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Special Issue "Resilience of Energy Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2015).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Stefan Gößling-Reisemann

Department of Resilient Energy Systems, University of Bremen, Enrique-Schmidt-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: resilience of energy systems, vulnerabiliy of energy systems, renewable energies, systems analysis, thermodynamics, resource use, critical materials, life cycle assessment
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hermann De Meer

Chair of Computer Networks and Computer Communications, University of Passau, Innstraße 43, Passau, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: network virtualization, self-organizing systems, IT security, safety, and energy-efficiency
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Kröger

ETH Risk Center, SEC D2, Scheuchzerstrasse 7, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The pressure on energy systems is constantly growing: increasing shares of volatile electricity generation, volatile prices for many fossil energy carriers, looming scarcities of fuels and other materials, CO2 taxation and/or trading schemes, rising global demand, political conflicts with higher risks for fuels supply, climate change impacts on energy infrastructure, extreme events and technical risks, shifting demand patterns, societal acceptance issues for large infrastructures, etc.

In view of the inherent unpredictability of many of the above mentioned challenges, the common design paradigm based on average and maximum loads, trend extrapolation, safety margins, and robustness is not sufficient anymore. Important though it is, this design paradigm cannot prepare future energy systems for all the randomness and complexity behind such challenges.

Hence, there is a need for a new design paradigm that focuses on the structural vulnerabilities of energy systems and takes into account the general unpredictability of boundary conditions (natural, technical, economic and social), the increasing number of extreme events and the lack of knowledge concerning socio-political development. The design of future energy systems should thus include a precautionary approach towards dealing with deep uncertainty and reduce the prerequisites in terms of knowledge and predictability.

Considering the above, future energy systems should be designed, aiming towards resilience: maintaining service even under extreme or unpredicted conditions by being robust, yet flexible and adaptive, open for innovation and equipped for improvisation in extreme situations.

We invite papers for this Special Issue on the Resilience of Energy Systems that address one of the following topics, or related research questions:

  • Architecture of resilient energy systems
  • Reliability of energy services in extreme and/or unpredictable conditions
  • Structural vulnerabilities of energy systems
  • Energy systems and climate adaptation
  • Preparing energy systems for unexpected effects
  • Resilient strategies for managing supply risks
  • Adaptive and flexible power generation for resilience
  • Adaptive and flexible network design (power, gas, heat)
  • Limits of predict and control strategies for energy systems
  • Storage and intelligent control of production and demand for greater resilience
  • Resilience through diversification, scalability and modularity of energy systems
  • Centralization and decentralization of energy systems in view of vulnerability and resilience
  • Cellular design of energy systems for resilience
  • Interoperation and combined resilience of power, heat and gas infrastructures
  • Trade-offs between resilience, efficiency, costs and environmental performance
  • Political and economic instruments to foster resilience of energy systems
  • Resilience as a guiding principle in innovation processes
  • The role of different stakeholder groups for resilience of energy systems
  • Methods for assessing the resilience of energy systems

Prof. Dr. Stefan Gößling-Reisemann
Prof. Dr. Hermann de Meer
Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Kröger
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

 

  • resilient energy systems
  • vulnerability of energy systems
  • energy system design
  • robustness and adaptivity of energy systems
  • energy systems and extreme events
  • precautionary approach for energy systems
  • risk and uncertainty in energy systems

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
An Indicator-Based Approach for Analyzing the Resilience of Transitions for Energy Regions. Part I: Theoretical and Conceptual Considerations
Energies 2017, 10(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010036
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 December 2016 / Published: 1 January 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The transition of our current energy system from a fossil-based system to a system based on renewables is likely to be one of the most complex and long-term societal transitions in history. The need for a fundamental system transformation raises the question of [...] Read more.
The transition of our current energy system from a fossil-based system to a system based on renewables is likely to be one of the most complex and long-term societal transitions in history. The need for a fundamental system transformation raises the question of how to measure the continuing progress and the resilience of this process over time. This paper aims at developing the conceptualization and operationalization of resilience for energy systems in transition with regard to both social and technical aspects. Based on the resilience concept in social-ecological systems literature, we propose to conceptualize resilience for energy systems building on two core attributes of resilience, namely diversity and connectivity. We present an indicator set to operationalize these key attributes in social and technical systems using: (i) definitions and measurements for three fundamental diversity properties—variety, balance and disparity—and (ii) basic connectivity properties from the social network analysis literature—path length, centrality and modularity. Finally, we reflect on possibilities for an application of these indicators in the social and technical system’s spheres and discuss the added value of the approach for energy transition research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Model and Metrics of Electrical Grids’ Resilience Evaluated at a Power Distribution Level
Energies 2016, 9(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9020093
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 24 December 2015 / Published: 3 February 2016
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (1542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a framework to systematically measure and assess power grids’ resilience with a focus on performance as perceived by customers at the power distribution level. The proposed framework considers an analogous measure of availability as a basic metric for resilience and [...] Read more.
This paper presents a framework to systematically measure and assess power grids’ resilience with a focus on performance as perceived by customers at the power distribution level. The proposed framework considers an analogous measure of availability as a basic metric for resilience and defines other key resilience-related concepts and metrics, such as resistance and brittleness. This framework also provides a measurement for the degree of functional dependency of loads on power grids and demonstrates how the concepts of resilience and dependency are inherently related. It also discusses the implications of considering human-centered processes as fundamental constituting components of infrastructure systems. Thanks to its quantitative nature, the proposed resilience framework enables the creation of tools to evaluate power grids’ performance as a lifeline and to assess the effects of plans for optimal electrical power infrastructure deployment and operation. The discussion is supported by practical examples and empirical records from field damage assessments conducted after recent notable natural disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
High Resolution Modeling of the Impacts of Exogenous Factors on Power Systems—Case Study of Germany
Energies 2015, 8(12), 14168-14181; https://doi.org/10.3390/en81212424
Received: 24 August 2015 / Revised: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (18410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to reliably design the planning and operation of large interconnected power systems that can incorporate a high penetration of renewables, it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the potential impacts of exogenous factors on individual components within the systems. [...] Read more.
In order to reliably design the planning and operation of large interconnected power systems that can incorporate a high penetration of renewables, it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the potential impacts of exogenous factors on individual components within the systems. Previously, the assessment has often been conducted with nodes that are aggregated at the country or regional scale; this makes it impossible to reliably extrapolate the impact of higher penetration of renewables on individual transmission lines and/or power plants within an aggregated node. In order to be able to develop robust power systems this study demonstrates an integrated framework that employs high resolution spatial and temporal, physical modeling of power generation, electricity transmission and electricity demand, across the scale of a continent or country. Using Germany as a test case, an assessment of the impacts of exogenous factors, including local changes in ambient weather conditions, effect of timely implementation of policy, and contingency for scenarios in 2020 are demonstrated. It is shown that with the increased penetration of renewables, while the power production opportunities of conventional power plants are reduced, these power plants are required during periods of low renewables production due to the inherent variability of renewables. While the planned reinforcements in Germany, including high voltage direct current lines, reduce congestion on the grid and alleviate the differentials in power price across the country, on the other hand the reinforcements make the interconnected transmission system more vulnerable as local perturbations have a more widespread impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems as a Strategy for Predicting and Controling the Energy Produced from Renewable Sources
Energies 2015, 8(11), 13047-13061; https://doi.org/10.3390/en81112355
Received: 3 July 2015 / Revised: 6 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1762 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The challenge for our paper consists in controlling the performance of the future state of a microgrid with energy produced from renewable energy sources. The added value of this proposal consists in identifying the most used criteria, related to each modeling step, able [...] Read more.
The challenge for our paper consists in controlling the performance of the future state of a microgrid with energy produced from renewable energy sources. The added value of this proposal consists in identifying the most used criteria, related to each modeling step, able to lead us to an optimal neural network forecasting tool. In order to underline the effects of users’ decision making on the forecasting performance, in the second part of the article, two Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) models are tested and evaluated. Several scenarios are built by changing: the prediction time horizon (Scenario 1) and the shape of membership functions (Scenario 2). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Incorporating Cyber Layer Failures in Composite Power System Reliability Evaluations
Energies 2015, 8(9), 9064-9086; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8099064
Received: 27 May 2015 / Revised: 11 August 2015 / Accepted: 19 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2059 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel approach to analyze the impacts of cyber layer failures (i.e., protection failures and monitoring failures) on the reliability evaluation of composite power systems. The reliability and availability of the cyber layer and its protection and monitoring [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel approach to analyze the impacts of cyber layer failures (i.e., protection failures and monitoring failures) on the reliability evaluation of composite power systems. The reliability and availability of the cyber layer and its protection and monitoring functions with various topologies are derived based on a reliability block diagram method. The availability of the physical layer components are modified via a multi-state Markov chain model, in which the component protection and monitoring strategies, as well as the cyber layer topology, are simultaneously considered. Reliability indices of composite power systems are calculated through non-sequential Monte-Carlo simulation. Case studies demonstrate that operational reliability downgrades in cyber layer function failure situations. Moreover, protection function failures have more significant impact on the downgraded reliability than monitoring function failures do, and the reliability indices are especially sensitive to the change of the cyber layer function availability in the range from 0.95 to 1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Transformation toward a Secure and Precaution-Oriented Energy System with the Guiding Concept of Resilience—Implementation of Low-Exergy Solutions in Northwestern Germany
Energies 2015, 8(7), 6995-7019; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8076995
Received: 1 June 2015 / Revised: 1 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 July 2015 / Published: 10 July 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate changes, incidents like nuclear disasters, and associated political objectives call for significant changes to the current energy system. Despite these far-reaching transformation processes, within the intended changes security of supply and precautions against the possible consequences of climate change must be ensured. [...] Read more.
Climate changes, incidents like nuclear disasters, and associated political objectives call for significant changes to the current energy system. Despite these far-reaching transformation processes, within the intended changes security of supply and precautions against the possible consequences of climate change must be ensured. Consequently, the question arises how to direct energy systems. In this context the processes of guiding orientations with the help of the guiding concept of “resilient systems” and feasible and addressee-oriented guiding design principles can be an option to provide guidance in transformation processes. However, it is questionable whether and how such processes are effective in the long term and if they are able to give direction by doing so. Within the framework of empirical studies of a regional guiding orientation process for the energy system of Northwestern Germany, the long-term effectiveness of the process and its spread resilient guiding design principles of “low-exergy solutions” and “climate-adapted and energy-efficient refrigeration” has been confirmed. Such effectiveness requires the implementation of a four-phase guiding orientation process which takes content-related and process-related effectiveness factors into account. Therefore, the study shows how regional energy systems can be designed toward the major challenges of ensuring security and precaution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Performance of Electrical Transmission Tower Structure Using Connected Foundation in Soft Ground
Energies 2015, 8(6), 4963-4982; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8064963
Received: 17 February 2015 / Revised: 12 May 2015 / Accepted: 20 May 2015 / Published: 28 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A connected foundation is an effective foundation type that can improve the structural performance of electrical transmission towers in soft ground as a resilient energy supply system with improved stability. In the present study, the performance of a connected foundation for transmission towers [...] Read more.
A connected foundation is an effective foundation type that can improve the structural performance of electrical transmission towers in soft ground as a resilient energy supply system with improved stability. In the present study, the performance of a connected foundation for transmission towers was investigated, focusing on the effect of connection beam properties and soil conditions. For this purpose, a finite element analysis was performed for various foundation and soil conditions. In order to validate the finite element analysis, the calculated results were compared with measured results obtained from field load tests. The use of connection beams was more effective for uplift foundations that usually control the design of transmission tower foundations. For the effect of soil condition, the use of connected foundation is more effective in soft clays with lower undrained shear strength (su). Smaller amounts of differential settlement were observed in all soil conditions for both unconnected and connected foundations when a bearing rock layer was present. When the foundation was not reinforced by connection beams, the values of lateral load capacity of tower structure (Hu) were similar for both with- and without-rock layers. It was confirmed that introducing haunch-shaped connection beams is effective for increasing connection beam stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Energy Systems)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Recent Progress on the Resilience of Complex Networks
Energies 2015, 8(10), 12187-12210; https://doi.org/10.3390/en81012187
Received: 2 July 2015 / Revised: 18 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (6837 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many complex systems in the real world can be modeled as complex networks, which has captured in recent years enormous attention from researchers of diverse fields ranging from natural sciences to engineering. The extinction of species in ecosystems and the blackouts of power [...] Read more.
Many complex systems in the real world can be modeled as complex networks, which has captured in recent years enormous attention from researchers of diverse fields ranging from natural sciences to engineering. The extinction of species in ecosystems and the blackouts of power girds in engineering exhibit the vulnerability of complex networks, investigated by empirical data and analyzed by theoretical models. For studying the resilience of complex networks, three main factors should be focused on: the network structure, the network dynamics and the failure mechanism. In this review, we will introduce recent progress on the resilience of complex networks based on these three aspects. For the network structure, increasing evidence shows that biological and ecological networks are coupled with each other and that diverse critical infrastructures interact with each other, triggering a new research hotspot of “networks of networks” (NON), where a network is formed by interdependent or interconnected networks. The resilience of complex networks is deeply influenced by its interdependence with other networks, which can be analyzed and predicted by percolation theory. This review paper shows that the analytic framework for Energies 2015, 8 12188 NON yields novel percolation laws for n interdependent networks and also shows that the percolation theory of a single network studied extensively in physics and mathematics in the last 60 years is a specific limited case of the more general case of n interacting networks. Due to spatial constraints inherent in critical infrastructures, including the power gird, we also review the progress on the study of spatially-embedded interdependent networks, exhibiting extreme vulnerabilities compared to their non-embedded counterparts, especially in the case of localized attack. For the network dynamics, we illustrate the percolation framework and methods using an example of a real transportation system, where the analysis based on network dynamics is significantly different from the structural static analysis. For the failure mechanism, we here review recent progress on the spontaneous recovery after network collapse. These findings can help us to understand, realize and hopefully mitigate the increasing risk in the resilience of complex networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Energy Systems)
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Open AccessReview
A Critical Review of Robustness in Power Grids Using Complex Networks Concepts
Energies 2015, 8(9), 9211-9265; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8099211
Received: 30 May 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 19 August 2015 / Published: 28 August 2015
Cited by 60 | PDF Full-text (3063 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews the most relevant works that have investigated robustness in power grids using Complex Networks (CN) concepts. In this broad field there are two different approaches. The first one is based solely on topological concepts, and uses metrics such as mean [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the most relevant works that have investigated robustness in power grids using Complex Networks (CN) concepts. In this broad field there are two different approaches. The first one is based solely on topological concepts, and uses metrics such as mean path length, clustering coefficient, efficiency and betweenness centrality, among many others. The second, hybrid approach consists of introducing (into the CN framework) some concepts from Electrical Engineering (EE) in the effort of enhancing the topological approach, and uses novel, more efficient electrical metrics such as electrical betweenness, net-ability, and others. There is however a controversy about whether these approaches are able to provide insights into all aspects of real power grids. The CN community argues that the topological approach does not aim to focus on the detailed operation, but to discover the unexpected emergence of collective behavior, while part of the EE community asserts that this leads to an excessive simplification. Beyond this open debate it seems to be no predominant structure (scale-free, small-world) in high-voltage transmission power grids, the vast majority of power grids studied so far. Most of them have in common that they are vulnerable to targeted attacks on the most connected nodes and robust to random failure. In this respect there are only a few works that propose strategies to improve robustness such as intentional islanding, restricted link addition, microgrids and Energies 2015, 8 9212 smart grids, for which novel studies suggest that small-world networks seem to be the best topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Energy Systems)
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