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Special Issue "Emotional Intelligence, Cognitive Development and Mental Health in Children and Adolescents"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. José M. Mestre
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Emotion and Motivation, Universidad de Cádiz, 11519 Cádiz, Spain
Interests: mental health; emotional and cognitive processes; ability emotional intelligence; emotion regulation; mindfulness (as a cognitive tool for avoiding and regulating negative emotions)
Prof. Vladimir Tale Takšić
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
University of Rijeka, Trg braće Mažuranića 10, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
Interests: construction and cross cultural comparison of measuring instruments; ability; trait emotional intelligence and competence; child development, education and organizational context
Dr. Zorana Jolić Marjanović
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade, Čika Ljubina 18-20, 11000 Beograd, Serbia
Interests: intelligence and cognitive assessment; emotional intelligence theory and measurement; social competence of children and adolescents; dynamic assessment of cognitive abilities

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Child development refers to changes in physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional functioning, which continually and simultaneously unfold from birth to early adulthood. Ideally, changes within each area follow a predictable sequence, whilst spontaneously synchronizing their pace with shifts in other areas of development. Balance and harmony between different aspects of development are linked to better mental health and social adjustment in children and adolescents. On the other hand, developmental asynchrony can be confusing and frustrating for both the child/adolescent and their environment, and hence spur various manifestations of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. The synchronization of cognitive and socio-emotional processes within development is particularly stressed in the emotional intelligence framework.

Emotional intelligence (EI) pertains to cognitive abilities (perceiving, understanding, and managing) that use emotions for effective decision-making in everyday life occurrences. Thus far, empirical evidence has shown that EI is positively correlated to different indices of appropriate social and personal functioning in both children/adolescents and adults. In turn, adequate social and personal functioning has been associated to better mental health outcomes in adulthood. However, there is still a serious lack of understanding of developmental mechanisms that link the quality of cognitive and socio-emotional functioning to mental health in children and adolescents.

This Special Issue seeks to address these gaps by introducing relevant research questions and tasks, such as:

(a) Development of emotional intelligence assessment, especially with regard to children and adolescents;

(b) Understanding the relation between EI and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents; and,

(c) Investigation of EI as the mechanism of change linking cognitive and emotional development to mental health, or as a mediator within this relation. 

We invite authors whose research efforts would present a relevant contribution to our understanding of how EI (from its two theoretical perspectives: EI as an ability or as a trait), and different aspects of cognitive and/or socio-emotional development in children and adolescents, relate to robust mental health criteria, to submit papers for this Special Issue. Papers focused on EI interventions in school and clinical settings with mental health in children and adolescents as criteria are welcome to this Special Issue, as well.

Prof. José M. Mestre
Prof. Vladimir Tale Takšić
Dr. Zorana Jolić Marjanović
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ability emotional intelligence
  • trait emotional intelligence
  • children
  • adolescents
  • mental health
  • cognitive development
  • social development
  • emotional development
  • social-emotional learning intervention
  • emotional intelligence intervention

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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Article
Sensory-Processing Sensitivity and Pathways to Depression and Aggression: The Mediating Role of Trait Emotional Intelligence and Decision-Making Style—A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413202 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 705
Abstract
While the link between sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS) and internalizing symptoms has been well-established, a link to externalizing problems is still to be explored. This study aimed to further examine the relation between SPS and behavioral problems by testing the potential mediating roles of [...] Read more.
While the link between sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS) and internalizing symptoms has been well-established, a link to externalizing problems is still to be explored. This study aimed to further examine the relation between SPS and behavioral problems by testing the potential mediating roles of trait emotional intelligence (TEI) and decision-making styles. Pathway analyses were conducted on data from 268 community sample participants (Mage = 25.81, SD = 2.41, 61.2% females). Results indicated gender differences in the pathway level outcomes of SPS, as well as potential partial mediators in men and women. SPS both directly and via the mediating effects of the well-being factor (TEI) and avoidant decision-making influenced depression, regardless of gender. Direct effects on aggression were, however, obtained only in the male sample. Indirect effects of SPS on aggression were found in spontaneous decision-making for men and in the self-control and sociability factors of TEI for women. Directions for future research were discussed. Full article
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Article
The Role of Strategic Emotional Intelligence in Predicting Adolescents’ Academic Achievement: Possible Interplays with Verbal Intelligence and Personality
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413166 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 520
Abstract
As recent meta-analyses confirmed that emotional intelligence (EI), particularly strategic EI, adjoins intelligence and personality in predicting academic achievement, we explored possible arrangements in which these predictors affect the given outcome in adolescents. Three models, with versions including either overall strategic EI or [...] Read more.
As recent meta-analyses confirmed that emotional intelligence (EI), particularly strategic EI, adjoins intelligence and personality in predicting academic achievement, we explored possible arrangements in which these predictors affect the given outcome in adolescents. Three models, with versions including either overall strategic EI or its branches, were considered: (a) a mediation model, whereby strategic EI partially mediates the effects of verbal intelligence (VI) and personality on achievement; the branch-level version assumed that emotion understanding affects achievement in a cascade via emotion management; (b) a direct effects model, with strategic EI/branches placed alongside VI and personality as another independent predictor of achievement; and (c) a moderation model, whereby personality moderates the effects of VI and strategic EI/branches on achievement. We tested these models in a sample of 227 students (M = 16.50 years) and found that both the mediation and the direct effects model with overall strategic EI fit the data; there was no support for a cascade within strategic EI, nor for the assumption that personality merely moderates the effects of abilities on achievement. Principally, strategic EI both mediated the effects of VI and openness, and independently predicted academic achievement, and it did so through emotion understanding directly, “skipping” emotion management. Full article
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Article
The Usefulness of a Massive Open Online Course about Postural and Technological Adaptations to Enhance Academic Performance and Empathy in Health Sciences Undergraduates
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010672 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide accessible and engaging information for Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy students. The objective of this research was to determine the usefulness in improving academic performance and empathy in health sciences undergraduates, and to test a hypothetical model [...] Read more.
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide accessible and engaging information for Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy students. The objective of this research was to determine the usefulness in improving academic performance and empathy in health sciences undergraduates, and to test a hypothetical model through structural equation analysis. This research was carried out using a descriptive and quasi-experimental design. It was conducted in a sample of 381 participants: 176 used a MOOC and 205 did not. The results of the Student’s t-test showed statistically significant differences in academic performance between the groups in favor of those students who had realized the MOOC. Participants carried out an evaluation rubric after taking MOOC. Statistically significant differences in empathy were also obtained between the pre (X = 62.06; SD = 4.41) and post (X = 73.77; SD = 9.93) tests. The hypothetical model tested via structural equation modeling was supported by the results. Motivation for the MOOC explained 50% of the variance. The MOOC (participation and realization) explained 58% of academic performance, 35% of cognitive empathy and 48% of affective empathy. The results suggest an association between higher realization and participation in a MOOC and higher levels of academic performance, and cognitive and affective empathy. Full article
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Article
Application of S-1 Bifactor Model to Evaluate the Structural Validity of TMMS-24
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147427 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 705
Abstract
(1) Background: Recent studies have shown that the internal structure of TMMS-24 can be conceptualized as a bifactor. However, these studies, based exclusively on the evaluation of the fit of the model, fail to show the existence of a general factor of strong [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Recent studies have shown that the internal structure of TMMS-24 can be conceptualized as a bifactor. However, these studies, based exclusively on the evaluation of the fit of the model, fail to show the existence of a general factor of strong emotional intelligence and have neglected the evaluation of the specific factors of attention, clarity and repair. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the degree of determination and reliability of the specific factors of TMMS-24 using a bifactor S-1 model. (2) Methods: We administered TMMS-24 to a sample of 384 students from middle and high schools (58.1% girls; mean age = 15.5; SD = 1.8). (3) Results: The specific TMMS-24 factors are better determined and present a higher internal consistency than the general factor. Furthermore, the bifactor S-1 model shows the existence of a hierarchical relationship between the attention factor and the clarity and repair factors. The S-1 bifactor model is the only one that was shown to be invariant as a function of the sex of the participants. (4) Conclusions: The S-1 bifactor model has proven to be a promising tool for capturing the structural complexity of TMMS-24. Its application indicates that it is not advisable to use the sum score of the items, since it would be contaminated by the attention factor. In addition, this score would not be invariant either, that is, comparisons by sex would be invalid. Full article
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Article
Validation of the Emotional Literacy Program in Croatian Elementary Schools
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126279 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 908
Abstract
Emotional Literacy (EL) is a well-designed, field-tested curriculum that enhances social, emotional, and academic learning. A total of 565 students, 53% female, from 17 elementary schools, participated in the study. Approximately half of the students participated in the eight-week-long EL program, while the [...] Read more.
Emotional Literacy (EL) is a well-designed, field-tested curriculum that enhances social, emotional, and academic learning. A total of 565 students, 53% female, from 17 elementary schools, participated in the study. Approximately half of the students participated in the eight-week-long EL program, while the other half was in control conditions. Both the experimental and control group fulfilled the same set of trait and ability emotional intelligence measures in three timepoints: pre-, immediately after, and six months after the program. The effect of the EL program was different for girls and boys at different measurement points. Boys placed in experimental group improved their scores at both post-treatment measurements, meaning that they rated themselves and felt more emotionally competent after being a part of the EL program. Emotional understanding improved consistently with time, measured with both the Vocabulary of Emotions Test (VET) and Test of Emotional Understanding (TEU), regardless of the participation in the EL program. The effect of maturation was slightly more visible in girls, and girls had consistently better scores on the VET and TEU tests than boys. The feedback from school psychologists working with children was positive; they agreed that the children responded well to the activities and willingly participated. Full article
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Article
Emotion Regulation Ability: Test Performance and Observer Reports in Predicting Relationship, Achievement and Well-Being Outcomes in Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063204 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 943
Abstract
This paper examines emotion regulation defined as one of the components of emotional intelligence ability and tests how emotion regulation predicts academic achievement, relationship quality, and affective well-being outcomes in adolescents. Specifically, we examine two ways of measuring emotion regulation ability—using performance test [...] Read more.
This paper examines emotion regulation defined as one of the components of emotional intelligence ability and tests how emotion regulation predicts academic achievement, relationship quality, and affective well-being outcomes in adolescents. Specifically, we examine two ways of measuring emotion regulation ability—using performance test scores and through knowledgeable informant observations (teachers). While previous research supports the predictive validity of performance on ability tests of emotion regulation observer reports of emotion regulation have not received much empirical attention. In a sample of high school students, we test whether performance-tested and observer-assessed emotion regulation ability predict a range of outcomes beyond the Big Five personality traits and gender and whether the two measures of emotion regulation ability predict outcomes independently. Our hypotheses are supported for outcomes of relationship quality and academic achievement, but not for affective well-being outcomes. We discuss the implications for assessment of emotion regulation ability and the nature of outcomes predicted by emotion regulation ability. Full article
Article
Assessment of Family, Peers, and Externalising Behaviour Dimensions in Adolescence: The Proposal of a Comprehensive Instrument (FPEB)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2724; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052724 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
In the context of externalising behaviour problems, risk factor research (RFR) focuses on risk and protective factors of juvenile delinquency, which can pertain to individual, system, and societal levels. Several instruments aiming at measuring these factors have been developed, but a comprehensive research [...] Read more.
In the context of externalising behaviour problems, risk factor research (RFR) focuses on risk and protective factors of juvenile delinquency, which can pertain to individual, system, and societal levels. Several instruments aiming at measuring these factors have been developed, but a comprehensive research tool is missing. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a questionnaire, the “Family, Peers, and Externalising Behaviour in adolescence” (FPEB) as a tool for assessing adolescents’ tendency of externalising behaviour, the quality of relation with their parents, and peer-relations. FPEB was administered to 835 Italian students (36.8% males, age M = 13.81, SD = 1.54) together with the Moral Disengagement questionnaire to test concurrent validity. Data about socio-demographics and school performance were also collected. An EFA (Promax rotation, subsample A, n = 444) resulted in a four-factor structure that was corroborated by a CFA (subsample B, n = 388). The factors were “externalising behaviour” (var 13.16%), “peer relations difficulties” (var 11.10%), “Family conflict” (var 8.32%), and “lack of family negotiation” (var 7.11%) and showed good internal consistency (all α ≥ 0.65). There were differences between males and females in the correlational patterns of the four factors. The FPEB factors also showed good concurrent validity: two of the four factors (“lack of family negotiation” and “externalising behaviour”) and the total score of the scale correlated with the “Moral disengagement scale”, whereas peer relation difficulties did not. Further analyses also showed gender differences (except for “peer relations difficulties”) and an association between students’ school performance and “externalising behaviour”, “family conflict”, and the total FPEB scores. We concluded that the FPEB is a tool that is potentially useful to assess risk and protective factors and to plan targeted interventions (focusing on the specific area). Limitations and suggestions for further improvements are also discussed. Full article
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Article
Victimization and Peer and Parents Attachment: The Mediating Effect of Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042062 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Studies of the Spanish adolescent population has concluded that victimization is related to lack of emotional regulation and impulse control. Therefore, if a victim is unable to recognize, understand and regulate their emotions, this can result in rejection by their peers. A cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Studies of the Spanish adolescent population has concluded that victimization is related to lack of emotional regulation and impulse control. Therefore, if a victim is unable to recognize, understand and regulate their emotions, this can result in rejection by their peers. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine regulatory emotional self-efficacy as a possible mediator in the association between peer and parents attachment and victimization. Adolescents (n = 563) completed Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy, Inventory of Parents and Peer Attachment and Kid at School questionnaires. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used to predict a latent variable of victimization with parents and peer attachment, emphasizing the mediating role of regulatory emotional self-efficacy, as comprised by a positive and a negative aspect. Results showed that peer attachment had an indirect negative effect, through perceived self-efficacy, in managing a positive effect in victimization, while father attachment had an indirect negative affect, through perceived self-efficacy, in managing a negative affect in victimization, and Mother attachment had no statistically significant indirect effect in victimization. This study suggests that the roles of parents and peers, and also between mothers and fathers, are different in relation to the perception of victimization of adolescents. Findings provide relevant information regarding implications for prevention and intervention in victimization. Full article
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Article
Validation of the Bar-On EQ-i: YV (S) Inventory in Its Spanish Version: Gender-Based Invariance Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041643 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
The purpose of this work is to verify the factorial structure and analyze the reliability of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Youth Version (YV) (S) by evaluating emotional intelligence in a more extensive sample of Spanish adolescents than has been used to date, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work is to verify the factorial structure and analyze the reliability of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Youth Version (YV) (S) by evaluating emotional intelligence in a more extensive sample of Spanish adolescents than has been used to date, since this inventory has been employed in various studies but with a very limited number of participants. For this study, 5292 adolescents from all over Spain participated—male (51.2%) and female (48.8%) secondary education students between 11 and 19 years old, with an average age of 14.33. Data analysis included a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), reliability analysis, and model invariance as a function of gender. The CFA confirms that the data empirically support the theoretical model and that the goodness-of-fit indexes are adequate. The reliability analysis of the inventory presents a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the total scale of 0.76, and reliability indexes for each of the factors range between 0.63 and 0.80. The findings show that the model indicates invariance related to gender. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Anxiety, Suicidal Risk, Daily Stress, Empathy, Perceived Emotional Intelligence, and Coping Strategies in a Sample of Spanish Undergraduates
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041418 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1165
Abstract
Anxiety disorders and suicide are commonly under-recognized issues that can be a public health problem. Adolescents are among the most affected population groups and studying them can prevent serious health problems. These two elements are related, but at the same time, they can [...] Read more.
Anxiety disorders and suicide are commonly under-recognized issues that can be a public health problem. Adolescents are among the most affected population groups and studying them can prevent serious health problems. These two elements are related, but at the same time, they can only be understood from a multifactorial point of view, so other related variables such as emotional intelligence, empathy, or coping strategies are key to understand their effect on the population. In this study, a series of methods to measure the variables of interest were applied to a specific group of adolescents to determine their mental health levels, focusing on suicide and anxiety episodes. The results reflected average levels with a tendency to be high in the case of anxiety and nonalarming levels in terms of suicide risk, both parameters presenting more worrying values in women. In turn, the correlation between suicide and anxiety was demonstrated considering the other variables (coping strategies, empathy, emotional intelligence, and prosociality). This research has relevant implications for the diagnosis, orientation, and design of psychoeducational and clinical interventions that contribute to the improvement of their well-being and quality of life. Full article
Article
Emotional Intelligence Profiles and Self-Esteem/Self-Concept: An Analysis of Relationships in Gifted Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031006 - 23 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2582
Abstract
The psychological well-being of students affects their academic achievement, social relationships and school coexistence and is something that families worry about. This aspect becomes vital when students have atypical development and/or specific needs. Studies on the impact of giftedness on students’ self-concept and [...] Read more.
The psychological well-being of students affects their academic achievement, social relationships and school coexistence and is something that families worry about. This aspect becomes vital when students have atypical development and/or specific needs. Studies on the impact of giftedness on students’ self-concept and self-esteem offer mixed results. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a key factor for their well-being that must be developed by educational institutions. This study analyzes the relationships between emotional intelligence profiles and both self-concept and self-esteem of identified gifted students between 8 and 18 years of age who study in regular Spanish schools and non-identified peers. A total of 118 identified gifted and 122 non-identified subjects participated in the study. The Self-Concept Scale Form 5 (AF5), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) were administered. Clusters of students were identified on the basis of their scores in the three dimensions of EI. Subsequently, the differences in self-esteem and self-concept according to the student’s emotional intelligence profile were analyzed. The results showed a taxonomy of three-cluster profiles in both groups and the existence of differences between profiles of EI in the self-esteem and self-concept dimensions in gifted students, not so in the non-identified group. The results have important implications for education and health professionals, both for the evaluation and for the introduction of adjusted intervention programs in case of vulnerability. Full article
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Article
Development of Preschool Children’s Executive Functions throughout a Play-Based Learning Approach That Embeds Science Concepts
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020588 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1516
Abstract
This study focuses on the development of executive functions in preschool children during a series of science activities. A longitudinal play-based learning intervention was designed and implemented following the design of an educational experiment. Data were collected through visual ethnography in hot situations [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the development of executive functions in preschool children during a series of science activities. A longitudinal play-based learning intervention was designed and implemented following the design of an educational experiment. Data were collected through visual ethnography in hot situations with adult supervision. Results show how entwined the concepts of inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility are within young children’s development. The development of cognitive flexibility or attention shifting readily occurred when there were fictive characters (such as the king and his royal family), but changing perspective toward a nonfictive environment (i.e., taking other children’s perspectives) was a more difficult and time-consuming process. This process began in an individual perspective and expanded to acknowledging others’ perspectives, then moved toward creating common perspectives or alternative narratives. Results show that science activities can be a bridge for preschool children to transfer their use of executive functions, from fairytales and games toward everyday tasks. Full article
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Article
Emotional Intelligence and the Different Manifestations of Bullying in Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8842; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238842 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1044
Abstract
The main objective of this research was to help clarify the relationship between ability emotional intelligence (AEI) and bullying in children. Bullying is a maladaptive behaviour that generates severe adverse consequences in the school environment and is a matter of growing concern in [...] Read more.
The main objective of this research was to help clarify the relationship between ability emotional intelligence (AEI) and bullying in children. Bullying is a maladaptive behaviour that generates severe adverse consequences in the school environment and is a matter of growing concern in the educational community. To investigate the relationship between AEI and bullying, we administered two tests to a sample of 329 students (52.9% girls) aged between 8 and 12 years old (Mage = 9.3; SD = 1.2). AEI was assessed using a test based on the interpretation of cinema scenes (EMOCINE). EMOCINE was designed to measure two of the primary factors considered in Mayer and Salovey’s ability model: emotional perception and emotional understanding. Furthermore, we administered a measure of bullying and school violence (AVE), which provides a global index of bullying, as well as a measure of its intensity, by considering eight scales or types of victimisation (harassment, intimidation, coercion, threats, social blocking, social exclusion, manipulation and aggression). The results show that age had a statistically significant effect on measures of bullying, while gender showed an interaction with victimisation types. A reduction in bullying behaviours was observed as the age of children increased, while gender-based analyses revealed different patterns in bullying behaviours. Regarding EI, it was observed that students with high AEI scores presented the lowest levels in both global bullying indexes and the victimisation types. Consequently, AEI seems to have important implications for bullying behaviours, and therefore, interventions aimed at the evaluation, training and development of AEI might offer the educational community the possibility of preventing or redirecting bullying situations. Full article
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Article
Moderators of Perceived Effort in Adolescent Rowers During a Graded Exercise Test
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8063; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218063 - 02 Nov 2020
Viewed by 870
Abstract
Physical activity promotes mental health. A key factor is self-regulation. In the field of sports, self-regulation is related to the psychophysiological competence of rating of perceived effort (RPE). It was reported that adolescents have lower RPE competencies than adults, and it was hypothesized [...] Read more.
Physical activity promotes mental health. A key factor is self-regulation. In the field of sports, self-regulation is related to the psychophysiological competence of rating of perceived effort (RPE). It was reported that adolescents have lower RPE competencies than adults, and it was hypothesized that this effect depends on physiological and cognitive development. The present study investigated in a sample of adolescents whether the RPE is related to basic cognitive competencies. Twelve rowers performed cognitive tests and a graded exercise test on a rowing ergometer, in which they continuously rated their perceived effort. Objective load measures and subjective perceptions were highly correlated (rho = 0.95–0.99). Furthermore, these correlations were inter-individually moderated by measures of mental speed and spontaneous flexibility. The results confirm the significance of basal cognitive competencies for conscious load perception. It is discussed whether regular sport has beneficial effects on the development of RPE competencies by enhancing cognitive regulation. Full article
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Review

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Review
The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Obesity and Eating Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Mapping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042054 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
Eating and weight disorders often develop early in life and cause a long-standing significant health burden. Given the documented role of emotional intelligence (EI) in shaping the body image and predicting the onset of eating disorders, knowledge of the mechanisms involved in EI [...] Read more.
Eating and weight disorders often develop early in life and cause a long-standing significant health burden. Given the documented role of emotional intelligence (EI) in shaping the body image and predicting the onset of eating disorders, knowledge of the mechanisms involved in EI among youth is fundamental to designing specific interventions for screening and prevention of obesity and eating disorders (EDs). The present systematic mapping review was aimed to explore and quantify the nature and distribution of existing research investigating the impact of EI on EDs in young people. A systematic search for relevant articles was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO and Web of Science databases. The Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS) was used to assess the included studies’ methodological quality. The included studies’ results were mapped based on stratification by age groups (children, preadolescents, and adolescents), population (clinical vs. non-clinical) and disordered eating outcomes. Nine studies were included, supporting the association between EI and body image dissatisfaction, ED risk and bulimic symptomatology, but not with anorexic symptoms. Research on children and clinical populations was scant. Further studies are needed to deepen the role of EI in the genesis and maintenance of EDs. Full article
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Other

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Protocol
A Systematic Review Protocol to Identify the Key Benefits and Efficacy of Nature-Based Learning in Outdoor Educational Settings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031199 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3429
Abstract
Outdoor Learning in natural environments is a burgeoning approach in the educational sector. However, the evidence-base of research has not kept pace with teacher perceptions and increased practitioner usage. Anecdotal evidence and formal research suggest the significant health and wellbeing benefits of nature [...] Read more.
Outdoor Learning in natural environments is a burgeoning approach in the educational sector. However, the evidence-base of research has not kept pace with teacher perceptions and increased practitioner usage. Anecdotal evidence and formal research suggest the significant health and wellbeing benefits of nature connection. Offering low-cost, non-invasive pedagogical solutions to public health challenges—particularly around mental health, wellbeing, physical literacy, and increasing physical activity–the pedagogical benefits of Outdoor Learning are yet to be fully enunciated. The proposed systematic review will search for studies across eight academic databases which measure the academic and socio-emotional benefits of Outdoor Learning, with a focus on school-aged educational settings. Using the inclusion criteria set out in this paper (and registered with PROSPERO: CRD42020153171), relevant studies will be identified then summarised to provide a synthesis of the current literature on Outdoor Learning. The goal of this review is to document the widespread international investigation into Outdoor Learning and its associated benefits for development, wellbeing, and personal growth. The systematic review will provide insights for teacher-training institutions, educational policy makers, and frontline teachers to improve the learning experiences of future students. Full article
Brief Report
Behavioral Inhibition in Childhood as A Risk Factor for Development of Social Anxiety Disorder: A Longitudinal Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3941; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113941 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Previous research has suggested the association between behavioral inhibition (BI) and the development of social anxiety disorder in childhood. However, there is scarce research using longitudinal methodology in Spanish-speaking populations. To cover this gap, the sample comprised 73 children ranging from six to [...] Read more.
Previous research has suggested the association between behavioral inhibition (BI) and the development of social anxiety disorder in childhood. However, there is scarce research using longitudinal methodology in Spanish-speaking populations. To cover this gap, the sample comprised 73 children ranging from six to eight years who had been examined for BI two years earlier in home and school settings. Children and their parents were administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-5-Child and Parent Versions to assess the presence of possible anxiety disorders. The results revealed the stability of BI symptomatology over time. Data also showed that BI children were almost ten times more likely to develop social anxiety disorder two years later, compared to no-BI children. As a result, findings suggest behavioral inhibition strongly predicts social anxiety disorder, making BI a logical focus for selective preventive interventions. Therefore, screening for behavioral inhibition holds promise for primary prevention. Full article
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