Special Issue "Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites or Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites"

A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2017) | Viewed by 35500

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Sushanta Ghoshal
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Department of Technical Physics II/Polymer Physics, Ilmenau University of Technology, PO Box 10 05 65, D-98684 Ilmenau, Germany
2. R&D Materials, Voith US Inc., Summerville, SC 29483, USA
Interests: innovative materials for fiber applications; nanocomposites; structure–properties relationship; nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); polymer films; biocomposites; polymer characterizations; high performance fibers and their composites; industrial fibers
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Both basic and applied sciences praise the current advancement of composite materials due to their high application-based potential in the field. Owing to this current research effort, a great future for composites, including nano-composites, is projected in the areas of aerospace, sports, automobiles, drug delivery, packaging, electronics, energy storage, optics, fuel cells, and so on.

This Special Issue is intended to highlight any kind of (1) fiber reinforced polymer composites, and (2) polymer–carbon nanotube nanocomposites. The topics of the Special Issue include, but are not limited to: Different types of fiber-reinforced polymer composites, polymer/Carbon Nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites, green composites, composite processing and characterizations, composite structure–properties relationships, current challenges in the field of composites, and their future applications.

Considering your prominent contributions to composite research, I would like to cordially invite you to submit a paper to this Special Issue that will stimulate continuing efforts on the production, properties, and applications of fiber-reinforced composites or composites with carbon nanotubes. I hope that this Special Issue will provide a timely and comprehensive overview of the state of composites.

Dr. Sushanta Ghoshal
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fibers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fibers (synthetic/man-made, natural)
  • Nanofibers
  • High performance fibers
  • Functionalized fiber
  • Fiber reinforced polymer composites
  • Green composites
  • Carbon nanotubes (CNT)
  • Polymer/CNT nanocomposites
  • Processing
  • Characterizations
  • Properties of composites
  • New processing methods for composites
  • Structure–properties relationship
  • Application of composites

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Hollow-Core FRP–Concrete–Steel Bridge Columns under Torsional Loading
Fibers 2017, 5(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib5040044 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5782
Abstract
This paper presents the behavior of hollow-core fiber-reinforced polymer–concrete–steel (HC-FCS) columns under cyclic torsional loading combined with constant axial load. The HC-FCS consists of an outer fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube and an inner steel tube, with a concrete shell sandwiched between the two [...] Read more.
This paper presents the behavior of hollow-core fiber-reinforced polymer–concrete–steel (HC-FCS) columns under cyclic torsional loading combined with constant axial load. The HC-FCS consists of an outer fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube and an inner steel tube, with a concrete shell sandwiched between the two tubes. The FRP tube was stopped at the surface of the footing, and provided confinement to the concrete shell from the outer direction. The steel tube was embedded into the footing to a length of 1.8 times the diameter of the steel tube. The longitudinal and transversal reinforcements of the column were provided by the steel tube only. A large-scale HC-FCS column with a diameter of 24 in. (610 mm) and applied load height of 96 in. (2438 mm) with an aspect ratio of four was investigated during this study. The study revealed that the torsional behavior of the HC-FCS column mainly depended on the stiffness of the steel tube and the interactions among the column components (concrete shell, steel tube, and FRP tube). A brief comparison of torsional behavior was made between the conventional reinforced concrete columns and the HC-FCS column. The comparison illustrated that both column types showed high initial stiffness under torsional loading. However, the HC-FCS column maintained the torsion strength until a high twist angle, while the conventional reinforced concrete column did not. Full article
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Article
Hydration Phenomena of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes (CNT)/Cement Composites
Fibers 2017, 5(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib5040039 - 19 Oct 2017
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4729
Abstract
The exciting features of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), such as high elastic modulus, high thermal and electrical conductivities, robustness, and nanoscopic surface properties make them attractive candidates for the cement industry. They have the potential to significantly enhanceengineering properties. CNTs play an important and [...] Read more.
The exciting features of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), such as high elastic modulus, high thermal and electrical conductivities, robustness, and nanoscopic surface properties make them attractive candidates for the cement industry. They have the potential to significantly enhanceengineering properties. CNTs play an important and critical role as nano-anchors in concrete, which enhance the strength by bridging pores in the composite matrix, thereby ensuring robust mechanical strength. The diameter, dispersion, aspect ratio, and interfacial surface interaction of CNTs affect the physical and mechanical properties of concrete, if due care is not taken. In this paper, the usable amount of CNT is scaled down considerably from 0.5% to 0.025% by weight of the cement and the fluctuation caused by these phenomena is assessed. It is observed that the properties and exact quantities of incorporated CNTs influence the hydration and consistency of the composites. In order to address these issues, the surface functionalization of CNTs and rheological studies of the composites are performed. The hydration products and functional groups are carefully optimized and characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a Zeta potential analyzer. For Mixes 6 and 7, the compressive and tensile strength of CNTs incorporated in mortar specimens caused77% and 48% increases in split tensile strength, respectively, and 17% and 35% increases in compressive strength, respectively, after 28 days of curing and compared withthe control Mix. Full article
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Article
Multi-Scale Carbon (Micro/Nano) Fiber Reinforcement of Polyetheretherketone Using High Shear Melt-Processing
Fibers 2017, 5(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib5030032 - 28 Aug 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5027
Abstract
Fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites offer lightweight, high mechanical performance but have required much effort to achieve good fiber–matrix adhesion and uniform distribution, and generally suffer from low impact resistance. In this work, a uniform, high shear melt-processing method was used to prepare carbon [...] Read more.
Fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites offer lightweight, high mechanical performance but have required much effort to achieve good fiber–matrix adhesion and uniform distribution, and generally suffer from low impact resistance. In this work, a uniform, high shear melt-processing method was used to prepare carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK), carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced PEEK, and multi-scale CF and CNF reinforced PEEK composites. Scanning electron microscopy images show good fiber distribution and fiber–matrix interaction, as well as surface crystallization of PEEK from the fiber surfaces. Tensile modulus and strength increase most significantly with the addition of CF but with a loss in ductility. The multi-scale composite of CF–CNF-PEEK displays the stiffening effect from the CF and retains more ductility due to the CNF. Further, the CF–CNF-PEEK composite displays the highest impact energy absorption. This study shows that good mixing of CFs and CNFs is achievable in PEEK using a uniform, high shear processing method that can easily produce intricate shapes and provides a stiff, high impact energy absorption multi-scale carbon fiber-reinforced composite. Full article
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Article
The Thermal Conductivities of Periodic Fibrous Composites as Defined by a Mathematical Model
Fibers 2017, 5(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib5030030 - 14 Aug 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4234
Abstract
In this paper, a geometric body-centered model to simulate the periodic structure of unidirectional fibrous composites is presented. To this end, three prescribed configurations are introduced to predict in a deterministic manner the arrangement of internal and neighboring fibers inside the matrix. Thus, [...] Read more.
In this paper, a geometric body-centered model to simulate the periodic structure of unidirectional fibrous composites is presented. To this end, three prescribed configurations are introduced to predict in a deterministic manner the arrangement of internal and neighboring fibers inside the matrix. Thus, three different representative volume elements (RVEs) are established. Furthermore, the concept of the interphase has been taken into account, stating that each individual fiber is encircled by a thin layer of variable thermomechanical properties. Next, these three unit cells are transformed in a unified manner to a coaxial multilayer cylinder model. This advanced model includes the influence of fiber contiguity in parallel with the interphase concept on the thermomechanical properties of the overall material. Then, by the use of this model, the authors propose explicit expressions to evaluate the longitudinal and transverse thermal conductivity of this type of composite. The theoretical predictions were compared with experimental results, as well as with theoretical values yielded by some reliable formulae derived from other workers, and a reasonable agreement was found. Full article
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Review

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Review
Polymer/Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) Nanocomposites Processing Using Additive Manufacturing (Three-Dimensional Printing) Technique: An Overview
Fibers 2017, 5(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib5040040 - 23 Oct 2017
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 8714
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM)/3D printing (3DP) is a revolutionary technology which has been around for more than two decades, although the potential of this technique was not fully explored until recently. Because of the expansion of this technology in recent years, new materials and [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM)/3D printing (3DP) is a revolutionary technology which has been around for more than two decades, although the potential of this technique was not fully explored until recently. Because of the expansion of this technology in recent years, new materials and additives are being searched for to meet the growing demand. 3DP allows accurate fabrication of complicated models, however, structural anisotropy caused by the 3DP approaches could limit robust application. A possible solution to the inferior properties of the 3DP based materials compared to that of conventionally manufactured counterparts could be the incorporation of nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) which have demonstrated remarkable mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. In this article we review some of the research, products, and challenges involved in 3DP technology. The importance of CNT dispersion in the matrix polymer is highlighted and the future outlook for the 3D printed polymer/CNT nanocomposites is presented. Full article
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Review
Multiscale Polymer Composites: A Review of the Interlaminar Fracture Toughness Improvement
Fibers 2017, 5(4), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib5040038 - 10 Oct 2017
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 6689
Abstract
Composite materials are prone to delamination as they are weaker in the thickness direction. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are introduced as a multiscale reinforcement into the fiber reinforced polymer composites to suppress the delamination phenomenon. This review paper presents the detailed progress made by [...] Read more.
Composite materials are prone to delamination as they are weaker in the thickness direction. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are introduced as a multiscale reinforcement into the fiber reinforced polymer composites to suppress the delamination phenomenon. This review paper presents the detailed progress made by the scientific and research community to-date in improving the Mode I and Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness (ILFT) by various methodologies including the effect of multiscale reinforcement. Methods of measuring the Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness of the composites along with the solutions to improve them are presented. The use of different methodologies and approaches along with their performance in enhancing the fracture toughness of the composites is summarized. The current state of polymer-fiber-nanotube composites and their future perspective are also deliberated. Full article
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