and poor quality of life and insomnia amongst adolescent girls. Large longitudinal integrated public health studies in different ethnicities are needed to confirm these associations and evaluate their possible impact for optimizing health promotion programs. Full article
12 pages, 1211 KiB  
Article
Alcohol Consumption on the Heaviest Drinking Occasion and Hangovers during the First Dutch COVID-19 Lockdown
by Agnese Merlo, Noortje R Severeijns, Pauline A Hendriksen, Sarah Benson, Andrew Scholey, Johan Garssen, Gillian Bruce and Joris C Verster
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 4301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074301 - 3 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2089
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare alcohol consumption between the heaviest drinking occasion in the period before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown (15 January–14 March 2020) and the first COVID-19 lockdown period (15 March–11 May 2020) in the Netherlands, including [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare alcohol consumption between the heaviest drinking occasion in the period before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown (15 January–14 March 2020) and the first COVID-19 lockdown period (15 March–11 May 2020) in the Netherlands, including the presence and severity of associated hangovers. The analysis included a sub-sample from the “Corona Lockdown: how fit are you?” (CLOFIT) study, comprising N = 761 participants who reported consuming alcohol in 2020. Overall, on the heaviest drinking occasion during the first COVID-19 lockdown period a significant reduction in number of alcoholic drinks consumed on the heaviest drinking occasion, drinking duration, and estimated BAC was observed. A significant reduction was also observed for subjective intoxication and next-day hangover severity. During the lockdown period, a significant reduction in the frequency of alcohol hangovers was reported. Several age and sex differences were observed. Specifically, men consumed significantly more alcohol than women and experienced hangovers significantly more frequently, both before and during the lockdown. With regard to age, young adults (18–35 years old) significantly reduced their alcohol intake on the heaviest drinking occasion during the lockdown and also reported lower ratings of subjective intoxication and hangover severity. No significant changes were seen for individuals above 35 years old. In conclusion, the first COVID-19 lockdown in the Netherlands was associated with reduced alcohol intake on the heaviest drinking occasion and a reduction in the severity of hangovers, particularly among young male adults. Full article
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10 pages, 333 KiB  
Article
Mental Resilience, Mood, and Quality of Life in Young Adults with Self-Reported Impaired Wound Healing
by Jessica Balikji, Maarten M. Hoogbergen, Johan Garssen and Joris C. Verster
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052542 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2680
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of self-reported impaired wound healing on quality of life, wellbeing, and mood. It was hypothesized that individuals with impaired wound healing report significantly poorer mood compared to healthy controls. An online survey was [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of self-reported impaired wound healing on quality of life, wellbeing, and mood. It was hypothesized that individuals with impaired wound healing report significantly poorer mood compared to healthy controls. An online survey was conducted among 2173 Dutch young adults (18–30 years old) to investigate mood, neuroticism, and mental resilience. Participants were allocated to a healthy control group (N = 1728) or impaired wound healing groups comprising a wound infection group (WI, N = 76), a slow-healing wounds group (SHW, N = 272), and a group that experienced both WI and SHW (the COMBI group, N = 97). The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare outcomes the groups. Compared to the healthy control group, the SHW and COMBI groups, but not the WI group, reported significantly poorer mood, increased neuroticism, reduced mental resilience, and reduced quality of life. An analysis evaluating sex differences found that negative effects on stress, mental resilience, and neuroticism were significantly more pronounced among women than among men. In conclusion, self-reported impaired wound healing is associated with poorer mood and reduced quality of life. To improve future wound care, these findings advocate for an interdisciplinary approach taking into account mood effects accompanying having impaired wound healing. Full article
11 pages, 344 KiB  
Article
Critical Issues of Working during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Italian Healthcare Workers’ Experience
by Silvia Vicentini, Arianna Mercurio, Carolina Romascu, Martina Battaglia, Noemi Tribbia, Francesca Siviero, Antonello Grossi, Maria Maddalena Martucci and Diego De Leo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020927 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2514
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has strongly impacted on healthcare services’ organization and healthcare workers’ mental health, increasing the risk of psychological symptoms and burnout. Italy has been one of the most affected countries, especially the northern regions, even with exceptions in some [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has strongly impacted on healthcare services’ organization and healthcare workers’ mental health, increasing the risk of psychological symptoms and burnout. Italy has been one of the most affected countries, especially the northern regions, even with exceptions in some rural provinces. Aim: We chose to investigate the mental health conditions of healthcare workers operating in the rural province of Rovigo (a small town in Veneto, northern Italy), where relatively few deaths and contagions were reported during the pandemic, even if Veneto—globally—was one of the most affected regions of Italy. We wanted to verify the psychological outcomes of health workers operating in a context where the impact of the pandemic appeared to be relatively mild. Methods: Through an online survey, we investigated perceived difficulties at work and in daily life, perceived loneliness and social support, coping strategies, and level of psychological distress (sample size: 749; mean age = 48.04 years, SD = 10.66). The questionnaire had both open- (2) and close-ended questions (5 single-choice and 13 multiple-choice). We verified possible associations between sex, age group, work department and percentage of responses with chi-square tests of independence on each question. Data cleaning excluded all contradictory answers from the multiple-choice questions from the analyses (final sample size: 640). Results: Frontliners and non-frontliners reported a similar experience of the COVID-19 pandemic (without significant differences in perceived difficulties, coping strategies and sources of support). Nevertheless, they still reported various forms of negative emotions (e.g., helplessness—40.94%; sadness—36.56%; frustration—32.66%) and lack of support from the health organization (especially frontliners—28.72%). However, psychological help was scarcely requested. Conclusions: Despite the province not being massively affected by the pandemic, healthcare workers felt the need for clearer and more supportive guidance. They seem to perceive collective opportunities to share needs and difficulties as more useful than individual interventions (as those provided by the ad hoc created listening service). Full article
16 pages, 1757 KiB  
Article
Religion and Death in the United States: A Meta-Regression Comparative Assessment of Between-County Mortality Heterogeneity in the United States
by Frances Sissamis, Karina Villalba, Jordan Garcia, Vickie Melus, Emily J. Markentell, Ligia D. Perez and Gilbert Ramirez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020757 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
Religion can have a favorable impact on individual-level health. The influence of religion on population health, however, remains less clear. This study investigated the association between religion and mortality at the population-level. Using county data, a meta-regression was performed to examine between-county mortality [...] Read more.
Religion can have a favorable impact on individual-level health. The influence of religion on population health, however, remains less clear. This study investigated the association between religion and mortality at the population-level. Using county data, a meta-regression was performed to examine between-county mortality heterogeneity. The percent heterogeneity associated with religion variables were compared to demographics (i.e., place, race, language, age, and gender) and health factors (i.e., individual behaviors, clinical care, social and economic, and physical environment) as predictors of mortality. Religion was measured in terms of adherence (i.e., prevalence attending/belonging to a congregation), congregation density, and the diversity of adherents and congregation by denominations. Results showed counties with lower mortality were associated with higher proportions of religion adherents and a greater diversity of adherents and congregations. Counties with higher mortality were associated with higher religion congregation density. Religion, as a parsimonious multivariate model with all demographic and health factor predictors, had less added value when controlled for individual variables or constructs. The direction of association between religion and mortality was consistent, even when controlling for demographics and health factors, and thus merits further consideration as a population health determinant, as it may play a critical role in understanding other population health outcomes. Full article
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13 pages, 369 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Online Hate Acceptance: A Cross-National Six-Country Study among Young Adults
by Magdalena Celuch, Atte Oksanen, Pekka Räsänen, Matthew Costello, Catherine Blaya, Izabela Zych, Vicente J. Llorent, Ashley Reichelmann and James Hawdon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010534 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3394
Abstract
The Internet, specifically social media, is among the most common settings where young people encounter hate speech. Understanding their attitudes toward the phenomenon is crucial for combatting it because acceptance of such content could contribute to furthering the spread of hate speech as [...] Read more.
The Internet, specifically social media, is among the most common settings where young people encounter hate speech. Understanding their attitudes toward the phenomenon is crucial for combatting it because acceptance of such content could contribute to furthering the spread of hate speech as well as ideology contamination. The present study, theoretically grounded in the General Aggression Model (GAM), investigates factors associated with online hate acceptance among young adults. We collected survey data from participants aged 18–26 from six countries: Finland (n = 483), France (n = 907), Poland (n = 738), Spain (n = 739), the United Kingdom (n = 959), and the United States (n = 1052). Results based on linear regression modeling showed that acceptance of online hate was strongly associated with acceptance of violence in all samples. In addition, participants who admitted to producing online hate reported higher levels of acceptance of it. Moreover, association with social dominance orientation was found in most of the samples. Other sample-specific significant factors included participants’ experiences with the Internet and online hate, as well as empathy and institutional trust levels. Significant differences in online hate acceptance levels and the strength of its connections to individual factors were found between the countries. These results provide important insights into the phenomenon, demonstrating that online hate acceptance is part of a larger belief system and is influenced by cultural background, and, therefore, it cannot be analyzed or combatted in isolation from these factors. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

9 pages, 851 KiB  
Review
A Scoping Review: Mapping the Evidence for Undergraduate Concussion Education and Proposing the Content for Medical Student Concussion Teaching
by Nick Gardner and Neil Heron
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 4328; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074328 - 4 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2213
Abstract
Introduction: Concussion is a common yet complex condition, with each new case requiring assessment by a medical doctor. Recent research has shown that doctors working in the UK have significant knowledge deficits regarding concussion diagnosis and management. Aim: The aim of this scoping [...] Read more.
Introduction: Concussion is a common yet complex condition, with each new case requiring assessment by a medical doctor. Recent research has shown that doctors working in the UK have significant knowledge deficits regarding concussion diagnosis and management. Aim: The aim of this scoping review was to map out the evidence about how undergraduate medical students are being educated about concussion. Method: This scoping review involved seven research papers identified by searching five online databases in October 2020. Search terms relevant to concussion included: brain injuries, post-concussion syndrome, brain concussion and concussion, combined with search criteria for undergraduate education: medical students, undergraduate medical education, or curriculum. Results: All seven papers were published in North America, with five papers recruiting medical students from single institutions (n = 590) and two papers surveying universities. Canadian medical schools have shown an upward trend in the quantity of teaching about concussion-specific teaching: from 0.57 to 2.65 h between 2012 and 2018. Lectures were the commonest mode of delivery of teaching, followed by problem-based learning and clinical rotations. The studies reach a common conclusion that medical students are not being adequately prepared for diagnosing and managing concussion, with insufficient undergraduate teaching, particularly exposure during clinical rotations, cited as the cause. Conclusions: Concussion: education of medical students is inadequate in North America. Medical schools should help address this by providing lectures and clinical presentations on concussion to learn from, particularly via problem-based learning. There is a paucity of evidence about concussion education in other geographical areas. Full article
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