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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 955;

Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Assessment in Indoor Environments: A Review

Istituto di Elettronica e di Ingegneria dell’Informazione e delle Telecomunicazioni IEIIT CNR, 20133 Milano, Italy
Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria DEIB, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
Télécom ParisTech, LTCI University Paris Saclay, Chair C2M, 75013 Paris, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 17 March 2019
PDF [421 KB, uploaded 17 March 2019]


Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in indoor environments depends on both outdoor sources such as radio, television and mobile phone antennas and indoor sources, such as mobile phones and wireless communications applications. Establishing the levels of exposure could be challenging due to differences in the approaches used in different studies. The goal of this study is to present an overview of the last ten years research efforts about RF EMF exposure in indoor environments, considering different RF-EMF sources found to cause exposure in indoor environments, different indoor environments and different approaches used to assess the exposure. The highest maximum mean levels of the exposure considering the whole RF-EMF frequency band was found in offices (1.14 V/m) and in public transports (0.97 V/m), while the lowest levels of exposure were observed in homes and apartments, with mean values in the range 0.13–0.43 V/m. The contribution of different RF-EMF sources to the total level of exposure was found to show slightly different patterns among the indoor environments, but this finding has to be considered as a time-dependent picture of the continuous evolving exposure to RF-EMF. View Full-Text
Keywords: RF electromagnetic fields; exposure assessment; indoor environments RF electromagnetic fields; exposure assessment; indoor environments
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Chiaramello, E.; Bonato, M.; Fiocchi, S.; Tognola, G.; Parazzini, M.; Ravazzani, P.; Wiart, J. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Assessment in Indoor Environments: A Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 955.

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