Special Issue "Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 3"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Hazards".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Anawat Suppasri
Website
Guest Editor
International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University, Miyagi Prefecture 980-0845, Japan
Interests: tsunami numerical modeling; tsunami generation mechanism; tsunami damage field survey; tsunami vulnerability; tsunami hazard and risk evaluation; disaster prevention education
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There have been great improvements in tsunami disaster risk reduction, especially after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami. These include improvements in tsunami warning and monitoring systems, coastal defence structures against tsunamis, evacuation, education, and other social study-related issues. The 2018 Sulawesi tsunami and the 2018 Sunda Strait tsunami were the deadliest tsunami since the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami. These non-seismic tsunami events pointed out some remaining problems in the current understanding of tsunami generation, tsunami warning and monitoring systems, and reconstruction plans. Tsunami awareness is important for such extraordinary events, as promoted through World Tsunami Awareness Day, approved by the United Nations. The third volume of this Special Issue welcomes contributions from geosciences and non-geosciences specialists, in pure and applied tsunami science, as well as from engineers and sociologists working on tsunami risk reduction. This Special Issue aims to cover tsunami research globally, including all processes and aspects of tsunami disasters as well as their cascading effects. Examples of the prospective topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

1) Seismic and non-seismic tsunami sources and their return periods;

2) Tsunami modeling techniques and their application;

3) Deterministic and probabilistic tsunami analyses as well as other statistical approaches;

4) Tsunami hazard and risk assessment at both micro and macro scales as well as cascading effects;

5) Coastal defence structures against tsunamis;

6) Tsunami awareness-related topics such as applications, tools, and other dissemination methods of tsunami warnings, tsunami evacuations, disaster education, and urban planning.

This Special Issue will be a platform for the results of interdisciplinary research on tsunamis, with the aim of achieving the goal of a world that is safer from tsunamis

Dr. Anawat Suppasri
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • tsunamis
  • interdisciplinary researches
  • disaster risk reduction

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Quantifying the Impact of a Tsunami on Data-Driven Earthquake Relief Zone Planning in Los Angeles County via Multivariate Spatial Optimization
Geosciences 2021, 11(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11020099 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Post-earthquake relief zone planning is a multidisciplinary optimization problem, which required delineating zones that seek to minimize the loss of life and property. In this study, we offer an end-to-end workflow to define relief zone suitability and equitable relief service zones for Los [...] Read more.
Post-earthquake relief zone planning is a multidisciplinary optimization problem, which required delineating zones that seek to minimize the loss of life and property. In this study, we offer an end-to-end workflow to define relief zone suitability and equitable relief service zones for Los Angeles (LA) County. In particular, we address the impact of a tsunami in the study due to LA’s high spatial complexities in terms of clustering of population along the coastline, and a complicated inland fault system. We design data-driven earthquake relief zones with a wide variety of inputs, including geological features, population, and public safety. Data-driven zones were generated by solving the p-median problem with the Teitz–Bart algorithm without any a priori knowledge of optimal relief zones. We define the metrics to determine the optimal number of relief zones as a part of the proposed workflow. Finally, we measure the impacts of a tsunami in LA County by comparing data-driven relief zone maps for a case with a tsunami and a case without a tsunami. Our results show that the impact of the tsunami on the relief zones can extend up to 160 km inland from the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 3)
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Open AccessArticle
Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis of Inundated Buildings Following a Subaqueous Volcanic Explosion Based on the 1716 Tsunami Scenario in Taal Lake, Philippines
Geosciences 2021, 11(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11020092 - 16 Feb 2021
Viewed by 345
Abstract
A probabilistic hazard analysis of a tsunami generated by a subaqueous volcanic explosion was performed for Taal Lake in the Philippines. The Taal volcano at Taal Lake is an active volcano on Luzon Island in the Philippines, and its eruption would potentially generate [...] Read more.
A probabilistic hazard analysis of a tsunami generated by a subaqueous volcanic explosion was performed for Taal Lake in the Philippines. The Taal volcano at Taal Lake is an active volcano on Luzon Island in the Philippines, and its eruption would potentially generate tsunamis in the lake. This study aimed to analyze a probabilistic tsunami hazard of inundated buildings for tsunami mitigation in future scenarios. To determine the probabilistic tsunami hazard, different explosion diameters were used to generate tsunamis of different magnitudes in the TUNAMI-N2 model. The initial water level in the tsunami model was estimated based on the explosion energy. The tsunami-induced inundation from the TUNAMI-N2 model was overlaid on the distribution of buildings. The tsunami hazard analysis of inundated buildings was performed by using the maximum inundation depth in each explosion case. These products were used to calculate the probability of the inundated building given the occurrence of a subaqueous explosion. The results from this study can be used for future tsunami mitigation if a tsunami is generated by a subaqueous volcanic explosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 3)
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Open AccessArticle
How Would the Potential Collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano in La Palma Canary Islands Impact the Guadeloupe Islands? Insights into the Consequences of Climate Change
Geosciences 2021, 11(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11020056 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Tsunamis are among the deadliest threats to coastal areas as reminded by the recent tragic events in the Indian Ocean in 2004 and in Japan in 2011. A large number of tropical islands are indeed exposed due to their proximity to potential tsunami [...] Read more.
Tsunamis are among the deadliest threats to coastal areas as reminded by the recent tragic events in the Indian Ocean in 2004 and in Japan in 2011. A large number of tropical islands are indeed exposed due to their proximity to potential tsunami sources in tectonic subduction zones. For these territories, assessing tsunamis’ impact is of major concern for early warning systems and management plans. The effectiveness of inundation predictions relies, among other things, on processes engaged at the scale of the local bathymetry and topography. As part of the project C3AF that aimed to study the consequences of climate change on the French West Indies, we used the numerical model SCHISM to simulate the propagation of several potential tsunamis as well as their impacts on the Guadeloupe islands (French West Indies). Working from the findings of the most recent studies, we used the simulations of four scenarios of collapse of the Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma, Canary islands. We then used FUNWAVE-TVD to simulate trans-Atlantic wave propagation until they reached the Guadeloupe archipelago where we used SCHISM to assess their final impact. Inundation is quantified for the whole archipelago and detailed for the most exposed areas. Finally, in a climate change perspective, inundation is compared for different sea levels and degrees of vegetation cover deterioration using modified friction coefficients. We then discuss the results showing that climate change-related factors would amplify the impact more in the case of smaller inundation along with model limitations and assumptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 3)
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Open AccessArticle
Evidence of Unknown Paleo-Tsunami Events along the Alas Strait, West Sumbawa, Indonesia
Geosciences 2021, 11(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11020046 - 23 Jan 2021
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Indonesia is exposed to earthquakes, volcanic activities, and associated tsunamis. This is particularly the case for Lombok and Sumbawa Islands in West Nusa Tenggara, where evidence of tsunamis is frequently observed in its coastal sedimentary record. If the 1815 CE Tambora eruption on [...] Read more.
Indonesia is exposed to earthquakes, volcanic activities, and associated tsunamis. This is particularly the case for Lombok and Sumbawa Islands in West Nusa Tenggara, where evidence of tsunamis is frequently observed in its coastal sedimentary record. If the 1815 CE Tambora eruption on Sumbawa Island generated a tsunami with well-identified traces on the surrounding islands, little is known about the consequences of the 1257 CE tremendous eruption of Samalas on the neighboring islands, and especially about the possible tsunamis generated in reason of a paucity of research on coastal sedimentary records in this area. However, on Lombok Island, the eruption of the Samalas volcano produced significant volumes of pyroclastic flows that entered the sea in the North and East of the island. These phenomena must have produced a tsunami that left their traces, especially on Sumbawa Island, whose western coastline is only 14 km away from Lombok’s eastern shore. Therefore, the main goal of this study is to investigate, find evidence, and determine the age of marine-origin sediments along the shore of the Alas Strait, Indonesia. We collected and analyzed samples of coral and seashells from marine deposits identified along the west coast of Sumbawa, i.e., in Belang Island and abandoned fishponds in Kiantar Village, in order to identify the sources and the occurrence period of these deposits events. Based on the radiocarbon dating of coral and seashell samples, we concluded that none of the identified marine deposits along the western coast of Sumbawa could be related chronologically to the 1257 CE eruption of Samalas. However, possible tsunami deposits located in Belang Island and abandoned fishponds in Kiantar Village yielded 4th century CE, 9th century CE, and 17th century CE. We also conclude that past large earthquakes triggered these tsunamis since no known volcanic eruption occurred near the Alas Strait at that time that may have triggered a tsunami. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 3)
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Open AccessArticle
Reassessment of Long-Term Tsunami Hazards in Samoa Based on Sedimentary Signatures
Geosciences 2020, 10(12), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10120481 - 27 Nov 2020
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Investigating tsunamis and cyclones from depositional records enables an understanding of the long-term hazards to coastal communities. In Samoa, whilst a long-term record of tsunamis and cyclones spanning the last few millennia has been previously suggested based on preliminary sediment core/trench studies, a [...] Read more.
Investigating tsunamis and cyclones from depositional records enables an understanding of the long-term hazards to coastal communities. In Samoa, whilst a long-term record of tsunamis and cyclones spanning the last few millennia has been previously suggested based on preliminary sediment core/trench studies, a detailed assessment of the characteristics distinguishing these events has not been presented. This study reevaluates the depositional evidence available for Samoa and offers a more robust interpretation of the temporal and spatial records of tsunami events preserved in the Samoan sedimentary record. Tsunami inundation and runup records of the 2009 South Pacific tsunami along with differences in depositional settings, and sedimentary and geochemical characteristics of the associated deposits provide modern analogies for interpreting comparable older event-type deposits deeper in the Samoan geological record. These are aided by the 1990/1991 Cyclones Ofa and Val deposits previously suggested at some sites, which provides a modern analogy for interpreting cyclone-related deposits. Available radiocarbon and radiometric dates for the core/trench sites provide time-indicators to identify contemporaneous events, which we use to interpret the long-term record of tsunamis in this island region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 3)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Methodology for Measuring Tsunami Resilience Using Theory of Springs
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110469 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Resilience is a deeply rooted word in theory of elasticity, which is firstly introduced to English by Thomas Young in 1807 in his treatise “A course of lectures on natural philosophy and the mechanical arts”. However, recently it is frequently used in ecology, [...] Read more.
Resilience is a deeply rooted word in theory of elasticity, which is firstly introduced to English by Thomas Young in 1807 in his treatise “A course of lectures on natural philosophy and the mechanical arts”. However, recently it is frequently used in ecology, economics, social sciences, and as everyone knows in the disaster literature. The purpose of this article is to investigate the mechanical background of word resilience, discuss lessons we could learn from the theory of elasticity for evaluating tsunami resilience, and finally, to propose a new mathematical model based on theory of springs. The mathematical model is in compliance with a pragmatic conceptual framework for evaluating resilience. The effective resilience of a given area can be calculated by aggregation of three components namely, onsite capacity, instantaneous survivability, and recovery potential of the area. The authors suggest that the magnitude of each component depends on socioeconomic, infrastructural and geographical factors of the area considered. Here, we show that aggregation of the individual components can be done in compliance with the theory of springs by analogizing effective tsunami resilience to effective spring constant. The mathematical model will be useful for evaluating the resilience of townships to hydrological disasters and also planning resilient townships, specifically to tsunami. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 3)
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Open AccessArticle
Stochastic Analysis of Tsunami Hazard of the 1945 Makran Subduction Zone Mw 8.1–8.3 Earthquakes
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110452 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 457
Abstract
Historical records of major earthquakes in the northwestern Indian Ocean along the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ) indicate high potential tsunami hazards for coastal regions of Pakistan, Iran, Oman, and western India. There are fast-growing and populous cities and ports that are economically important, [...] Read more.
Historical records of major earthquakes in the northwestern Indian Ocean along the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ) indicate high potential tsunami hazards for coastal regions of Pakistan, Iran, Oman, and western India. There are fast-growing and populous cities and ports that are economically important, such as Chabahar (Iran), Gwadar (Pakistan), Muscat (Oman), and Mumbai (India). In this study, we assess the tsunami hazard of the 1945 MSZ event (fatalities ≈300 people) using stochastic earthquake rupture models of Mw 8.1–8.3 by considering uncertainties related to rupture geometry and slip heterogeneity. To quantify the uncertainty of earthquake source characteristics in tsunami hazard analysis, 1000 stochastic tsunami scenarios are generated via a stochastic source modeling approach. There are main objectives of this study: (1) developing stochastic earthquake slip models for the MSZ, (2) comparing results of the simulation with the existing observations of the 1945 event, and (3) evaluating the effect of uncertain fault geometry and earthquake slip based on simulated near-shore wave profiles. The 1945 Makran earthquake is focused upon by comparing model predictions with existing observations, consisting of far-field tsunami waveforms recorded on tide gauges in Karachi and Mumbai and coseismic deformation along the Pakistani coast. The results identify the source model that matches the existing observations of the 1945 Makran event best among the stochastic sources. The length, width, mean slip, and maximum slip of the identified source model are 270 km, 130 km, 2.9 m, and 19.3 m, respectively. Moreover, the sensitivity of the maximum tsunami heights along the coastline to the location of a large-slip area is highlighted. The maximum heights of the tsunami and coseismic deformation results at Ormara are in the range of 0.3–7.0 m and −2.7 to 1.1 m, respectively, for the 1000 stochastic source models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 3)
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Numerical Modeling of Tsunami Wave Generation and Propagation with FreeFem++
Geosciences 2020, 10(9), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10090351 - 04 Sep 2020
Viewed by 700
Abstract
A simplified nonlinear dispersive Boussinesq system of the Benjamin–Bona–Mahony (BBM)-type, initially derived by Mitsotakis (2009), is employed here in order to model the generation and propagation of surface water waves over variable bottom. The simplification consists in prolongating the so-called Boussinesq approximation to [...] Read more.
A simplified nonlinear dispersive Boussinesq system of the Benjamin–Bona–Mahony (BBM)-type, initially derived by Mitsotakis (2009), is employed here in order to model the generation and propagation of surface water waves over variable bottom. The simplification consists in prolongating the so-called Boussinesq approximation to bathymetry terms, as well. Using the finite element method and the FreeFem++ software, we solve this system numerically for three different complexities for the bathymetry function: a flat bottom case, a variable bottom in space, and a variable bottom both in space and in time. The last case is illustrated with the Java 2006 tsunami event. This article is designed to be a pedagogical paper presenting to tsunami wave community a new technology and a novel adaptivity technique, along with all source codes necessary to implement it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 3)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating the Behavior of an Onshore Wall and Trench Combination Ahead of a Tsunami-Like Wave
Geosciences 2020, 10(8), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10080310 - 13 Aug 2020
Viewed by 571
Abstract
This study investigates a wall and trench combination to identify its benefits as a defense measure against an overtopping tsunami-like wave. The study focuses on several arrangements and geometries of a wall and trench combined structural system, located on the shoreline. The structural [...] Read more.
This study investigates a wall and trench combination to identify its benefits as a defense measure against an overtopping tsunami-like wave. The study focuses on several arrangements and geometries of a wall and trench combined structural system, located on the shoreline. The structural system is assessed via a numerical model, which is initially calibrated by physical experiments of tsunami-like wave transformations. A dam break event is used to model a tsunami-like wave interaction with the structures. Resulted wave properties are investigated to identify the behavior of the structural system from the viewpoint of structure geometry and configuration. The results of the study clearly show that the proposed structure combination can effectively reduce the impact of tsunami-like waves, better than a single sea wall defense system. This is achieved by reducing both wave run-up and wave induced current velocities at the lee side of the structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 3)
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Open AccessArticle
A National-Scale Assessment of Population and Built-Environment Exposure in Tsunami Evacuation Zones
Geosciences 2020, 10(8), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10080291 - 30 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1163
Abstract
Evacuation zones are a critical tool for mitigating loss of life in tsunami events. In New Zealand, tsunami evacuation zones are implemented by emergency management agencies at regional or sub-regional scales, providing national coverage for populated coastlines at risk to tsunami inundation. In [...] Read more.
Evacuation zones are a critical tool for mitigating loss of life in tsunami events. In New Zealand, tsunami evacuation zones are implemented by emergency management agencies at regional or sub-regional scales, providing national coverage for populated coastlines at risk to tsunami inundation. In this study, we apply the exposure component of a risk model framework (RiskScape) to deliver a first national-scale assessment of New Zealand’s population and built-environment exposure in tsunami evacuation zones. Usually-resident populations, buildings, land and transport network components are identified at an asset level and enumerated at national and regional scales. Evacuation zones are occupied by just under 10% of New Zealand’s population, residing in 399,000 residential buildings. These are supported by a further 5400 critical buildings and 6300 km of road transport network. Approximately 40% of exposed populations and buildings occupy evacuation zones expected to be inundated once every 500 years. This includes over 150,000 people in highly vulnerable age groups, i.e., children and elderly. The complex arrangement of built environments highlights a need for disaster risk managers to proactively identify and prepare populations for evacuation based on their vulnerability to harm from tsunami and ability to access resources for recovery after the event. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 3)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Modeling and Simulation of Tsunami Impact: A Short Review of Recent Advances and Future Challenges
Geosciences 2021, 11(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11010005 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 464
Abstract
Tsunami modeling and simulation has changed in the past few years more than it has in decades, especially with respect to coastal inundation. Among other things, this change is supported by the approaching era of exa-scale computing, whether via GPU or more likely [...] Read more.
Tsunami modeling and simulation has changed in the past few years more than it has in decades, especially with respect to coastal inundation. Among other things, this change is supported by the approaching era of exa-scale computing, whether via GPU or more likely forms of hybrid computing whose presence is growing across the geosciences. For reasons identified in this review, exa-scale computing efforts will impact the on-shore, highly turbulent régime to a higher degree than the 2D shallow water equations used to model tsunami propagation in the open ocean. This short review describes the different approaches to tsunami modeling from generation to impact and underlines the limits of each model based on the flow régime. Moreover, from the perspective of a future comprehensive multi-scale modeling infrastructure to simulate a full tsunami, we underline the current challenges associated with this approach and review the few efforts that are currently underway to achieve this goal. A table of existing tsunami software packages is provided along with an open Github repository to allow developers and model users to update the table with additional models as they are published and help with model discoverability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 3)
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