Special Issue "Essential Medicines Policies in the World"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Policy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jong Hyuk Lee
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan 31499, Korea
Interests: national health insurance; patient access; pharmaco economy; orphan drug; essential drug; medicine policy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The scope of this special issue is focused on but not limited to the following areas of essential medicine policies:

  • Medicine affordability
  • Health expenditure and financing
  • Health technology assessment
  • National health insurance
  • Quality and safety
  • Research and development
  • Regulatory affairs
  • Pricing and reimbursement
  • Quality use
  • Patient access
  • Health security

Dr. Jong Hyuk Lee
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • essential medicine
  • essential drug
  • essential medicine policy
  • patient access
  • equitable access
  • universal health coverage
  • health security
  • health expenditure
  • health insurance
  • pharmaceutical expenditure
  • affordability
  • quality and safety
  • quality use
  • research and development
  • pricing and reimbursement
  • health technology assessment

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Political Legitimacy of the Healthcare System in Portugal: Insights from the European Social Survey
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020202 - 13 Feb 2021
Viewed by 248
Abstract
This article investigates the political legitimacy of the health care system and the effects of austerity on the population’s welfare, paying particular attention to Portugal, a country severely harmed by the economic crisis. Based on analysis of data collected from the European Social [...] Read more.
This article investigates the political legitimacy of the health care system and the effects of austerity on the population’s welfare, paying particular attention to Portugal, a country severely harmed by the economic crisis. Based on analysis of data collected from the European Social Survey on 14,988 individuals living in private households during the years between 2002 and 2018, the findings of this study aim to analyze the social and political perception of citizens on the state of health services in two distinctive periods—before and after the economic crisis, according to self-interest, ideological preferences, and institutional setup as predictors of the satisfaction with the health system. The results demonstrate a negative attitude towards the health system over the years, a consistent drop during the financial crisis period, and a rapid recovery afterward. The research also shows that healthcare evaluations depend on the perceived institutional effectiveness in the citizenry’s eyes. The more the citizens perceive the government as effective and trust-worthy, the more they are satisfied with the health system. Also, differences in healthcare evaluations among social groups were felt unequally: while vulnerable citizens were more affected by the Government’s plan of austerity measures for health reform, healthcare evaluations of better-off social groups—younger individuals, those with higher incomes, higher education, and better health status—did not decline. This study contributes to the academic debate on the effects of austerity on the population’s welfare attitudes and highlights the need to examine the different impacts of reforms introduced by the crisis on social groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Medicines Policies in the World)
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Open AccessArticle
Patient Safety Culture in EU Legislation
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040410 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Patient safety means a condition in which a patient does not suffer any unnecessary actual harm, nor is exposed to any potential harm related to healthcare. The World Health Organization’s recognition of patient safety, as one of the most important factors in determining [...] Read more.
Patient safety means a condition in which a patient does not suffer any unnecessary actual harm, nor is exposed to any potential harm related to healthcare. The World Health Organization’s recognition of patient safety, as one of the most important factors in determining high quality healthcare, initiated the systematic introduction of changes in the approach to this issue, both globally and on the level of individual healthcare service providers. In order to enhance the quality and ensure the safety of healthcare services provided, national, European Union, and worldwide institutions focus on the introduction of a so-called patient safety culture. The creation of this safety culture would not be possible without the establishment of its legal framework. The purpose of this article is to shed light on the legislative achievements of the European Union within patient safety, taking into consideration acts that summarize the level of implementation of individual recommendations. This study can be useful both for those who focus their scientific interests on the subject of patient safety and those who need concise information on the legislative measures of the Community in this respect, as well as for medical personnel who want to become acquainted with this issue without reading comprehensive legal acts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Medicines Policies in the World)
Open AccessArticle
Price-Cutting Trends in New Drugs after Listing in South Korea: The Effect of the Reimbursement Review Pathway on Price Reduction
Healthcare 2020, 8(3), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030233 - 26 Jul 2020
Viewed by 968
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the trends of post-listing price changes for new drugs listed from 2007, when the health technology assessment (HTA) was introduced in South Korea, until 2017. We analyzed 135 products that have undergone price cuts. These products were analyzed [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the trends of post-listing price changes for new drugs listed from 2007, when the health technology assessment (HTA) was introduced in South Korea, until 2017. We analyzed 135 products that have undergone price cuts. These products were analyzed by their respective review pathways, namely, pharmaco-economic study (PE), weighted average price (WAP), and the without a cost-effectiveness (CE) pathway. Prices were discounted faster in PE than in WAP (p = 0.002 in a comparison between PE and WAP). In addition, the median discount rate of the first price cut was 5.0% (range: 0.1–20.0) for PE, 3.0% (range: <0.1–30.0) for WAP, and 5.0% (range: 0.6–10.9) without a CE pathway. The median cumulative discount rate of PE and WAP showed that the PE pathway products’ discount rates were higher: 10.4% for PE and 6.0% for WAP (p = 0.025 for comparison between PE and WAP). It is necessary to discuss the practical effects of the price-cutting system from a myriad of perspectives, including insurance finance, the value of new drugs, and the accessibility of new drugs to patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Medicines Policies in the World)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Access to Medicines via Non-Pharmacy Outlets in European Countries—A Review of Regulations and the Influence on the Self-Medication Phenomenon
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020123 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Non-pharmacy trade concerns the sale of medicinal products outside of pharmacies, such as limited-service pharmacies, supermarkets, petrol stations, shops open to the public, and kiosks. Access to medicinal products via non-pharmacy outlets varies across the European countries, with a general deregulation of this [...] Read more.
Non-pharmacy trade concerns the sale of medicinal products outside of pharmacies, such as limited-service pharmacies, supermarkets, petrol stations, shops open to the public, and kiosks. Access to medicinal products via non-pharmacy outlets varies across the European countries, with a general deregulation of this market area observable. Increasing the availability of medicines by allowing patients to obtain them outside of pharmacies contributes to the spread of self-medication. The aim of this article was to review the legal regulations enabling the non-pharmacy trade in OTC (over the counter) medicinal products in European countries, with particular emphasis on the analysis of active substances contained in medicines available in the non-pharmacy trade. This analysis has made it possible to distinguish three categories of countries: (1) where there is a non-pharmacy trade in OTC medicinal products, (2) where there is a limited non-pharmacy trade in OTC medicines, (3) where there is only a pharmacy trade in OTC medicinal products. In the context of these considerations, we highlight the impact of patient access to medicinal products via non-pharmacy sources on raising the prevalence of self-medication. This article identifies the advantages and risks of self-medication, emphasising the role of the pharmacist as an advisor to patients within the scope of the therapies used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Medicines Policies in the World)
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