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Exercise and Physical Activity in Health Promotion

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health-Related Quality of Life".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 13775

Special Issue Editor

National Institute for Health Development, 11619 Tallinn, Estonia
Interests: physical activity; body composition; health promotion; healthy lifestyle; physical fitness; sport sciences

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The notion that health-related fitness creates conditions to be physically active at every stage of life is increasingly understood. Balance, strength, and stretching exercises together with physical activity have a beneficial effect in general, both in young and old age. It has been noticed that a greater repertoire of movement skills and knowledge of exercises ensures the continuity of physical activity throughout life. Therefore, the purpose of this Special Issue is to present research on physical activity programs and activities that aim to promote the health of children, adolescents, and adults.

In this Special Issue, both scientific research and practical approaches are expected, which is to introduce exercise and physical activity related to health promotion in all population subgroups. All types of manuscripts are appreciated, especially those regarding the following areas but are not limited to:

  • individual or group-adapted physical activity and exercise programs related to health promotion,
  • intervention approaches to incorporate physical activity into daily routines,
  • environmental conditions, skills, and social support, to promote changes in health behavior,
  • health promotion focused on reducing sedentary lifestyles,
  • work-related health promotion and coaching in physical activities,
  • physical activity strategies and specifics of physical activity and movement for health promotion of people in different population groups of children, youth, and adults.

In addition, population-based trends in physical activity and/or changes in active lifestyles are welcome.

Dr. Leila Oja
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • physical (in)activity
  • sedentary behavior
  • health promotion
  • workplace health promotion
  • health behavior change programs
  • physical fitness programs
  • health and well-being
  • lifestyle
  • evidence-based interventions
  • determinants

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1076 KiB  
Article
A Workplace Health Promotion Program for a Predominantly Military Population: Associations with General Health, Mental Well-Being and Sustainable Employability
by Rebecca Bogaers, Diewertje Sluik, Pieter Helmhout and Fenna Leijten
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2024, 21(5), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph21050625 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Due to the globally increasing life expectancies, many countries are raising their official retirement age to prevent labor shortages and sustain retirement systems. This trend emphasizes the need for sustainable employability. Unhealthy lifestyles pose a risk to sustainable employability as they contribute to [...] Read more.
Due to the globally increasing life expectancies, many countries are raising their official retirement age to prevent labor shortages and sustain retirement systems. This trend emphasizes the need for sustainable employability. Unhealthy lifestyles pose a risk to sustainable employability as they contribute to chronic diseases and decreased productivity. Workplace Health Promotion (WHP) programs have gained attention as a strategy to enhance employee health and well-being. The Netherlands Armed Forces, a unique employer with demanding psychological and physical requirements, was used as a case study to investigate the associations of a WHP Program with workers health and sustainable employability. The program offered tailor-made guidance to participants (N = 341) through individual coaching trajectories. The program’s impact was evaluated by measuring self-reported health, mental well-being, and sustainable employability over a 6-month period. Results indicated significant improvements across all these dimensions after participation in the program. This study provides valuable insights into the benefits of tailor-made WHP programs. While this was an observational study without a control group, this study supports the importance of incorporating individualized approaches in WHP initiatives to foster positive outcomes in health and sustainable employability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Physical Activity in Health Promotion)
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13 pages, 915 KiB  
Article
Healthy Life Habits in Caregivers of Children in Vulnerable Populations: A Cluster Analysis
by Moisés Mebarak, Juan Mendoza, Duban Romero and José Amar
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2024, 21(5), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph21050537 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 818
Abstract
Intervention programs aimed at mitigating the effects of chronic noncommunicable disease (CNDs) focus on promoting healthy lifestyle habits (HLH), especially in the early stages of life. Because of this, different typologies of caregivers have been identified according to HLH during middle childhood and [...] Read more.
Intervention programs aimed at mitigating the effects of chronic noncommunicable disease (CNDs) focus on promoting healthy lifestyle habits (HLH), especially in the early stages of life. Because of this, different typologies of caregivers have been identified according to HLH during middle childhood and adolescence. However, the available studies have focused on aspects such as nutrition, physical activity, and rest, ignoring other HLHs that are equally important for children’s well-being. Likewise, few studies address HLH during the first five years of life and how caregivers affect children’s health. In a sample of 544 caregivers of children aged zero to five years from low-income Colombian communities, we established a typology of attitudes toward different HLHs. The results indicate the presence of three clusters that grouped caregivers with (1) positive attitudes toward all HLHs, (2) toward some HLHs, and (3) relatively low positive attitudes toward all HLHs. Membership in clusters with less positive attitudes toward HLHs was also found to be associated with low educational levels and living in rural areas. This study detected profiles of caregivers who may have unhealthy lifestyles, so the results would allow social workers to design differential interventions on HLHs in non-industrialized countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Physical Activity in Health Promotion)
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15 pages, 845 KiB  
Article
Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour among Panamanian Adults: Results from the National Health Survey of Panama (ENSPA) 2019
by Roger Montenegro Mendoza, Reina Roa, Flavia Fontes, Ilais Moreno Velásquez and Hedley Quintana
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085554 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1678
Abstract
Physical inactivity (PI) has been described as an independent risk factor for a large number of major non-communicable diseases and is associated with an increased risk of premature death. Additionally, sedentary behaviour has been associated with increased overall mortality. We estimated the national [...] Read more.
Physical inactivity (PI) has been described as an independent risk factor for a large number of major non-communicable diseases and is associated with an increased risk of premature death. Additionally, sedentary behaviour has been associated with increased overall mortality. We estimated the national prevalence of PI and sedentary behaviour using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire version 2. Using unconditional logistic regressions, the possible risk factors for PI were assessed. Over half of the people included in this study (54.9%; 95% CI: 54.1–57.3%) were physically inactive, with the median time spent engaged in sedentary behaviour being 120 min per day. Statistically significant associations with PI were observed with regard to sex, living area, and alcohol consumption. PI prevalence in Panama was elevated and showed a sex difference (women: 64.7%, 95% CI: 63.7–66.7%; men: 43.4%, 95% CI: 41.5–47.5%). According to our analysis of three-domain-related physical activities, the main contribution to the total estimated energy expenditure of physical activity/week came from the transport domain, followed by the work/household domain, and the least significant contributor was consistently the domain of exercise- and sports-related physical activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Physical Activity in Health Promotion)
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10 pages, 651 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Previous Lifestyle on Occupational Physical Fitness in the Context of Military Service
by Leila Oja and Jaanika Piksööt
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 1860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20031860 - 19 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1604
Abstract
The Estonian Defense Forces are the basis of military service, mandatory for all male citizens of the Republic of Estonia who are at least 17 years old. The physical load in military service, especially in the first stage, is significantly greater than for [...] Read more.
The Estonian Defense Forces are the basis of military service, mandatory for all male citizens of the Republic of Estonia who are at least 17 years old. The physical load in military service, especially in the first stage, is significantly greater than for men in everyday life. Therefore, it is important to know if health promotion in civilian life adequately prepares young people for military service and to what extent pre-military health behaviors affect physical performance during service. The purpose of this work was to examine conscripts’ physical fitness at different stages of military service and its relationships with previous lifestyle. Soldiers’ physical fitness was estimated three times during military service using three tests: sit-ups, push-ups and 2-mile run. Lifestyle and socio-economic background data was collected by a web-based questionnaire (n = 235). Linear regression analysis was performed using Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores as dependent variables and questionnaire data as independent variables. The socio-economic background variables had no effect on physical fitness scores throughout the training period (p > 0.05). Young men that were physically more active daily, did sports, had healthier diet and did not smoke before entering military service showed better physical fitness test results throughout the period of service (p < 0.05). The effect of participation in sports was evident, as the conscripts with previous sports experiences demonstrated higher fitness tests scores (p < 0.01). These findings show that health promotion initiatives or programs for promoting physical activity and healthy diet, and preventing obesity and tobacco use, can also have a positive effect on the physical performance of young men during military service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Physical Activity in Health Promotion)
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11 pages, 372 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Psychometric Properties of the Short Version of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale in an Adult Population
by Julian Fritsch, Susanne Weyland, Katharina Feil, Alexander Burchartz, Steffen Schmidt, Alexander Woll, Ulrich Strauch, Benjamin Wienke and Darko Jekauc
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215294 - 19 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1472
Abstract
A new measure of the short form of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES-S), including four items, has been developed that focuses on the subjective experience of enjoyment. As validation has so far only been conducted in a youth population, the purpose of [...] Read more.
A new measure of the short form of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES-S), including four items, has been developed that focuses on the subjective experience of enjoyment. As validation has so far only been conducted in a youth population, the purpose of the present article was to test the psychometric properties of the measure in an adult population in three studies. In the first study (n = 1017) the results supported the unidimensional structure of the instrument (χ2 = 10.0; df = 2; p < 0.01; CFI = 0.992; RMSEA = 0.063), revealed a satisfactory level of internal consistency (ω = 0.79), and showed that the measure is invariant across gender. The results on factorial validity and internal consistency were generally supported by the second study (n = 482), which additionally showed satisfactory test–retest reliability (r = 0.73). Finally, the third study (n = 1336) also supported the factorial validity and internal consistency of the measure and additionally showed a positive correlation with physical activity (r = 0.40), thus supporting the criterion-related validity of the measure. This more economical version of PACES seems to be particularly useful for large-scale studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Physical Activity in Health Promotion)

Review

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8 pages, 557 KiB  
Review
The Influence of Behavioral Sciences on Adherence to Physical Activity and Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Patients: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
by Rafael Corrêa and Benjamin Miranda Tabak
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2024, 21(5), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph21050630 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 721
Abstract
In recent years, weight gain and reduced physical activity in the general population have contributed to the development of obesity and other health problems; on the other hand, studies in behavioral sciences have been used to modify behaviors for a healthier life, so [...] Read more.
In recent years, weight gain and reduced physical activity in the general population have contributed to the development of obesity and other health problems; on the other hand, studies in behavioral sciences have been used to modify behaviors for a healthier life, so the objective of this study was to identify the evidence of interventions in behavioral sciences on adherence to physical activity and weight loss in obese patients. This systematic review study is based on a search of the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane. Studies assessed the evidence from intervention studies that assessed the influence of intervention studies of behavioral sciences on public health. The articles were published between 2013 and 2023. The systematic search of the databases identified 2951 articles. The review analyzed 10 studies. Behavioral science interventions presented evidence through strategies such as multicomponent interventions, lottery and financial incentives, message framing, message framing with financial incentive and physical activity, and psychological satisfaction, demonstrating results in weight loss and maintenance and increased physical activity. This study presents scientific evidence through healthy behavior change methodologies, and future studies can explore these strategies in conjunction with public health technologies in the search for public–private partnerships to promote physical activity in adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Physical Activity in Health Promotion)
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18 pages, 721 KiB  
Review
Knowledge in Motion: A Comprehensive Review of Evidence-Based Human Kinetics
by André Ramalho and João Petrica
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(11), 6020; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20116020 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3982
Abstract
This comprehensive review examines critical aspects of evidence-based human kinetics, focusing on bridging the gap between scientific evidence and practical implementation. To bridge this gap, the development of tailored education and training programs is essential, providing practitioners with the expertise and skills to [...] Read more.
This comprehensive review examines critical aspects of evidence-based human kinetics, focusing on bridging the gap between scientific evidence and practical implementation. To bridge this gap, the development of tailored education and training programs is essential, providing practitioners with the expertise and skills to effectively apply evidence-based programs and interventions. The effectiveness of these programs in improving physical fitness across all age groups has been widely demonstrated. In addition, integrating artificial intelligence and the principles of slow science into evidence-based practice promises to identify gaps in knowledge and stimulate further research in human kinetics. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers and practitioners with comprehensive information on the application of scientific principles in human kinetics. By highlighting the importance of evidence-based practice, this review is intended to promote the adoption of effective interventions to optimize physical health and enhance performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Physical Activity in Health Promotion)
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Other

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22 pages, 735 KiB  
Systematic Review
Strategies and Best Practices That Enhance the Physical Activity Levels of Undergraduate University Students: A Systematic Review
by Chanté Johannes, Nicolette V. Roman, Sunday O. Onagbiye, Simone Titus and Lloyd L. Leach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2024, 21(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph21020173 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Significant numbers of undergraduate university students are not meeting the physical activity guidelines recommended by the World Health Organisation. These guidelines suggest that university students should aim for 150–300 min of moderate or 75–150 min of vigorous physical activity. Strategic interventions need to [...] Read more.
Significant numbers of undergraduate university students are not meeting the physical activity guidelines recommended by the World Health Organisation. These guidelines suggest that university students should aim for 150–300 min of moderate or 75–150 min of vigorous physical activity. Strategic interventions need to be implemented to address this global public health concern. The aim of this study was to review the strategies and best practices to enhance the physical activity levels of undergraduate university students. Utilising the PRISMA guidelines, electronic databases—PubMed, Science Direct, Academic Search Complete, ERIC, Web of Science, CINAHL, SAGE, and SPORTDiscus—were searched between September 2022 and February 2023 using terms and synonyms related to physical activity, strategies, best practices, and undergraduate university students. Studies were critically assessed for their quality using an adapted version of the CASP and RE-AIM frameworks. Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria for the review. The studies reported the use of social media platforms, mobile phone applications, web-based technology, online text messages, in-person classes, and an “exergame” as methods to increase engagement in physical activity. Findings from this review indicated that validated questionnaires emerged as the predominant measurement tool. Furthermore, the frequent use of social network sites served as a best practice for implementing and promoting physical activity interventions. It is recommended that universities promote health-enhancing physical activities based on current trends and strategies, such as technology-based interventions and the use of social media, that are relevant to contemporary university students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Physical Activity in Health Promotion)
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