Special Issue "Social Determinants of Mental Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Mental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Emma Motrico
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Universidad Loyola Andalucía, C/ Energia Solar, 1. Edificio E., 41014 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: psychosocial factors (social determinants) of mental health; prevention and promotion of mental health
Dr. Maria Luisa Rodero-Cosano
Website
Guest Editor
Quantitative Methods Department, Universidad Loyola Andalucía, Dos Hermanas- Sevilla, Spain
Interests: socioeconomic factors of mental health; epidemiology and spatial analysis in mental health; social determinants in health
Dr. Jose A. Salinas-Perez
Website
Guest Editor
Quantitative Methods Department, Universidad Loyola Andalucía, Dos Hermanas- Sevilla, Spain
Interests: health geography; health service research; mental health; social determinants; spatial statistics
Dr. Sonia Conejo-Cerón
Website
Guest Editor
(1) Biomedical Research Institute of Malaga (IBIMA), Málaga, Spain
(2) Prevention and Health Promotion Research Network (redIAPP), ISCIII, Spain
Interests: prevention of mental health diseases; promotion of mental health; risk factors; protective factors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mental disorders are one of the greatest public health problems of our time. Major depression, with a prevalence of 4.4% in the world population, is the most disabling disease while anxiety disorders, with a global prevalence of 3.6%, are in the sixth position. Researchers view mental disorders as having complex causes involving an interplay of biological, psychological and social factors.

The social determinants of mental health are the social and economic factors (such as socioeconomic status, education, neighborhood, employment, social support networks, health services) that influence people´s mental health. Interventions targeting social determinants are likely to exert small but, from a public health point of view, potentially important effects on population mental health. Therefore, the investigation of the social determinants that affect mental health is essential.

This Special Issue in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is devoted to recent findings on “Social Determinants of Mental Health” to make a substantial contribution to knowledge gaps in understanding  how social determinants influence mental health in many positive and negative ways.

A wide range of topics will be included in this issue, related, but not limited to, stress, living conditions, education, unemployment and job security, employment and working conditions, housing, social exclusion, mental health services, gender, race and disability.

We welcome the submission of Original Research Articles, Short Reports, Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis targeting any of these topics and beyond. We would be delighted to attract as high diversity and heterogeneity of submissions across geographies and jurisdictions as possible. Studies using innovative research methods to study these topics are most welcome.

Dr. Emma Motrico
Dr. Maria Luisa Rodero-Cosano
Dr. Jose A. Salinas-Perez
Dr. Sonia Conejo-Cerón
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • social determinants
  • mental health
  • psychosocial
  • socioeconomic factor
  • epidemiology and spatial analysis in mental health
  • health geography
  • health service research
  • risk factors
  • protective factors

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Work-Related Psychosocial Demands and Resources in General Practice Teams in Germany. A Team-Based Ethnography
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7114; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197114 - 28 Sep 2020
Abstract
General practices are established microenterprises in Germany providing a variety of preventive and therapeutic health care services and procedures in a challenging working environment. For example, general practice teams are confronted increasingly with work-related demands, which have been associated with poor psychological and [...] Read more.
General practices are established microenterprises in Germany providing a variety of preventive and therapeutic health care services and procedures in a challenging working environment. For example, general practice teams are confronted increasingly with work-related demands, which have been associated with poor psychological and physical outcomes. It is therefore important to gain a better understanding of issues related to occupational health and safety for personnel working in the primary care setting. This study aims to gain an in-depth understanding of psychosocial demands and resources in the primary care setting. We applied an ethnographic design, comprising a combination of participating observations, individual interviews with general practitioners (GPs) (N = 6), and focus group discussion with practice assistants and administrative staff (N = 19) in five general practices in Germany. A grounded theory approach was applied to analyze all data. Our results identified psychosocial demands and resources exemplified mainly along two typical tasks in GP practices: the issuing of medical prescriptions and blood sampling. Main psychosocial demands included factors related to work content and tasks, organization of work, and the working environment. For example, daily routines across all practices were characterized by a very high work intensity including disturbances, interruptions, delegation, and the division of labor between GPs and practice staff. Work-related resources comprised the staff’s influence on aspects related to work organization and social support. The triangulation of methods and data formats allowed the disclosure of interconnectedness between these factors. Although work processes in general practices are complex and required to comply with legal regulations, there are opportunities for practice owners and practice teams to establish working procedures in ways that reduce psychosocial risks and strengthen work-related resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Lifetime and Twelve-Month Prevalence, Persistence, and Unmet Treatment Needs of Mood, Anxiety, and Substance Use Disorders in African American and U.S. versus Foreign-Born Caribbean Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197007 - 25 Sep 2020
Abstract
There is growing diversity within the Black population in the U.S., but limited understanding of ethnic and nativity differences in the mental health treatment needs of Black women. This study examined differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, their persistence, and unmet treatment [...] Read more.
There is growing diversity within the Black population in the U.S., but limited understanding of ethnic and nativity differences in the mental health treatment needs of Black women. This study examined differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, their persistence, and unmet treatment needs among Black women in the U.S. Data were from the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative survey that assessed lifetime and twelve-month mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria, and mental health service use among those meeting disorder criteria. One in three African American women met criteria for a lifetime disorder, compared to one in three Caribbean women born within the U.S. and one in five Caribbean women born outside the U.S. About half of African American women with a lifetime disorder had a persistent psychiatric disorder, compared to two in five Caribbean women born within the U.S. and two in three Caribbean women born outside the U.S. African Americans had more persisting dysthymia and panic disorder and less persisting social phobia compared to foreign-born Caribbean women. Of the three groups, Caribbean women born within the U.S. were most likely to seek mental health treatment during their lifetime. These results demonstrate, despite a lower prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Black women, that there is a great likelihood their disorders will be marked by persistence and underscores the need for culturally specific treatment approaches. As Black immigrants in the United States are increasing in number, adequate mental health services are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
Open AccessArticle
The Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and Stress and Their Associated Factors in College Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197001 - 24 Sep 2020
Abstract
Aim: To estimate the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress and associated factors in a population of college students. Method: Cross-sectional study of psychological distress measured through the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) in a sample of 1074 college students. Results: [...] Read more.
Aim: To estimate the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress and associated factors in a population of college students. Method: Cross-sectional study of psychological distress measured through the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) in a sample of 1074 college students. Results: We found a moderate prevalence of depression (18.4%), anxiety (23.6%) and stress (34.5%) symptoms in our study population. Being <21, having problematic Internet use behavior, smoking, presenting insomnia and having a low self-esteem were independently associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. Being a woman, living with their family, having a stable partner, consuming alcohol frequently and having poor nutritional habits were significantly associated with symptoms of stress; lacking a stable partner was significantly associated with depressive symptoms; and frequent consumption of alcohol was significantly associated with symptoms of anxiety. Conclusion: We found a moderate prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in our population. Interventions aimed at promoting mental health among college students should be implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Elucidating Mental Health Disorders among Rohingya Refugees: A Malaysian Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186730 - 15 Sep 2020
Abstract
Mental health disorders (MHDs) among refugees has been recognized as a major public health issue. However, to date, there is limited evidence on the prevalence of MHDs among Rohingya refugees in Malaysia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and associated factors of [...] Read more.
Mental health disorders (MHDs) among refugees has been recognized as a major public health issue. However, to date, there is limited evidence on the prevalence of MHDs among Rohingya refugees in Malaysia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and associated factors of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Rohingya refugees in Malaysia. A total of 220 refugees were randomly selected to participate in this cross-sectional study, conducted from June 2019 to November 2019. Perceived social support, religious orientation, food security, and sociodemographic characteristics were assessed as independent variables. The dependent variables assessed were MDD, GAD, and PTSD. The prevalence of GAD, PTSD, and MDD was reported at 92 (41.8%), 84 (38.2%), and 71 (32.3%). Several factors were significantly associated with MDD following multivariate analysis such as perceived low to moderate social support (AOR = 2.17; 95% CI 1.13, 4.19) and food insecurity (AOR = 2.77; 95% CI 1.19, 6.47). Exposure to violence (AOR = 38.46; 95% CI 16.27, 90.91) and food insecurity (AOR = 3.74; 95% CI 1.41, 9.91) were significantly associated with PTSD. Addressing these risk factors could be key in improving mental health outcomes among this vulnerable population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Hedonic and Utilitarian Performances as Determinants of Mental Health and Pro-Social Behaviors among Volunteer Tourists
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6594; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186594 - 10 Sep 2020
Abstract
International volunteer tourism is an emerging and sustainable trend of the global tourism industry. In this study, we attempted to provide a clear comprehension of volunteer tourists’ mental health increase and pro-social intention formation. A survey method and quantitative approach were used. Our [...] Read more.
International volunteer tourism is an emerging and sustainable trend of the global tourism industry. In this study, we attempted to provide a clear comprehension of volunteer tourists’ mental health increase and pro-social intention formation. A survey method and quantitative approach were used. Our result from the structural analysis showed that hedonic and utilitarian performances, mental health, and volunteer tourism engagement had significant associations and that these relationships contributed to improving pro-social intention. In addition, results from the metric invariance assessment revealed that the volunteer tourism engagement and pro-social intention relation was under the significant influence of problem awareness and ascribed responsibility. Mental health and engagement acted as significant mediators. The comparative importance of volunteer tourism engagement was uncovered. Overall, our results provided a sufficient understanding of volunteer tourists’ pro-social decision-making process and behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Does Believing in Fate Facilitate Active or Avoidant Coping? The Effects of Fate Control on Coping Strategies and Mental Well-Being
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176383 - 02 Sep 2020
Abstract
The development of control-related constructs has involved different approaches over time, and yet internal and external locus of control are conceptualized as dichotomous factors influencing active versus avoidant coping strategies. While external control is associated with avoidance, a similar belief construct fate control, [...] Read more.
The development of control-related constructs has involved different approaches over time, and yet internal and external locus of control are conceptualized as dichotomous factors influencing active versus avoidant coping strategies. While external control is associated with avoidance, a similar belief construct fate control, which denotes that life events are pre-determined and influenced by external forces but predictable and alterable, challenges the assumption of incompatibility between fate and agency. To develop a dynamic model of control, we suggest that external control would affect avoidant coping, which in turn would affect psychological distress, whereas fate control would affect both active and avoidant coping when dealing with stress. The model was supported among Hong Kong Chinese using a cross-sectional approach in Study 1 (n = 251) and hypothetical stressful scenarios in Study 2 (n = 294). The moderating effect of perceived controllability was observed in coping behaviors using a diary approach in Study 3 (n = 188). Our findings offer an alternative perspective to the dichotomous view of control and provide implications for coping strategies and mental well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Living Conditions of Adolescents Who Have Attempted Suicide in Mexico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165990 - 18 Aug 2020
Abstract
Suicidal behavior represents a complex public health problem, with a rising number of suicide attempts registered among Mexican adolescents. We undertook a qualitative study in order to understand the living conditions of adolescents who had attempted to take their lives in five Mexican [...] Read more.
Suicidal behavior represents a complex public health problem, with a rising number of suicide attempts registered among Mexican adolescents. We undertook a qualitative study in order to understand the living conditions of adolescents who had attempted to take their lives in five Mexican states. We interviewed 37 adolescents who had engaged in suicide attempts in the year prior to our study. To code and analyze the information, we defined the following three categories of living conditions as social determinants of health for adolescents: poverty and vulnerability, education, and health care. To this end, we followed the methodology proposed by Taylor and Bogdan, and used Atlas.ti 7.5.18 software for analyses. Among our findings, we noted that poverty, manifested primarily as material deprivation, rendered the daily lives of our interviewees precarious, compromising even their basic needs. All the young people analyzed had either received medical, psychological, and/or psychiatric care as outpatients or had been hospitalized. School played a positive role in referring adolescents with suicidal behavior to health services; however, it also represented a high-risk environment. Our findings highlight the urgent need to implement a national intersectoral strategy as part of comprehensive public policy aimed at improving the health of adolescents in Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Demographic, Social, and Economic Factors of Internalizing Problems in Referred and Non-Referred Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145195 - 18 Jul 2020
Abstract
Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation are common internalizing problems during adolescence. Numerous studies have explored the role of certain demographic, social, and economic factors in their development in referred or non-referred adolescents, but not simultaneously in both groups. In this study, we examined [...] Read more.
Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation are common internalizing problems during adolescence. Numerous studies have explored the role of certain demographic, social, and economic factors in their development in referred or non-referred adolescents, but not simultaneously in both groups. In this study, we examined the association between age, gender, parents’ educational level, and socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in a referred group (n = 211) and a non-referred (n = 1401) group of adolescents. We also examined the moderating role that these factors play in the relationships between both internalizing problems. The results showed: higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in the referred group; an increase in both problems during early-to-middle adolescence in the non-referred group; an association between low SES and suicidal ideation in both groups; an association between low father’s education level and depressive symptoms in the non-referred group; and no gender differences in either of these two internalizing problems. The moderation analyses showed that age, in referred adolescents, and SES, in non-referred adolescents, moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. This study contributes to the identification of groups of vulnerable adolescents that could constitute the target populations of preventive programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Individual Health Budgets in Mental Health: Results of Its Implementation in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145017 - 13 Jul 2020
Abstract
Background: Individual Health Budget (IHB) is an intervention for recovery in mental health services, providing personalized care for subjects with severe disorders and complex needs. Little is known on its effectiveness and on the criteria for its delivery. Methods: A total of 67 [...] Read more.
Background: Individual Health Budget (IHB) is an intervention for recovery in mental health services, providing personalized care for subjects with severe disorders and complex needs. Little is known on its effectiveness and on the criteria for its delivery. Methods: A total of 67 IHB beneficiaries and 61 comparators were recruited among service users of the Mental Health Department of the Trieste Healthcare Agency, Italy. Data included sociodemographic and clinical variables, type of IHB, and Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) scores. Results: A comparison between groups showed significant differences in several socioeconomic and clinical characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression showed that IHB was positively associated to the 20–49 age group, single status, unemployment, low family support, cohabitation with relatives or friends, diagnosis of personality disorder, and a higher number of hospitalizations. The IHB group was at a higher risk of severe problems related to aggressive or agitated behaviors (OR = 1.4), hallucinations and delusions (OR = 1.5), and impairment in everyday life activities (OR = 2.1). Conclusions: IHB was used in patients with severe clinical and social problems. More resources, however, may be aimed at the working and social axes. More research is needed to better assess clinical and social outcomes of IHB and to adjust their intensity in a longitudinal perspective in order to enhance cost-effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Finding the Hidden Risk Profiles of the United States Opioid Epidemic: Using a Person-Centered Approach on a National Dataset of Noninstitutionalized Adults Reporting Opioid Misuse
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124321 - 17 Jun 2020
Abstract
Opioid misuse can lead to use disorder and other adverse outcomes. Identifying sociodemographic risk profiles and understanding misuse patterns in combination with health indicators can inform prevention science and clinical practice. A latent class analysis of opioid misuse was conducted on noninstitutionalized United [...] Read more.
Opioid misuse can lead to use disorder and other adverse outcomes. Identifying sociodemographic risk profiles and understanding misuse patterns in combination with health indicators can inform prevention science and clinical practice. A latent class analysis of opioid misuse was conducted on noninstitutionalized United States civilians aged 18 and older that reported opioid dependence or abuse in the 2017 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (n = 476; weighted n = 2,018,922). Opioid misuse was based on heroin and/or prescription pain reliever use, and associated determinants of health and mental health indicators. Five misuse profiles were identified: (1) single heroin or prescription misuse with high-income; (2) female prescription pain reliever misuse with psychological distress and suicidality; (3) younger polyopioid misuse with the highest proportion of Hispanics and heroin use; (4) older polyopioid misuse with the highest proportion of non-Hispanic blacks and disability; and (5) older non-Hispanic white male exclusive dual heroin and/or prescription misuse (27%, 20%, 38%, 10%, and 5% of sample, respectively). The identified risk profiles can inform public health practice to develop interventions for acute and immediate response by providing etiological evidence and to inform prevention and intervention efforts along the continuum from opioid initiation to use disorder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Social Capital as a Mediator through the Effect of Education on Depression and Obesity among the Elderly in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113977 - 04 Jun 2020
Abstract
Objectives: Global aging is an increasingly serious problem. The health problems faced by the elderly, such as depression and obesity, require serious consideration. Education, depression and obesity are inextricably linked; for the elderly, education is constant, and the factors which can mediate the [...] Read more.
Objectives: Global aging is an increasingly serious problem. The health problems faced by the elderly, such as depression and obesity, require serious consideration. Education, depression and obesity are inextricably linked; for the elderly, education is constant, and the factors which can mediate the relationship between education, depression and obesity are still being discussed by scholars. The mediating effect of social capital is rarely studied. The objective of this study was to assess the mediating role of cognitive social capital and structural social capital, as well as the effect of education on depression and obesity among the elderly using China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) data. Methods: In total, 4919 respondents were included in the final analysis. Education was measured by years of schooling. Trust and participation were used as measures of cognitive social capital and structural social capital. Depression symptoms and BMI were used as outcomes. Structural equation models were developed to examine the direct and indirect effect of social capital and education on health outcomes. Results: Education was negatively correlated with depression symptom (r = −0.15, p < 0.001), while education was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.08, p < 0.001). Older adults with a higher education level have higher cognitive social capital (r = 0.11, p < 0.001) and structural social capital (r = 0.20, p < 0.001). Social capital plays a mediatory role. Older adults with higher social capital have a lower risk of depression (cognitive: r = −0.23, p < 0.001; structural: r = −0.03, p < 0.01) but a higher risk of obesity (cognitive: r = 0.06, p < 0.01; structural: r = 0.03, p < 0.01). For depression, the mediating function of cognitive social capital (a1b1= −0.025) is stronger than that of structural social capital (a2b2 = −0.006). While, for obesity, the effects of both cognitive and structural social capital are the same (a1c1 = a2c2 = 0.005). Conclusions: Social capital as a mediator through the effect of education on depression and obesity among the elderly in China. Meanwhile, using the positive effects of social capital to avoid negative effects should also be seriously considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Mental Health of Brazilian Students Involved in Risky Behaviors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103647 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Adolescence, which is the transition from childhood to adulthood, is marked by emotional sensitivity and inconsistency and may be affected by mental health problems. In order to fill the gap related to the risky behaviors in students in Brazil, our cross-sectional study aimed [...] Read more.
Adolescence, which is the transition from childhood to adulthood, is marked by emotional sensitivity and inconsistency and may be affected by mental health problems. In order to fill the gap related to the risky behaviors in students in Brazil, our cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship between risky behaviors and indicators of mental health of Brazilian students. We used the data from the National School Health Survey to analyze the relationship between risk behaviors and three symptoms of mental health issues: feeling of being alone, number of close friends, and trouble sleeping due to worries. The sample consisted of 102,072 students in Brazil (48.3% boys and 51.7% girls), aged between 11 to 19 years. The risk behaviors evaluated were substance use, sedentary lifestyle, sexual behavior, and suffering violence and bullying. We have performed a multivariate analysis based on the Poisson regression model, and the measure of effect used was the prevalence ratio (PR) with confidence intervals (CI) of 95%. Our results showed that students with symptoms of mental health issues were involved in risky behaviors, including drug use and unsafe sex. Thus, mental illness outcomes may be associated with risky behaviors, or mental health may be impaired by them. Given these findings, in-school programs focused on improving mental health outcomes should be developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
Open AccessArticle
Development and Preliminary Validation of the Couples’ Stigma Scale to Assess Self-Stigma among the Partners of Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103533 - 18 May 2020
Abstract
Spouses of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may struggle with self-stigma and may require attention and care; however, no scale exists to measure the stigma of spouses of persons with ASD. This study created and investigated the construct validity of the Couples [...] Read more.
Spouses of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may struggle with self-stigma and may require attention and care; however, no scale exists to measure the stigma of spouses of persons with ASD. This study created and investigated the construct validity of the Couples Stigma Scale. This scale consists of 14 items and it was designed based on prior literature, interviews, and the self-stigma theory to assess the self-stigma experienced by spouses of people with ASD. A survey was conducted with spouses of persons with ASD who participated in a self-help group. Responses were obtained from 259 people, of which 253 women were included in the analysis. Exploratory factor analysis was performed separately with two independent groups, indicating a four-factor structure, to determine structural validity. The factor loadings of the items constituting the four factors were 0.39 or greater. Regarding external validity, the correlation coefficient between the Couples Stigma Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) score was −0.341 (p < 0.001), and the domain correlation coefficient was significant for all relevant WHOQOL domains. Our results suggest that the Japanese version of the Couples Stigma Scale is a valid instrument for assessing self-stigma in the spouses of persons with ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
Open AccessArticle
Does the Conversion of Household Registration Actually Improve the Happiness of Migrant Workers in China?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2661; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082661 - 13 Apr 2020
Abstract
Migrant workers are an important human resource for economic and social development. Considering the government’s goal of serving and improving people’s livelihoods, improving the happiness of migrant workers is necessary. This study investigates in-depth the impact of the conversion of household registration on [...] Read more.
Migrant workers are an important human resource for economic and social development. Considering the government’s goal of serving and improving people’s livelihoods, improving the happiness of migrant workers is necessary. This study investigates in-depth the impact of the conversion of household registration on migrant workers’ happiness, which is represented by a multi-dimensional comprehensive index based on the propensity matching score model and data from the China Migrants Dynamic Survey (CMDS) in 2017. Moreover, this study explores the different effects of conversion among the groups divided by the characteristics of migrant workers. The results show that from an overall perspective, although the conversion of household registration could improve the happiness of migrant workers, the degree of this improvement is minor. Further, the characteristics of the different groups, including age, educational background, contracted land, collective dividends, and income significantly affect the improvement of happiness. The conversion of household registration has obviously improved the happiness of migrant workers with low educational backgrounds, low income, and contracted land. Based on these findings, the government should take more targeted actions to improve the positive effects of household registration among different migrant worker groups due to the different characteristics in the process of household registration system reform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Psychotic Symptoms and Social Cognition on Job Retention in Patients with Schizophrenia in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2628; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082628 - 11 Apr 2020
Abstract
This research examined the relationship between psychotic symptoms, social cognition, and job retention among people with schizophrenia in Korea. Participants (158 people with schizophrenia from 15 mental health institutions) were divided into two groups: those with a job retention period of less than [...] Read more.
This research examined the relationship between psychotic symptoms, social cognition, and job retention among people with schizophrenia in Korea. Participants (158 people with schizophrenia from 15 mental health institutions) were divided into two groups: those with a job retention period of less than six months (n = 75), and those with a job retention period of six months or more (n = 83). Participants completed a survey packet containing the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Global Assessment of Function (GAF) Scale, Interpersonal Relationship Functioning Assessment Scale, Basic Empathy Scale, Hinting Task, and Ambiguous Intention Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ), and provided their job retention status. We used binomial logistic regression analysis to examine whether job retention was affected by participants’ demographic, clinical, and vocational characteristics, as well as the three components of social cognition, i.e., theory of mind, empathy, and attribution style. Results showed that theory of mind (ToM), attribution style, and psychotic symptoms explained 52.7% of the variance in job retention. A higher theory of mind means a higher ability to grasp the intentions of others. The higher theory of mind, the lesser attribution style, and the lesser psychotic symptoms were related to a longer period of job retention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
Open AccessArticle
Associations among Employment Status, Health Behaviors, and Mental Health in a Representative Sample of South Koreans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2456; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072456 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to compare the health behaviors, general health, and mental health of South Korean employees according to their employment status, and to examine how these associations vary across genders using the latest Korean National Examination Health and [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to compare the health behaviors, general health, and mental health of South Korean employees according to their employment status, and to examine how these associations vary across genders using the latest Korean National Examination Health and Nutrition Survey data. Logistic regression analyses were performed using employment status—permanent job, temporary job, and unemployed—as predictor variables and health-related variables as the outcome variables. Results indicated that temporary workers and the unemployed have higher odds of poor mental health regardless of gender. On the other hand, only male permanent workers were found to have a higher risk of problematic drinking compared to precarious workers and the unemployed. Meanwhile, only women showed a higher risk of current smoking in the temporary job and unemployed groups compared with permanent employees. Regarding general health, women, not men, in the temporary job group reported poorer general health (i.e., low health-related quality of life and higher self-perceived poor health) than those in other groups. These findings suggest that the development and implementation of intervention services, as well as organizational actions, need to consider differential impacts of unfavorable employment status on health issues according to gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
New Evidences about Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Its Links with Neurocognitive Performance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061866 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The main purpose of the present work was to study the neurocognitive endophenotypes of adolescents at risk for low personal wellbeing. The sample included a total of 1588 adolescents from stratified random cluster sampling; derived from this sample, a group of high-risk ( [...] Read more.
The main purpose of the present work was to study the neurocognitive endophenotypes of adolescents at risk for low personal wellbeing. The sample included a total of 1588 adolescents from stratified random cluster sampling; derived from this sample, a group of high-risk (n = 84) and a control group (n = 84) were selected. The personal well-being index–school children (PWI–SC), the University of Pennsylvania computerized neuropsychological test battery for children (included 14 tasks assessing five neurobehavioral domains: executive functions, episodic memory, complex cognition, social cognition and sensorimotor speed), and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) were used. Adolescents with low personal wellbeing showed statistically significant impairments across the different neurocognitive domains. In particular, adolescents at risk showed lower accuracy scores on executive function and complex cognition and lower speed scores on episodic memory, complex cognition and social cognition scores. The results of the present study contribute relevant information about the nature of neurocognitive impairments associated with subjective wellbeing and allow implementing preventive treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
Open AccessArticle
Community Integration of Persons with Mental Disorders Compared with the General Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051596 - 02 Mar 2020
Abstract
Aims: Community integration is the catalyst for recovery that is provided by mental health services to persons with mental disorders. This study explores the impact of socio-demographic variables on the level of community integration in persons with mental disorders compared to the [...] Read more.
Aims: Community integration is the catalyst for recovery that is provided by mental health services to persons with mental disorders. This study explores the impact of socio-demographic variables on the level of community integration in persons with mental disorders compared to the general population living in the same communities and the difference in community integration level between the two groups. Methods: A total of 224 persons with mental disorders (M age = 45.0, SD = 12.84, male 51.8%, female 48.2%) in communities and 247 individuals (M age = 44.6, SD = 11.41, male 50.6%, female 49.4%) of the general population in the same communities participated in the evaluation of levels of physical, psychological, and social integration. The effects of socio-demographic variables on the three types of community integration on both groups were evaluated using multiple regression analyses. Differences in the three types of community integration between the two groups were tested using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) by controlling for socio-demographic variables as covariates. Results: The effects of socio-demographic variables on the three types of community integration differed between the two groups. In addition, the two groups differed significantly in terms of social rather than physical or psychological integration when the level of community integration was compared while controlling socio-demographic variables. The results also show that persons with mental disorders had smaller social networks and fewer social contacts than the general population. Conclusions: Based on the findings, we recommended that service providers provide incentives for consumers to strengthen social relationships and social skills training in order to maintain relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
Open AccessArticle
Religiosity and Mental Health: A Contribution to Understanding the Heterogeneity of Research Findings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020494 - 13 Jan 2020
Abstract
Most studies report positive associations between religiosity and spirituality and aspects of mental health, while a small proportion report mixed or fully negative associations. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of religiosity measured more specifically, with mental health in [...] Read more.
Most studies report positive associations between religiosity and spirituality and aspects of mental health, while a small proportion report mixed or fully negative associations. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of religiosity measured more specifically, with mental health in a secular environment, using a nationally representative sample of Czech adults (n = 1795). We measured religious affiliation, conversion experience, non-religious attitudes and the stability of these attitudes, mental health problems, and anxiety levels. Compared to stable non-religious respondents, unstable non-religious and converted respondents who perceived God as distant were more likely to experience anxiety in close relationships, and had higher risks of worse mental health. Our findings support the idea that the heterogeneity of findings in associations between religiosity/spirituality and mental health could be due to measurement problems and variation in the degree of secularity. A shift towards religiosity could be expected to be seen in a substantial part of non-religious respondents in problematic times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Determinants of Suicidality in the European General Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4115; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114115 - 09 Jun 2020
Abstract
Close to one million people commit suicide each year, with suicidal attempts being the main risk factor for suicide. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to achieve a greater understanding of suicidality in the general population of Europe by studying [...] Read more.
Close to one million people commit suicide each year, with suicidal attempts being the main risk factor for suicide. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to achieve a greater understanding of suicidality in the general population of Europe by studying associated factors and their statistical significance with suicidality, as well as the effect of the temporal moment in which suicidality is observed in a relationship. A search strategy was carried out in electronic databases: Proquest’s Psychology Database, Scopus, PsycINFO, Medline and Embase. Odds ratios (ORs), publication bias, influential studies on heterogeneity and analysis moderators were calculated. Twenty-six studies were included after meeting the inclusion criteria. Factors statistically associated with suicidality are female gender, age over 65 years, unemployment, low social support, adulthood adversity, childhood adversity, family history of mental disorder, any affective disorder, major depression, anxiety/stress/somatoform disorders, tobacco and substance use, any mental disorder and body mass index. As a limitation, a high heterogeneity between studies was found. Factors associated with suicidality in the general population are relevant for understanding the suicidal phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Mental Health)
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