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Special Issue "Health Effects of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS): What Can Be Learned from Human and Experimental Studies?"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Toxicology and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2022 | Viewed by 4286

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Alexandra Noël
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Skip Bertman Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Interests: inhalation toxicology and developmental toxicology; pulmonary effects of distinct emerging inhaled environmental pollutants, including nanoparticles, second-hand smoke, electronic cigarette aerosols, and hookah smoke
Dr. Meghan Rebuli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pediatrics, Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology and Curriculum in Toxicology & Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Interests: respiratory toxicology; clinical, ex vivo, and in vitro e-cigarette respiratory immune toxicity and e-cigarette effects on host defense responses to viral infection

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), were introduced to the US market in 2007. Ever since, the ENDS landscape has evolved quickly to satisfy users’ recreational and smoking cessation needs. Currently, over 13 million Americans, including teenagers and adults, use ENDS. In 2019, there was an outbreak of e-cig or vaping-associated lung injury (EVALI) across the U.S., with more than 2,800 cases of lung injury plus 65 associated deaths. EVALI has been diagnosed in patients since 2012 and is observed in nicotine-exclusive ENDS users. Clearly, all ENDS are not “safe”, and more research on vaping health outcomes is urgently needed. The scientific evidence for future regulations related to ENDS products is based on in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as clinical and epidemiological studies. It is imperative to investigate the potential adverse health effects of ENDS use because of the increasing popularity of ENDS among youths and young adults, some of whom are never-smokers, as well as in dual-users of cigarette and e-cig products. Furthermore, as a result of the rapid evolution of ENDS products, there is a continuing need to evaluate health effects as new products emerge. In addition, there is a paucity of data related to the health effects of inhaled ENDS aerosols, including the effects related to the cardiopulmonary and reproductive systems and second-hand exposure. This Special Issue, entitled: “Health Effects of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS):What Can Be Learned from Human and Experimental Studies?”, aims to advance this scientific field by providing additional knowledge and bridging the research gap related to the toxicity mechanisms of ENDS products on human health.

Dr. Alexandra Noël
Dr. Meghan Rebuli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS)
  • electronic cigarettes
  • e-cigarettes
  • vaping
  • respiratory system
  • cardiovascular system
  • health effects
  • in vivo
  • in vitro
  • epidemiology

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Effects of E-Cigarette Flavoring Chemicals on Human Macrophages and Bronchial Epithelial Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11107; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111107 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
E-cigarettes utilize a wide range of flavoring chemicals with respiratory health effects that are not well understood. In this study, we used pulmonary-associated cell lines to assess the in vitro cytotoxic effects of 30 flavoring chemicals. Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and both [...] Read more.
E-cigarettes utilize a wide range of flavoring chemicals with respiratory health effects that are not well understood. In this study, we used pulmonary-associated cell lines to assess the in vitro cytotoxic effects of 30 flavoring chemicals. Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and both naïve and activated macrophages (THP-1) were treated with 10, 100, and 1000 µM of flavoring chemicals and analyzed for changes in viability, cell membrane damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and inflammatory cytokine release. Viability was unaffected for all chemicals at the 10 and 100 µM concentrations. At 1000 µM, the greatest reductions in viability were seen with decanal, hexanal, nonanal, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, vanillin, alpha-pinene, and limonene. High amounts of ROS were elicited by vanillin, ethyl maltol, and the diketones (2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-heptanedione, and 2,3-hexanedione) from both cell lines. Naïve THP-1 cells produced significantly elevated levels of IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α when exposed to ethyl maltol and hexanal. Activated THP-1 cells released increased IL-1β and TNF-α when exposed to ethyl maltol, but many flavoring chemicals had an apparent suppressive effect on inflammatory cytokines released by activated macrophages, some with varying degrees of accompanying cytotoxicity. The diketones, L-carvone, and linalool suppressed cytokine release in the absence of cytotoxicity. These findings provide insight into lung cell cytotoxicity and inflammatory cytokine release in response to flavorings commonly used in e-cigarettes. Full article
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Article
“Don’t Know” Responses for Nicotine Vaping Product Features among Adult Vapers: Findings from the 2018 and 2020 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157928 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
Nicotine vaping products (NVPs) have evolved rapidly, and some vapers have difficulty reporting about their NVP. NVP knowledge may be important for providing accurate survey data, understanding the potential risks of NVP use, and assessing legal and regulated products. This paper examines current [...] Read more.
Nicotine vaping products (NVPs) have evolved rapidly, and some vapers have difficulty reporting about their NVP. NVP knowledge may be important for providing accurate survey data, understanding the potential risks of NVP use, and assessing legal and regulated products. This paper examines current vapers who responded “don’t know” (DK) regarding their NVP features. Data are from adult daily/weekly vapers in Waves Two (2018, n = 4192) and Three (2020, n = 3894) of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Analyses assessed DK responses for NVP features (e.g., type/appearance, nicotine) and consumption. A DK index score was computed based on the percent of all features with DK responses, which was tested for associations with demographics, smoking/vaping status, NVP features, purchase location, and knowledge of NVP relative risks. NVP description and appearance were easily identified, but DK was more common for features such as nicotine content (7.3–9.2%) and tank/cartridge volume capacity (26.6–30.0%). DK responses often differed by vaping/smoking status, NVP type/appearance, purchase location, and country. Vapers who are younger, use box-shaped NVPs, purchase online, and exclusive daily vapers were associated with lower DK index scores. Higher DK index scores were associated with poorer knowledge of relative health risks of NVP use. The diversity of the NVP market and wide variation in how products are used makes it challenging to capture information from users about device features, such as nicotine content and capacity, in population surveys. Full article
Article
A Descriptive Analysis of Transitions from Smoking to Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS) Use: A Daily Diary Investigation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126301 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1539
Abstract
Objectives: We aimed to examine patterns in smoking and electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use over an extended period of time (up to 20 weeks) in people who smoked and who had never previously made a successful quit attempt using an ENDS. Design [...] Read more.
Objectives: We aimed to examine patterns in smoking and electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use over an extended period of time (up to 20 weeks) in people who smoked and who had never previously made a successful quit attempt using an ENDS. Design and setting: We conducted a longitudinal mixed-methods study in Dunedin, New Zealand, during 2018 and 2019. Participants: Purposively selected participants (N = 45; age (≥18 years), gender, ethnicities, cigarettes/day) who wished to quit smoking. Interventions: Participants were provided with a second-generation ENDS device (vape pen or starter “tank” device) at the start of their quit attempt, and asked to complete smartphone-based daily diary surveys assessing smoking and ENDS use. Outcome measures: Sunburst plots and a sequence plot were used to describe weekly and daily patterns of smoking and ENDS use (smoking only, ENDS use only, dual use, abstinent). Results: The most frequently reported movements among participants, classified according to their study week behaviour, occurred between dual use and exclusive ENDS use (and vice versa). A smaller group reported moving from dual use to exclusive smoking (and often back to dual use), and a small number reported moving between abstinence and different ENDS and smoked tobacco usage behaviours. Data visualisations focussing on those participants who had provided data during each of weeks 9–12 indicate that only a minority reported sustained dual use; instead, most participants indicated varied smoked tobacco and ENDS use, which included periods of dual use. Conclusions: The considerable variety observed within and between study participants suggests that high variability is typical rather than exceptional. Transitions from smoking to ENDS use may involve considerable periods of dual use, which is likely to be dynamic and potentially sustained over several months. Full article
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