Special Issue "Gulf War Illness, A Drug and Environmentally-TriggeredCondition"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Beatrice A. Golomb
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego; La Jolla, CA 92093-0995, USA
Interests: Gulf War illness; organophosphate and carbamate effects

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf War, deployed personnel were exposed to an unprecedented array of new, unique, and excessive drug and environmental exposures. Of the ~700,000 deployed U.S. personnel, as well as smaller numbers of military personnel from other nations, about a third of those deployed developed chronic multisymptom health problems known as “Gulf War illness” (GWI). Studies tie these to drug and environmental exposures and show that combat stress is not an independent predictor. Over a quarter-century later, affected veterans continue to suffer, with symptoms including fatigue as well as cognitive, muscle, gastroenterological, and neurological problems, among others. Although many objective physiological alterations have been documented in those affected, the nature and ramifications of GWI remain incompletely understood.

These veterans view themselves as the “forgotten veterans”, given the far greater attention to the signature injuries of later conflicts. GWI represents chemical injury, contrasted with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (from psychological injury) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) (from mechanical injury).

Here we call for papers germane to GWI, encompassing epidemiological studies, studies examining biomarkers, the impact of the condition, and effects of prospective treatments. Studies involving animal models of GWI are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Beatrice Golomb
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Gulf War illness
  • Chemical
  • Pesticide
  • Nerve gas
  • Pyridostigmine bromide
  • Vaccines
  • Oil fire
  • Burn pit

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Ketamine and its Enantiomers in an Organophosphate-Based Rat Model for Features of Gulf War Illness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4710; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134710 - 30 Jun 2020
Abstract
Approximately 33% of U.S. soldiers from the first Gulf War suffer from a multi-system disorder known as the Gulf War Illness (GWI). GW veterans suffer from a cluster of symptoms that prominently include fatigue and can include mood-related symptoms. Compared to traditional antidepressants, [...] Read more.
Approximately 33% of U.S. soldiers from the first Gulf War suffer from a multi-system disorder known as the Gulf War Illness (GWI). GW veterans suffer from a cluster of symptoms that prominently include fatigue and can include mood-related symptoms. Compared to traditional antidepressants, ketamine (KET) produces a fast-onset and long-lasting antidepressant response, but assessments of KET for GWI-related depression are lacking. The etiology of GWI is multi-factorial and exposure to organophosphates (OP) during deployment is one of the factors underlying GWI development. Here, male Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed to an OP DFP and three months later these rats, when assessed on a battery of rodent behavioral assays, displayed signs consistent with aspects of GWI characteristics. When treated with a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (3, 5, or 10 mg/kg, i.p.), DFP-treated rats exhibited a significant improvement in immobility time, open-arm exploration, and sucrose consumption as early as 1 h and much of these effects persisted at 24-h post-KET injection. KET’s stereoisomers, R-KET and S-KET, also exhibited such effects in DFP rats, with R-KET being the more potent isomer. Our studies provide a starting point for further assessment of KET for GWI depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gulf War Illness, A Drug and Environmentally-TriggeredCondition)
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Open AccessArticle
The Gut-Microbiome in Gulf War Veterans: A Preliminary Report
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3751; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193751 - 04 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom disorder affecting the central nervous system (CNS), immune and gastrointestinal (GI) systems of Gulf War veterans (GWV). We assessed the relationships between GWI, GI symptoms, gut microbiome and inflammatory markers in GWV from the Boston [...] Read more.
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom disorder affecting the central nervous system (CNS), immune and gastrointestinal (GI) systems of Gulf War veterans (GWV). We assessed the relationships between GWI, GI symptoms, gut microbiome and inflammatory markers in GWV from the Boston Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC). Three groups of GWIC veterans were recruited in this pilot study; GWV without GWI and no gastrointestinal symptoms (controls), GWV with GWI and no gastrointestinal symptoms (GWI-GI), GWV with GWI who reported gastrointestinal symptoms (GW+GI). Here we report on a subset of the first thirteen stool samples analyzed. Results showed significantly different gut microbiome patterns among the three groups and within the GWI +/−GI groups. Specifically, GW controls had a greater abundance of firmicutes and the GWI+GI group had a greater abundance of the phyla bacteroidetes, actinobacteria, euryarchaeota, and proteobacteria as well as higher abundances of the families Bacteroidaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Bifidobacteriaceae. The GWI+GI group also showed greater plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-RI and they endorsed significantly more chemical weapons exposure during the war and reported significantly greater chronic pain, fatigue and sleep difficulties than the other groups. Studies with larger samples sizes are needed to confirm these initial findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gulf War Illness, A Drug and Environmentally-TriggeredCondition)
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