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Special Issue "Sustainable Use of Energy in Buildings"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy and Buildings".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Michele De Carli

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 0498276870
Interests: energy efficiency in buildings; radiant systems; GSHP; ZEB; new generation of district heating and cooling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The sustainable use of energy in buildings deals with a complex group of scientific items and with several technologies, including building physics, efficient HVAC systems, and use of renewables in buildings and in the surroundings.

Since most buildings pertain to buildings stock, big effort has to be driven to (but not limited to) old buildings including historical buildings.

For this purpose, research focusing on the performance of envelope solutions (including active and adaptive systems), low temperature heating/high temperature cooling systems, efficient ventilation systems and strategies, and the use of renewable energy sources in buildings and neighborhoods (including demand-response and occupant engagement) are welcome for this Special Issue.

Your contribution may describe mathematical models, test campaigns, case-studies and technological applications in the rational use of energy in new and existing residential, commercial and industrial buildings.

I am looking forward to receiving your submissions.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Michele De Carli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainable use of energy in buildings
  • Building envelope technologies
  • Efficient HVAC systems
  • Soft heating and cooling solutions
  • Efficient ventilation systems and strategies
  • Renewable energy sources in buildings and neighborhoods
  • Occupants behavior
  • Existing and new buildings
  • Nearly zero energy buildings
  • Plus energy buildings and districts

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Optimal Operation of Building Microgrids with Rooftop Greenhouse Under Component Outages in Islanded Mode
Energies 2019, 12(10), 1930; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12101930
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
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Abstract
An optimal operation scheme for a building microgrid with a rooftop greenhouse in islanded mode is proposed in this paper. In islanded mode, the fulfillment of entire demand is challenging due to the absence of connection with the utility grid and the scarcity [...] Read more.
An optimal operation scheme for a building microgrid with a rooftop greenhouse in islanded mode is proposed in this paper. In islanded mode, the fulfillment of entire demand is challenging due to the absence of connection with the utility grid and the scarcity of local resources. The situation becomes more challenging when one or more pieces of equipment fail during the islanded mode. Therefore, in addition to islanded mode operation, component outage and recovery are also considered in this paper. In order to use the available energy efficiently, prioritization of building loads and control parameters of the greenhouse are proposed. A priority weight matrix is adopted to decide the supply of energy to fulfill the requirements of control parameters in the case of insufficient energy. In addition to the normal operation bounds, new bounds are defined to operate the control parameters if the resources are not sufficient. Additional penalties are imposed if the new bounds are chosen, due to violation of the normal operation range. The microgrid system is rescheduled if any component outage or recovery is detected from the outage point to the end of the scheduling horizon. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by carrying out several simulations including component outage, component recovery, and simultaneous outage of two or more types of equipment. Numerical simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed operation scheme for optimal operation of building microgrids with a rooftop greenhouse in islanded mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Use of Energy in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
A Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Algorithm Based on Non-Uniform Sampling of Power Data and Deep Neural Networks
Energies 2019, 12(7), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12071371
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
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Abstract
Nowadays, measurement systems strongly rely on the Internet of Things paradigm, and typically involve miniaturized devices on purpose. In these devices, the computational resources and signal acquisition rates are limited in order to preserve battery life. In addition, the amount of streamed data [...] Read more.
Nowadays, measurement systems strongly rely on the Internet of Things paradigm, and typically involve miniaturized devices on purpose. In these devices, the computational resources and signal acquisition rates are limited in order to preserve battery life. In addition, the amount of streamed data is affected by the network capacity strictly related to the transmission protocol constraints and the environmental conditions. All those limitations are in contrast with the need of exploiting all possible signal details for the task under study. In the specific application of interest, i.e., Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM), they could lead to low performance in the energy disaggregation process. To overcome these issues, an ad hoc data reduction policy needs to be adopted, in order to reduce the acquisition and elaboration burden of the device, and, at the same time, to ensure compliance with network bandwidth limits while maintaining a reliable signal representation. Moved by these motivations, an extended evaluation study concerning the application of data reduction strategy to the aggregate signal is presented in this work. In particular, a non-uniform subsampling (NUS) scheme is defined together with a uniform subsampling (US) strategy and compared, in terms of disaggregation performance, with the use of data at original sampling (OS) rate. A Deep Learning based technique is used for disaggregation, having the aggregate active power signal sampled according to diverse sampling schema mentioned above as input. The approaches are tested on the UK-DALE and REDD datasets, and the combination of US+NUS configurations allows for achieving a good performance in terms of F 1 -score, even superior than the one obtained with the OS rate, and a remarkable data reduction at the same time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Use of Energy in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Simplified Neural Network Model Design with Sensitivity Analysis and Electricity Consumption Prediction in a Commercial Building
Energies 2019, 12(7), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12071201
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 23 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
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Abstract
With growing urbanization, it has become necessary to manage this growth smartly. Specifically, increased electrical energy consumption has become a rapid urbanization trend in China. A building model based on a neural network was proposed to overcome the difficulties of analytical modelling. However, [...] Read more.
With growing urbanization, it has become necessary to manage this growth smartly. Specifically, increased electrical energy consumption has become a rapid urbanization trend in China. A building model based on a neural network was proposed to overcome the difficulties of analytical modelling. However, increased amounts of data, repetitive computation, and training time become a limitation of this approach. A simplified model can be used instead of the full order model if the performance is acceptable. In order to select effective data, Mean Impact Value (MIV) has been applied to select meaningful data. To verify this neural network method, we used real electricity consumption data of a shopping mall in China as a case study. In this paper, a Bayesian Regularization Neural Network (BRNN) is utilized to avoid overfitting due to the small amount of data. With the simplified data set, the building model showed reasonable performance. The mean of Root Mean Square Error achieved is around 10% with respect to the actual consumption and the standard deviation is low, which reflects the model’s reliability. We also compare the results with our previous approach using the Levenberg–Marquardt back propagation (LM-BP) method. The main difference is the output reliability of the two methods. LM-BP shows higher error than BRNN due to overfitting. BRNN shows reliable prediction results when the simplified neural network model is applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Use of Energy in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Analysis of Sunshine Duration Effects in terms of Renewable Energy Production Rates on The LEED BD + C Projects in Turkey
Energies 2019, 12(6), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061116
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
Global warming has been on the agenda over the past few years. Solutions to global warming and energy efficiency problems have brought with them the need for green building market. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a certification system regulating the [...] Read more.
Global warming has been on the agenda over the past few years. Solutions to global warming and energy efficiency problems have brought with them the need for green building market. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a certification system regulating the compliance of green buildings to certain standards and is essential for construction projects focusing on sustainability and innovation. This study investigates the effects of sunshine duration on construction projects reducing annual electricity consumption and increasing renewable energy production. In this study, the effects of sunshine duration times on construction projects are located in different cities in Turkey which has gained point from LEED BD+C (NC) (LEED, Building Design + Construction: New Construction) certificate were analyzed with the help of getting the impact of annual electricity consumption and renewable energy production rates. It was our aim that the results will be used for construction projects in compliance with the “Energy and Atmosphere” category of the LEED BD+C certification system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Use of Energy in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
How Reliable Are Standard Thermal Response Tests? An Assessment Based on Long-Term Thermal Response Tests Under Different Operational Conditions
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3347; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123347
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this contribution, we analyze the results of a number of thermal response test (TRT) experiments performed during several years at the same location at our university campus in Valencia (Spain), a permeable saturated soil area with possible groundwater flow conditions. A combination [...] Read more.
In this contribution, we analyze the results of a number of thermal response test (TRT) experiments performed during several years at the same location at our university campus in Valencia (Spain), a permeable saturated soil area with possible groundwater flow conditions. A combination of different heat injection rates, TRT operation times of up to 32 days, and various methods for parameter estimation of ground thermal properties have been applied to study their influence on the result and accuracy of TRTs. Our main objective has been to experimentally quantify the influence of groundwater flow heat advection using moving infinite and finite line-source theories, as well as to analyze the influence of factors such as test duration, sensor accuracy, and external thermal influences. We have shown that the traditionally used infinite and finite line-source models, as well as the moving line-source models, can accurately represent experimental temperature evolution, but that there are many caveats regarding the significance parameters extracted and its reproducibility and stability. These features can be improved if data from the first test days are disregarded for the analysis, obtaining a much faster convergence to the definitive soil parameter estimates, including the effective Péclet number that represents groundwater flow in our particular case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Use of Energy in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Evaluation of Radiant Heating Ceiling Systems Based on Thermal Comfort Criteria
Energies 2018, 11(11), 2932; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112932
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
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Abstract
Low-temperature radiant heating systems can be considered as suitable candidates for the refurbishment of old heating systems. These systems are proven to save energy, however, their drawback is their impact on the creation of radiant temperature asymmetry and local thermal discomfort, especially in [...] Read more.
Low-temperature radiant heating systems can be considered as suitable candidates for the refurbishment of old heating systems. These systems are proven to save energy, however, their drawback is their impact on the creation of radiant temperature asymmetry and local thermal discomfort, especially in old buildings where the temperatures of surfaces (for example external walls with a low level of insulation and large windows) are low. This study aims to evaluate the potential application of low-temperature radiant ceiling heating systems (28–38 °C) in old and energy-renovated buildings, based on subjective experiments and thermal comfort criteria such as thermal sensation, comfort, satisfaction, and sensation asymmetry votes. Later, in the Discussion section, the guideline for the radiant temperature asymmetry for the warm ceiling presented in ASHRAE Standard-55 is corrected for relatively low air temperatures and different surface temperatures corresponding to “about neutral” conditions for winter clothing. Findings of this research show that the radiant ceiling heating system operating at low temperatures (33–38 °C) can provide fairly neutral thermal sensation and satisfactory comfort at the majority of body-parts, if the building envelope satisfies advanced building energy-efficiency regulations. Additionally, the experimental analyses imply that limitation of 5% suggested by ASHRAE-55 for the percentage of dissatisfied occupants feeling uncomfortable due to overhead radiation can be elevated to 10%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Use of Energy in Buildings)
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