Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 56834

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

College of Health, Psychology and Social Care,University of Derby, Kedleston Road, Derby DE22 1GB, UK
Interests: mental health; individual differences and cross-cultural research; stress/stress-reduction; adjustment to long-term conditions; digital health interventions

Special Issue Information

 Dear Colleagues,

Awareness of mental health has been increasing rapidly worldwide in recent years, and even more so since the outbreak of COVID-19. Depression is now regarded as one of the most debilitating diseases of all, and wellbeing is incorporated into the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals. In order for all of us to have a happy life, mental health cannot be ignored. As the UK government announced, our health cannot be achieved without good mental health. Likewise, turning to Asia, the word ‘health (健康)’ in Chinese and Japanese includes both a healthful body and a calm mind. The Japanese government implemented the work style reform to protect employees’ mental health. While these movements suggest the importance of mental health worldwide, a universal definition of mental health still remains to be defined. This is partly attributed to a lack of understanding of mental health from different cultures. How an individual regards mental health can be largely differ according to their culture. Accordingly, this Special Issue aims to address this problem by introducing alternative views to mental health through discussing cross-cultural psychiatric matters. 

We are interested in various types of manuscripts, including original research, systematic reviews, reviews, mini-reviews, policy and practice reviews, perspectives, clinical trials, case reports, community case studies, brief research reports, and general commentaries. 

Dr. Yasuhiro Kotera
Dr. Elaina Taylor
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mental health
  • cross-culture
  • psychiatry
  • intervention
  • compassion
  • religion
  • ikigai
  • nature

Published Papers (25 papers)

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12 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
“Crying on the Bus”: First Time Fathers’ Experiences of Distress on Their Return to Work
Healthcare 2023, 11(9), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11091352 - 08 May 2023
Viewed by 1380
Abstract
There is increasing research interest in the experiences of new fathers taking paternity leave, but less insight into men’s experiences of returning to work after the birth of their first baby. For many men in the UK context, this could take place immediately [...] Read more.
There is increasing research interest in the experiences of new fathers taking paternity leave, but less insight into men’s experiences of returning to work after the birth of their first baby. For many men in the UK context, this could take place immediately after the birth or after one or two weeks of paternity leave. This paper utilizes data from a UK-based study whilst also drawing on international literature and policy contexts. A constructivist grounded theory method was adopted to generate theory from the data gathered. Twelve new fathers shared their experiences in this study by participating in audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews. This paper focuses on fathers’ experiences of negotiating the workplace as part of an overall theoretical framework related to broader transitions to fatherhood and sheds light on the distress, guilt and psychological challenges that the participants experienced when they initially returned to work. Whether fathers did or did not explicitly describe distress at this time, they all described a change in their worker identity, which for some participants led to uncertainty in the workplace. Men returning to work at this time in the postnatal period are vulnerable to experiencing distress. Flexibility and support in the workplace could be protective of their mental health. Finally, policy and practice developments are offered to support men’s transitions to fatherhood in the workplace context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
13 pages, 620 KiB  
Article
Effect of Mindfulness Breathing Meditation on Depression, Anxiety, and Stress: A Randomized Controlled Trial among University Students
Healthcare 2023, 11(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11010026 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5738
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 outbreak has caused various changes in all aspects of human life, including the educational system. These changes have forced students to undertake an adaptive process that has inevitably affected aspects of their life and psychological well-being. Adaptation of learning into [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 outbreak has caused various changes in all aspects of human life, including the educational system. These changes have forced students to undertake an adaptive process that has inevitably affected aspects of their life and psychological well-being. Adaptation of learning into online forms in universities, including nursing, triggers depression, stress, and anxiety. The high number of incidences of stress, anxiety, and depression in undergraduate students throughout the pandemic has made it important to prevent and deal with health approaches, such as mindfulness therapy. Objective: This research intended to examine whether an intervention based on mindfulness was effective and had the potential to become an interference to reduce anxiety, stress, and depression in Indonesian university students. Methods: This research applied a randomized controlled trial. One hundred and twenty-two students from Universitas Padjadjaran and other provinces in Indonesia participated in this study, with sixty-one students in each group. A pretest and a post-test were administered before and after the intervention using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-42). The intervention was carried out for 4 weeks with 15 min practice in each session. Results: In this study, there was an effect of mindfulness breathing meditation on decreasing the mean scores for depression, anxiety, and stress in the intervention group. However, only stress (p = 0.007) and anxiety (p = 0.042) showed a significant difference in the post-test results of the intervention and control groups. In addition, there was no difference in the scores of stress, anxiety, and depression for the pre–post-tests in each group based on religion. Conclusion: Mindfulness breathing meditation has an impact on reducing stress and anxiety in students, so it could be applied to all university students in order to develop psychosocial status and mindful attentiveness to one’s needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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15 pages, 831 KiB  
Article
Development of a Psychological Intervention to Improve Depressive Symptoms and Enhance Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among Adolescents and Young People Living with HIV in Dar es Salaam Tanzania
Healthcare 2022, 10(12), 2491; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10122491 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
Background: Interventions that simultaneously target depression and antiretroviral therapy (ART) medication adherence are recommended for improving HIV treatment outcomes and quality of life for adolescents living with HIV. However, evidence is scarce on culturally feasible and acceptable interventions that can be implemented [...] Read more.
Background: Interventions that simultaneously target depression and antiretroviral therapy (ART) medication adherence are recommended for improving HIV treatment outcomes and quality of life for adolescents living with HIV. However, evidence is scarce on culturally feasible and acceptable interventions that can be implemented for HIV-positive adolescents in Tanzania. We, therefore, developed a manualized brief psychological intervention that utilizes evidence-based strategies to address depression and ART adherence in adolescents living with HIV in Tanzania. Methods: We used the Theory of Change Enhanced Medical Research Council framework (TOCMRC) for developing complex interventions in health care to develop the intervention in five phases. First, the literature was reviewed to identify potential intervention components. Second, we conducted a situational analysis using qualitative interviews with adolescents living with HIV, health care providers, and caregivers. Third, we conducted a mental health expert workshop; and fourth, theory of change workshops with representatives from the Ministry of Health, mental health professionals, HIV implementing partners, adolescents, and healthcare providers. Lastly, we synthesized results to finalize the intervention and a theory of change map showing the causal pathway for how we expect the developed intervention to achieve its impact. Results: Adolescents living with HIV in Tanzania experience several unmet mental health needs ranging from overwhelming depressive symptoms to not feeling understood by healthcare providers who lack mental health knowledge. Participants perceived psychological intervention that utilizes a task-shifting approach to be acceptable and beneficial to addressing those problems. The novel components of the NITUE intervention included incorporating evidence-based intervention components, namely, cognitive–behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, and problem solving. In addition, caregiver inclusion in the treatment was essential to ensure access to care, compliance, and improved outcomes. Conclusions: A culturally appropriate brief psychological intervention that utilizes a task-shifting approach to address depression and medication adherence for adolescents living with HIV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was developed. The intervention will be piloted for appropriateness, feasibility, and acceptability and will provide material for a future trial to determine its effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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12 pages, 223 KiB  
Article
A Social Emotional Learning Training Programme in a Poor Rural Primary School in Central China: A Pre-Post Intervention Study
Healthcare 2022, 10(11), 2332; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10112332 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Introduction: Many universal school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programmes in the U.S. and Europe have been found to improve social skills and reduce emotional distress and behaviour problems. The aim of this study is to determine whether an adapted version of the [...] Read more.
Introduction: Many universal school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programmes in the U.S. and Europe have been found to improve social skills and reduce emotional distress and behaviour problems. The aim of this study is to determine whether an adapted version of the SEL can reduce social, emotional, and behavioural difficulties in children in mainland China, using a pre-post intervention design. Methods: The study was conducted in a primary school in an economically-disadvantaged rural area in Henan province in central China. The intervention consisted of 16 weekly 90-minunte classroom sessions involving all 190 children in the school. Social and emotional problems were assessed pre- and post- intervention using the Chinese version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The results suggest that: (1) the programme can reduce children’s peer relationship problems, and that the reduction was sustainable at the two post-intervention assessments; (2) the intervention effects on emotional symptoms or total difficulties in the overall population are very few, but children identified as high risk in the initial assessment benefited from the programme. Conclusions: This is the first published report on the effectiveness of a school-based SEL programme in mainland China. Although the improvement are limited, the programme does benefit some children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
9 pages, 228 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Psychological Disability and Religious Practice and Coping Strategies in Caregivers of Children with Traumatic Brain Injury in Pakistani Population
Healthcare 2022, 10(11), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10112158 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious issue and a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Caregivers of TBI patients experience psychological distress and a variety of social and financial issues. The present study aims to investigate the caregiver’s burden and [...] Read more.
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious issue and a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Caregivers of TBI patients experience psychological distress and a variety of social and financial issues. The present study aims to investigate the caregiver’s burden and the factors that influence this burden. Furthermore, the present study will find out the association of religious practice, religious coping relations and psychological distress among caregivers of children affected with TBI. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 302 caregivers of children with TBI using Duke University Religion Index (DURL) for religious practice. General Health Questionaire-12 (GHQ-12) was used for anxiety and depression and Brief Religious Coping Scale (RCOPE) was used for coping strategies. The caregivers were conveniently chosen from different regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and data was collected from different tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar. Results: Forty-nine (49) % of caregivers score ≥ 3 on GHQ suffer from psychological distress with a Mean of 20.957 ± 4.175). Positive coping methods were mostly used by caregivers than negative coping have a low level of distress with a Mean Positive Coping (P-COPE ) of 6.93 ± 0.41, Mean of Negative Coping (N-COPE) 0.486 ± 1.023. In religious practice, caregivers mostly participate in Organized Reliogious Activities (ORA) or some Non-Organized Reliogious Activities (NORA) with a Mean ORA of 4.20 ± 1.27, and NORA Mean of 4.17 ± 1.37 used by the caregivers. Coping methods were related to Caregiver psychological distress (GHQ-12 and P-COPE co-relation scores are (ρ −0.022, p b 0.05); GHQ-12 scores and N-COPE (ρ + 0.221=, p b 0.001). There is a negative correlation between GHQ 12 and PCOPE, while GHQ12 is positively correlated with NCOPE. Conclusion: According to this study, there is a significant association between religious coping methods, religious practice, and psychological distress among caregivers of children with traumatic brain injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
12 pages, 582 KiB  
Article
Mental Well-Being of Czech University Students: Academic Motivation, Self-Compassion, and Self-Criticism
Healthcare 2022, 10(11), 2135; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10112135 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2155
Abstract
University students in the Czech Republic suffer from a low level of mental well-being. Research in other university student populations suggests that academic motivation, self-compassion, and self-criticism are strongly related to mental well-being. Students who are motivated to study, are kind toward themselves, [...] Read more.
University students in the Czech Republic suffer from a low level of mental well-being. Research in other university student populations suggests that academic motivation, self-compassion, and self-criticism are strongly related to mental well-being. Students who are motivated to study, are kind toward themselves, and are less judgmental of themselves tend to have a high level of mental well-being. These relationships had not been evaluated in Czech students. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the relationships between mental well-being, academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation), self-compassion (self-reassurance) and self-criticism (self-inadequacy and self-hate). Of 130 students approached, a convenience sampling of 119 psychology students at a university in the Czech Republic completed a survey regarding these constructs. Correlation, regression, and path analyses were conducted. Mental well-being was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and self-compassion, and negatively associated with amotivation and self-criticism. Self-compassion was identified as the strongest predictor of mental well-being. Lastly, intrinsic motivation mediated the pathway from self-compassion to mental well-being, but not the one from self-inadequacy to mental well-being, and the one from self-hate to mental well-being. Our findings can help educators to identify effective means to protect students’ mental well-being. Cultivating students’ self-compassion may be helpful to protect their mental well-being. University staff and educators in the Czech Republic need to consider ways to embed self-compassion training into their students’ programmes or university life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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14 pages, 398 KiB  
Article
Urban–Rural Distinction or Economic Segmentation: A Study on Fear and Inferiority in Poor Children’s Peer Relationships
Healthcare 2022, 10(10), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10102057 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Peer relationships play an important role in the growth of children. This study offers insights about feelings of fear and inferiority in children’s peer relationships. Based on a national survey, the 2018 Construction for Social Policy Support System for Urban and Rural Poor [...] Read more.
Peer relationships play an important role in the growth of children. This study offers insights about feelings of fear and inferiority in children’s peer relationships. Based on a national survey, the 2018 Construction for Social Policy Support System for Urban and Rural Poor Families in China, initiated by the Ministry of Civil Affairs, and using multiple regression models and a structural equation model, this study discusses whether and how having a rural household registration or being from a poor (dibao) family has an isolation effect on fear and inferiority in children’s peer relationships. The research findings indicate that children with a rural household registration or those from a dibao family are at a disadvantage in peer interactions. Moreover, rural resident identity has an indirect effect on children’s fear of peers and inferiority, mainly through psychological resilience, anxiety and depression, and mobile phone dependence. Being from a dibao family directly influences children’s fear and inferiority in their peer relationships; it also indirectly influences fear of peers and inferiority through psychological resilience. This study suggests that more attention should be paid to fear of peers and inferiority in rural children or children from a dibao family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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13 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder with Psychotic Features: Is It a Clinical Entity?
Healthcare 2022, 10(10), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10101910 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2409
Abstract
(1) Background: Even though the comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and a psychotic disorder (PD), such as schizophrenia, is being increasingly recognized, the impact of this comorbidity on the clinical presentation, including insight into obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the functioning of OCD, remains unclear. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Even though the comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and a psychotic disorder (PD), such as schizophrenia, is being increasingly recognized, the impact of this comorbidity on the clinical presentation, including insight into obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the functioning of OCD, remains unclear. (2) Methods: To investigate clinical differences between OCD patients with and without PD, 86 Japanese outpatients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD were recruited and divided into two groups: 28 OCD patients with PD, and 58 OCD patients without PD. The two groups were cross-sectionally compared in terms of their sociodemographic profiles and clinical characteristics, including the DSM-IV-TR insight specifier and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). (3) Results: The results showed that OCD patients with PD scored lower on both the insight and GAF assessments. (4) Conclusions: The present study suggests that comorbid PD in OCD is a clinical entity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
14 pages, 1871 KiB  
Article
Sharing Visual Narratives of Diabetes on Social Media and Its Effects on Mental Health
Healthcare 2022, 10(9), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10091748 - 12 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1631
Abstract
Diabetes is a chronic illness affecting over six percent of the global population. Visual social media sites such as Tumblr provide a unique opportunity to understand visual illness narratives of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and its effects on mental health. We [...] Read more.
Diabetes is a chronic illness affecting over six percent of the global population. Visual social media sites such as Tumblr provide a unique opportunity to understand visual illness narratives of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and its effects on mental health. We qualitatively analyze 259 Tumblr images with a “diabetes” hashtag. The results provide rich insights into the lives of diabetes patients, including personal and social life interactions, visual narratives portraying one’s acceptance and maintenance of diabetes, difficulty in social interactions, and how patients’ identity and beliefs are shaped by the daily struggles and failures of living with diabetes. We discuss the findings in the context of the chaos, quest, and restitution narratives of illness proposed by Arthur Frank. The results have implications for the visual representation of chronic diseases on social media and for improving patient–provider interactions and treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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9 pages, 516 KiB  
Article
Association between Locomotive Syndrome and Physical Activity in Long-Term Inpatients of Psychiatric Care Wards in Japan: A Preliminary Study
Healthcare 2022, 10(9), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10091741 - 11 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the status of locomotive syndrome (LS) and the level of physical activity (PA) in long-term inpatients in a psychiatric care ward and to investigate the association between the severity of LS and the level [...] Read more.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the status of locomotive syndrome (LS) and the level of physical activity (PA) in long-term inpatients in a psychiatric care ward and to investigate the association between the severity of LS and the level of PA. The study participants consisted of 25 patients aged 55 years or older who had been admitted to a psychiatric care ward for more than one year. The participants’ LS stage was determined and their level of PA was measured using an accelerometer. We also analyzed the correlations between the LS stage test results, level of PA, and values for each assessment item. The LS stage test showed that 84.0% of the participants were at stages 3. The participants’ mean step count was 3089.8 ± 2346.5 steps. The participants’ mean sedentary time was 349.7 ± 68.9 min, which is more than 70% of the total measuring time. Overall, the results indicate that LS stage was significantly correlated to age, ADL, and level of PA. Patients who stay in a psychiatric care ward experience declining motor functioning and lack PA. Deterioration of motor functioning is associated with lack of PA, suggesting the need for physical intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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13 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
Caregiver Representations of Therapeutic Patient Education Programmes for People with Schizophrenia: A Qualitative Study
Healthcare 2022, 10(9), 1644; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10091644 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Background: In France, there are two main types of psychosocial educational therapies for people with mental disorders: (1) therapeutic patient education (TPE) or “training”, and (2) psychoeducation. Both types of educational therapy aim to improve disease morbidity, treatment compliance and patient quality of [...] Read more.
Background: In France, there are two main types of psychosocial educational therapies for people with mental disorders: (1) therapeutic patient education (TPE) or “training”, and (2) psychoeducation. Both types of educational therapy aim to improve disease morbidity, treatment compliance and patient quality of life, but they have very different modes of application. The aim of this study was to interview mental health professionals in order to explore and identify the determinants (barriers and enablers) underlying their acceptance of therapeutic patient education (TPE) in order to facilitate the implementation of these programmes among people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. Methods: In this multicentre cross-sectional study, we opted for a qualitative approach based on individual semi-structured interviews with 21 mental health professionals trained in TPE, regardless of whether they had practiced it before or not. In accordance with the “Jardé” law (Decree no 2016-1537 dated 16 November 2016 published on 17 November 2016 in the Official Journal of the French Republic). No regulatory approval was required for this study. Results: The major themes that emerged from the analysis were grouped into the following conceptual framework: (1) mental health professionals (MHPs) highlight important organizational and institutional challenges that they feel are beyond their scope; (2) MHPs mention in parallel their own perceptions and representations of TPE in the context of mental health care; and (3) MHPs’ representations could hide a lack of knowledge or awareness that would prevent them from appropriating TPE programmes. For each major theme, the sub-themes identified are presented. Conclusions: Although TPE is of interest in the process of patient empowerment, we found that caregivers were reluctant to appropriate this approach to care. Efforts must be made in the initial and ongoing training of MHPs to move from a paternalistic model to a patient partnership model, which is made possible by TPE. These efforts must also be firmly supported by health care facilities, and proactive governance is required for the successful implementation of TPE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
16 pages, 322 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Academic Motivation between Business and Healthcare Students in Online Learning: A Concurrent Nested Mixed-Method Study
Healthcare 2022, 10(8), 1580; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10081580 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2312
Abstract
While the demand for online education and the diversity of online students have been increasing worldwide, how online students motivate themselves to continuously engage in learning remains to be appraised. Research in the face-to-face contexts reports that academic motivation is central to student [...] Read more.
While the demand for online education and the diversity of online students have been increasing worldwide, how online students motivate themselves to continuously engage in learning remains to be appraised. Research in the face-to-face contexts reports that academic motivation is central to student success and wellbeing, and the type of motivation can differ by subject. In particular, the motivation of business students and healthcare students can differ considerably. This study aimed to understand the motivation of online students, and compare them between business and healthcare students using a concurrent nested mixed-method design with correlation and thematic analyses. A survey regarding motivation, learning enjoyment, and study willingness was responded to by 120 online students (61 business and 59 healthcare). Business students were associated with extrinsic motivation, whereas healthcare students were associated with intrinsic motivation. While students in both groups enjoyed the pursuit of knowledge, healthcare students valued the process and accomplishment, whereas business students regarded education as steppingstones in their careers. Findings can help educators develop effective motivational support for these student groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
13 pages, 615 KiB  
Article
Mental Wellbeing of Indonesian Students: Mean Comparison with UK Students and Relationships with Self-Compassion and Academic Engagement
Healthcare 2022, 10(8), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10081439 - 01 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3197
Abstract
The number of Indonesian students in higher education has been increasing rapidly. However, many Indonesian university students report experiencing mental distress. Research on student wellbeing found that self-compassion (i.e., being kind towards oneself in challenging times) and academic engagement (i.e., a commitment and [...] Read more.
The number of Indonesian students in higher education has been increasing rapidly. However, many Indonesian university students report experiencing mental distress. Research on student wellbeing found that self-compassion (i.e., being kind towards oneself in challenging times) and academic engagement (i.e., a commitment and purposeful effort toward study) are essential to students’ mental wellbeing. With the present study, we aimed to assess the mental wellbeing of Indonesian students. A convenience sample of 156 Indonesian students completed self-report measures on mental wellbeing, self-compassion and academic engagement (consisting of vigour, dedication and absorption). To contextualise their mental wellbeing, data from Indonesian students were compared with those from 145 UK students using Welch t-tests. Correlation, regression and mediation analyses were then performed to examine the relationships among these variables. Indonesian students had higher levels of self-compassion and absorption and a lower level of dedication than UK students. Self-compassion and academic engagement explained 36% of variance in mental wellbeing. Self-compassion and vigour were identified as significant predictors of mental wellbeing, whereas self-compassion was the strongest predictor. Lastly, vigour did not mediate the pathway from self-compassion to mental wellbeing. Interventions to support self-compassion and academic engagement, especially vigour, in Indonesian students are recommended to support their mental wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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10 pages, 370 KiB  
Article
Anxiety/Depression Predominance in Liaison-Psychiatry Users of a South-East Mexico Tertiary Hospital
Healthcare 2022, 10(7), 1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10071162 - 22 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1221
Abstract
Patients at tertiary hospitals may find themselves in need of mental health support due to the distress associated with the illness that may or not lead to a psychiatric condition. Here is an overview of the clinical cases treated by the liaison psychiatry [...] Read more.
Patients at tertiary hospitals may find themselves in need of mental health support due to the distress associated with the illness that may or not lead to a psychiatric condition. Here is an overview of the clinical cases treated by the liaison psychiatry service of a public tertiary hospital from Southeast Mexico during its first years of operation (2008–2018), with the purpose of gathering information about the status and needs of this population. A sample of 304 clinical records of patients treated for the first time by the psychiatry service was reviewed, and the distribution by demographic characteristics, diagnosis of mental illness and medical area of reference was analyzed. Anxiety and depression symptoms were the most frequent. Most patients were women, lived in Merida and returned after the first appointment. The neurology service referred most patients, yet most attended directly. General tertiary hospitals should prioritize integrating ad hoc mental and physical health care. Adult women with a profile of anxiety and/or depression would be the first target group. Some areas of opportunity for further research and improvement of mental health services are: preventive services for anxiety and depression, follow-up of patients, attention to relatives of patients at intensive care units, implementation of telehealth alternatives, training on mental health screening and inter- and intra-institutional collaboration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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9 pages, 897 KiB  
Article
Differential Methylation Analysis of Suicidal Ideation Severity in Schizophrenia with the Illumina MethylationEPIC Array
Healthcare 2022, 10(5), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10050809 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1675
Abstract
There is a multitude of factors that makes difficult to identify those at risk for suicide, especially among schizophrenia patients. Suicide cannot be explained by genetics alone, therefore epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are thought to play a role. DNA methylation could be [...] Read more.
There is a multitude of factors that makes difficult to identify those at risk for suicide, especially among schizophrenia patients. Suicide cannot be explained by genetics alone, therefore epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are thought to play a role. DNA methylation could be a valuable tool in helping predict those at-risk individuals. This cross-sectional study comprised 112 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and were grouped according to the current suicidal ideation severity. DNA methylation across the genome was measured with the Infinium® MethylationEPIC BeadChip. We utilized the dmpFinder and bumphunter functions within the Bioconductor minfi package to identify differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs), respectively. Following quality control, we removed one sample from the analysis and reported the most significant DMPs and DMRs associated with suicidal ideation severity. All positions and regions identified in this analysis were only found to have suggestive levels of significance at the genome-wide level. The present study was one of the first to investigate genome-wide methylation and suicidal ideation severity. While there were many strengths of our study, including investigating both differentially methylated positions and regions, further larger-scale studies are necessary to replicate, support, and validate our findings presented here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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15 pages, 1756 KiB  
Article
Assessing Psychological Impact of COVID-19 among Parents of Children Returning to K-12 Schools: A U.S. Based Cross-Sectional Survey
Healthcare 2022, 10(5), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10050775 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2446
Abstract
Background and Purpose: While impacts of the pandemic on family well-being have been documented in the literature, little is known about the psychological challenges faced by children and their parents as schools reopen after mandated closures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was [...] Read more.
Background and Purpose: While impacts of the pandemic on family well-being have been documented in the literature, little is known about the psychological challenges faced by children and their parents as schools reopen after mandated closures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if sending children back to in-person school impacts the mental health of parents and the perceived mental health of their children. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study recruited a nationally representative, non-probability sample of parents or guardians (n = 2100) of children attending grades K-12 in the United States (U.S.) through a 58-item web-based survey. The univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean scores of parental Coronavirus anxiety and Coronavirus obsession were significantly different between race/ethnic groups of parents. Parents with children going to private schools had significantly higher mean scores for Coronavirus anxiety and obsession compared to parents whose children are attending public schools. Nearly 55% of parental Coronavirus anxiety was explained by the generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, child’s vulnerability to infection, and school type of the child. Similarly, 52% of parental Coronavirus obsession was explained by the generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, child’s vulnerability to infection, and social phobia of the children. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has a substantial impact on psychological well-being of parents and their school-going children. Findings of this study will inform policy makers in developing targeted interventions to address unique needs of families with school-going children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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12 pages, 908 KiB  
Article
Mental Health of Czech University Psychology Students: Negative Mental Health Attitudes, Mental Health Shame and Self-Compassion
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040676 - 02 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3692
Abstract
High rates of mental health problems are a growing concern in Czech higher education, negatively impacting students’ performance and wellbeing. Despite the serious nature of poor mental health, students often do not seek help because of negative attitudes and shame over mental health [...] Read more.
High rates of mental health problems are a growing concern in Czech higher education, negatively impacting students’ performance and wellbeing. Despite the serious nature of poor mental health, students often do not seek help because of negative attitudes and shame over mental health problems. Recent mental health research reports self-compassion is strongly associated with better mental health and reduced shame. However, relationships between those constructs remain to be evaluated among Czech students. This study aims to appraise the relationships between mental health problems, negative mental health attitudes, mental health shame, and self-compassion in this population. An opportunity sample of 119 psychology students from a Czech university completed questionnaires regarding these constructs. Correlation, regression, and path analyses were conducted. Mental health problems were positively associated with negative mental health attitudes and shame, and negatively associated with self-compassion. Self-compassion negatively predicted mental health problems, while negative attitudes and shame did not. Last, self-compassion fully mediated the negative attitudes-mental health problems relationship, and partially mediated the shame-mental health problems relationship. Findings suggest self-compassion is essential for mental health in Czech students and associated with negative mental health attitudes and mental health shame. Czech universities can benefit from incorporating self-compassion training into their curricula to protect students’ mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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12 pages, 1937 KiB  
Article
Attitudes and Beliefs of Portuguese and American Nursing Students about Patients’ Sexuality
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040615 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
Nursing school graduates must be prepared to interact comfortably and effectively with patients about their sexual health. This study analyses the attitudes and beliefs about patient sexuality held by Portuguese and American nursing students. Objective: In Portuguese and American nursing students, (1) we [...] Read more.
Nursing school graduates must be prepared to interact comfortably and effectively with patients about their sexual health. This study analyses the attitudes and beliefs about patient sexuality held by Portuguese and American nursing students. Objective: In Portuguese and American nursing students, (1) we analyzed students’ attitudes and beliefs towards sexuality using the Sexuality Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (SABS); (2) we identified nationality, socio-demographic information, and affective-sexual beliefs and attitudes. Method: Quantitative, cross-sectional study; convenience sample of 296 students (63.2% Portuguese; 36.8% American); mean age: 21.9 years (SD = 3.12); two-way ANOVA and multiple correspondence analyses were performed. Results: Attitudes and beliefs toward sexuality: Portuguese women are more liberal than men, contrary to American students. Among both nationalities, participants with multiple sexual partners held more conservative attitudes. Sexual orientation: bisexual American students and homosexual Portuguese students are conservative. Multiple correspondence analysis revealed two profiles: (1) Portuguese students: liberal-tolerant in attitudes towards patient sexuality, live with family/roommate, 18 to 21 years old, no or one sexual partner; (2) US students: traditionalist attitudes towards patient sexuality, share house, 22 and 23 years old, multiple partners. Conclusion: Human sexuality must be addressed in nursing education curricula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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10 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Mental Health Shame, Caregiver Identity, and Self-Compassion in UK Education Students
Healthcare 2022, 10(3), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10030584 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2864
Abstract
Although students in education have high rates of mental health problems, many of them do not ask for help, which can exacerbate their symptoms. One reason for their low help-seeking is shame associated with mental health problems. As education students aspire to provide [...] Read more.
Although students in education have high rates of mental health problems, many of them do not ask for help, which can exacerbate their symptoms. One reason for their low help-seeking is shame associated with mental health problems. As education students aspire to provide care for children, they may feel ashamed to care for themselves, as the role identity theory suggests. Self-compassion is reported to reduce shame and mental health problems. This study explored the relationships between mental health problems, mental health shame, self-compassion, and caregiver identity among UK education students. One hundred and nine postgraduate students completed four self-report scales regarding those constructs. Correlation and regression analyses were performed. Mental health problems were positively associated with shame and identity, and negatively associated with self-compassion. Self-compassion was the only significant predictor of mental health problems. Findings will help educators and education students to develop effective approaches for their mental health problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
13 pages, 680 KiB  
Article
The Nine-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF): Its Psychometric Properties among Sri Lankan Students and Measurement Invariance across Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA
Healthcare 2022, 10(3), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10030490 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3524
Abstract
The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth, especially with the social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely affects mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF) is designed to [...] Read more.
The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth, especially with the social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely affects mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF) is designed to detect IGD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. However, inconsistent results are reported on its capacity to diagnose IGD evenly across different cultures. To ensure the suitability of the IGDS9-SF as a global measure of IGD, this study examined the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in a sample of Sri Lankan university students (N = 322, mean age = 17.2 ± 0.6, range = 16–18 years, 56.5% males) and evaluated its measurement invariance across samples from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA. Among Sri Lankan students, a unidimensional structure expressed good fit, invariance across different groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, and income), adequate criterion validity (strong correlation with motives of internet gaming, daily gaming duration, and sleep quality), and good reliability (alpha = 0.81). Males and online multiplayers expressed higher IGD levels, greater time spent gaming, and more endorsement of gaming motives (e.g., Social and Coping) than females and offline players. Across countries, the IGDS9-SF was invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, although strict invariance was not maintained. The lowest and highest IGD levels were reported among Turkish and American respondents, respectively. In conclusion, the IGDS9-SF can be reliably used to measure IGD among Sri Lankan youth. Because the scale holds scalar invariance across countries, its scores can be used to compare IGD levels in the studied countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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20 pages, 645 KiB  
Article
Psychological Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Rural Physicians in Ontario: A Qualitative Study
Healthcare 2022, 10(3), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10030455 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2896
Abstract
Frontline rural physicians in Canada are vulnerable to the psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic considering their high pre-pandemic burnout rates as compared to their urban counterparts. This study aims to understand the psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on rural family physicians [...] Read more.
Frontline rural physicians in Canada are vulnerable to the psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic considering their high pre-pandemic burnout rates as compared to their urban counterparts. This study aims to understand the psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on rural family physicians engaged in full-time primary care practice in Ontario and the stressors behind any identified challenges. Recruitment combined purposive, convenience, and snowball sampling. Twenty-five rural physicians participated in this study. Participants completed a questionnaire containing Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (depression), General Anxiety Disorder-2 (anxiety), and Perceived Stress Scale-4 (stress) screening as well as questions exploring self-reported perceptions of change in their mental health, followed by a semi-structured virtual interview. Quantitative data showed an overall increase in self-reported depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Thematic analysis revealed seven qualitative themes including the positive and negative psychological impacts on rural physicians, as well as the effects of increased workload, infection risk, limited resources, and strained personal relationships on the mental health of rural physicians. Coping techniques and experiences with physician wellness resources were also discussed. Recommendations include establishing a rapid locum supply system, ensuring rural representation at decision-making tables, and taking an organizational approach to support the mental health of rural physicians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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11 pages, 474 KiB  
Article
Suicidal Ideation during the COVID-19 Pandemic among A Large-Scale Iranian Sample: The Roles of Generalized Trust, Insomnia, and Fear of COVID-19
Healthcare 2022, 10(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10010093 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2360
Abstract
The novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is still not under control globally. The pandemic has caused mental health issues among many different cohorts and suicidal ideation in relation to COVID-19 has been reported in a number of recent studies. Therefore, the present study [...] Read more.
The novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is still not under control globally. The pandemic has caused mental health issues among many different cohorts and suicidal ideation in relation to COVID-19 has been reported in a number of recent studies. Therefore, the present study proposed a model to explain the associations between generalized trust, fear of COVID-19, insomnia, and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic among a large-scale Iranian sample. Utilizing cluster sampling with multistage stratification, residents from Qazvin province in Iran were invited to participate in the present study. Adults aged over 18 years (n = 10,843; 6751 [62.3%] females) completed ‘paper–and-pencil’ questionnaires with the assistance of a trained research assistant. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to understand the associations between generalized trust, fear of COVID-19, insomnia, and suicidal ideation. Slightly over one-fifth of the participants (n = 2252; 20.8%) reported suicidal ideation. Moreover, the SEM results indicated that generalized trust was indirectly associated with suicidal ideation via fear of COVID-19 and insomnia. Furthermore, generalized trust was not directly associated with suicidal ideation. The proposed model was invariant across gender groups, age groups, and participants residing in different areas (i.e., urban vs. rural). Generalized trust might reduce individuals’ suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic period via reduced levels of fear of COVID-19 and insomnia. Healthcare providers and policymakers may want to assist individuals in developing their generalized trust, reducing fear of COVID-19, and improving insomnia problems to avoid possible suicidal behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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14 pages, 2012 KiB  
Article
Emotional Contagion in the Online Depression Community
Healthcare 2021, 9(12), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9121609 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2740
Abstract
Negative emotions are prevalent in the online depression community (ODC), which potentially puts members at risk, according to the theory of emotional contagion. However, emotional contagion in the ODC has not been confirmed. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to verify the [...] Read more.
Negative emotions are prevalent in the online depression community (ODC), which potentially puts members at risk, according to the theory of emotional contagion. However, emotional contagion in the ODC has not been confirmed. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to verify the extent of emotional contagion using data from 1548 sample users in China’s popular ODC. During interaction, the emotional themes were analyzed according to language use. The diurnal patterns of the interaction behaviors were also analyzed. We identified the susceptible groups and analyzed their characteristics. The results confirmed the occurrence of emotional contagion in ODC, that is, the extent to which the user’s emotion was affected by the received emotion. Our study also found that when positive emotional contagion occurred, the replies contained more hopefulness, and when negative emotional contagion occurred, the replies contained more hopelessness and fear. Second, positive emotions were easier to spread, and people with higher activity in ODC were more susceptible. In addition, nighttime was an active period for user interaction. The results can help community managers and support groups take measures to promote the spread of positive emotions and reduce the spread of negative emotions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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9 pages, 223 KiB  
Article
Moderating Effect of Nurse’s Character on the Relationship between Attitudes toward Nursing Care of the Dying and Performance of Terminal Care in South Korea
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091195 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1274
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the moderating effect of nurses’ characteristics on the relationship between attitudes toward nursing care and terminal care performance of hospice nurses. The participants included nurses working in hospice care units in general hospitals in South Korea. Data collected [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the moderating effect of nurses’ characteristics on the relationship between attitudes toward nursing care and terminal care performance of hospice nurses. The participants included nurses working in hospice care units in general hospitals in South Korea. Data collected from August 1 to 31, 2020 were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, Pearson′s correlation coefficients, and hierarchical multiple regression. The performance of terminal care was positively correlated with attitudes toward nursing care of the dying (r = 0.45, p < 0.001) and nurses’ characteristics (r = 0.60, p < 0.001). There was also a positive correlation (r = 0.58, p < 0.001) between attitudes toward nursing care for dying patients and nurses′ characteristics. Nurses’ characteristics had a significant moderating effect on the relationship between attitudes toward nursing care of the dying and performance of terminal care. This means that the nurses’ character had a buffering effect on the relationship between attitudes toward nursing care of the dying and performance of terminal care in hospice care units. These findings suggest that continuous and repetitive educational programs on terminal care need to be enhanced, and strategies to strengthen attitudes toward nursing care of the dying and nurses’ character need to be included in these programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)

Other

Jump to: Research

8 pages, 269 KiB  
Brief Report
Brief COPE Short Version (Mini-COPE): A Proposal of Item and Factorial Reduction in Mexican Population
Healthcare 2023, 11(8), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11081070 - 08 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
The factorial reduction of Brief COPE has not been successfully replicated by independent studies, and few have been performed in Spanish-speaking populations; therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a factorial reduction of the instrument in a large sample of the [...] Read more.
The factorial reduction of Brief COPE has not been successfully replicated by independent studies, and few have been performed in Spanish-speaking populations; therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a factorial reduction of the instrument in a large sample of the Mexican population and perform a convergent and divergent validity of the factors obtained. We distributed a questionnaire via social networks with sociodemographic and psychological variables, including the Brief COPE and the scales of the CPSS, GAD-7, and CES-D to measure stress, anxiety, and depression. A total of 1283 persons were included, most of whom (64.8%) were women and had a bachelor’s degree (55.2%). After performing the exploratory factorial analysis, we did not find a model with an adequate fit and a reduced number of factors; therefore, we decided to reduce the number of items according to the most representative ones of adaptive, maladaptive, and emotional coping strategies. The resulting model with three factors showed good fit parameters and good internal consistency of the factors. In addition, the nature and naming of the factors were confirmed by convergent and divergent validity, with significant negative correlations between factor 1 (active/adaptive) and stress, depression, and anxiety, significant positive correlations between factor 2 (avoidant/maladaptive) and these three variables, and no significant correlation between factor 3 (emotional/neutral) and stress or depression. This shortened version of the brief COPE (Mini-COPE) is a good option to evaluate adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies in Spanish-speaking populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Matters: From Cross-Cultural Perspectives)
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