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Special Issue "Nanogrids, Microgrids, and the Internet of Things (IoT): towards the Digital Energy Network"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (22 January 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Antonio Moreno-Munoz

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: internet of energy; smart grids; power quality; electronic instrumentation; usability of complex systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Driven by new regulations, new market structures, and new energy resources, the smart grid has been the trigger for profound changes in the way that electricity is generated, distributed, managed, and consumed. The smart grid has raised the traditional power grid by using a two-way electricity and information flow to create an advanced, automated power supply network. However, these pioneering smart grid technologies must grow to adapt to the demands of the current digital society.

In today’s digital landscape, we can access feasible data and knowledge that was merely inconceivable. This Special Issue aims to address the landscape in which smart grids are progressing, due to the advent of pervasive technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT). It will be the advanced exploitation of the massive amounts of data generated from (low-cost) IoT sensors that will become the main driver to evolve the concept of the smart grid, currently focused on infrastructure, towards the digital energy network paradigm, focused on service. Furthermore, collective intelligence will improve the processes of decision making and empower citizens.

Original manuscripts focusing on state-of-the-art IoT networking and communications, M2M communications, cyber–physical system architectures, big data analytics or cloud computing applied to digital energy platforms, including design methodologies and practical implementation aspects are welcome. The issue will include , but is not limited to:

  • Nanogrids, Microgrids.
  • Smart Energy communities, Smart buildings, Smart Appliances
  • EMS, DSM/DR, HEM
  • Power Quality and Reliability AMI (advanced metering infrastructures)
  • Custom Power and Critical Loads Supply
  • EV Charging Infrastructure

Prof. Dr. Antonio Moreno-Munoz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanogrids
  • Microgrids
  • Smart Grids
  • Internet of Things
  • Big Data
  • Power Quality
  • Cloud computing
  • Digital Utilities
  • Digital Energy Network
  • EMS
  • DSM
  • DR
  • Power Quality and Reliability
  • Custom Power
  • Critical Loads Supply

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle An Alternative Internet-of-Things Solution Based on LoRa for PV Power Plants: Data Monitoring and Management
Energies 2019, 12(5), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12050881
Received: 12 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 March 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract
This paper proposes a wireless low-cost solution based on long-range (LoRa) technology able to communicate with remote PV power plants, covering long distances with minimum power consumption and maintenance. This solution includes a low-cost open-source technology at the sensor layer and a low-power [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a wireless low-cost solution based on long-range (LoRa) technology able to communicate with remote PV power plants, covering long distances with minimum power consumption and maintenance. This solution includes a low-cost open-source technology at the sensor layer and a low-power wireless area network (LPWAN) at the communication layer, combining the advantages of long-range coverage and low power demand. Moreover, it offers an extensive monitoring system to exchange data in an Internet-of-Things (IoT) environment. A detailed description of the proposed system at the PV module level of integration is also included in the paper, as well as detailed information regarding LPWAN application to the PV power plant monitoring problem. In order to assess the suitability of the proposed solution, results collected in real PV installations connected to the grid are also included and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Advantages of Minimizing Energy Exchange Instead of Energy Cost in Prosumer Microgrids
Energies 2019, 12(4), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040719
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microgrids of prosumers are a trendy approach within the smart grid concept, as a way to increase distributed renewable energy penetration within power systems in an efficient and sustainable way. Single prosumer individual management has been previously discussed in literature, usually based on [...] Read more.
Microgrids of prosumers are a trendy approach within the smart grid concept, as a way to increase distributed renewable energy penetration within power systems in an efficient and sustainable way. Single prosumer individual management has been previously discussed in literature, usually based on economic profit optimization. In this paper, two novel approaches are proposed: firstly, a different objective function, relative to the mismatch between generated and demanded power, is tested and compared to classical objective function based on energy price, by means of a genetic algorithm method; secondly, this optimization procedure is applied to batteries’ coordinated scheduling of all the prosumers composing a community, instead of single one, which better matches the microgrid concept. These approaches are tested on a microgrid with two household prosumers, in the context of Spanish regulation for self-consumption. Results show noticeably better performance of mismatch objective function and coordinated schedule, in terms of self-consumption and self-sufficiency rates, power and energy interchanges with the main grid, battery degradation and even economic benefits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Analysis of Voltage Quality in a Nanogrid during Islanded Operation
Energies 2019, 12(4), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040614
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
Voltage quality data has been collected in a single house nanogrid during 48 weeks of islanded operation and 54 weeks of grid-connected operation. The voltage quality data contains the voltage total harmonic distortion (THD), odd harmonics 3 to 11 and 15, even harmonics [...] Read more.
Voltage quality data has been collected in a single house nanogrid during 48 weeks of islanded operation and 54 weeks of grid-connected operation. The voltage quality data contains the voltage total harmonic distortion (THD), odd harmonics 3 to 11 and 15, even harmonics 4 to 8, voltage unbalance, short-term flicker severity (Pst) and long-term flicker severity (Plt) values, and voltage variations at timescales below 10 min. A comparison between islanded and grid-connected operation values was made, were some of the parameters were compared to relevant grid standard limits. It is shown that some parameters exceed the defined limits in the grid-standards during islanded operation. It was also found that the islanded operation has two modes of operation, one in which higher values of the short circuit impedance, individual harmonic impedance, harmonic voltage distortion and voltage unbalance were reached. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Analysis of Frequency Variations and its Implications on Connected Equipment for a Nanogrid during Islanded Operation
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2456; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092456
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 16 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Frequency, voltage and reliability data have been collected in a nanogrid for 48 weeks during islanded operation. Frequency values from the 48 week measurements were analyzed and compared to relevant limits. During 19.5% of the 48 weeks, the nanogrid had curtailed the production [...] Read more.
Frequency, voltage and reliability data have been collected in a nanogrid for 48 weeks during islanded operation. Frequency values from the 48 week measurements were analyzed and compared to relevant limits. During 19.5% of the 48 weeks, the nanogrid had curtailed the production due to insufficient consumption in islanded operation. The curtailment of production was also the main cause of the frequency variations above the limits. When the microgrid operated on stored battery power, the frequency variations were less than in the Swedish national grid. 39.4% of all the interruptions that occurred in the nanogrid are also indirectly caused by the curtailment of solar production. Possible solutions for mitigating the frequency variations and lowering the number of interruptions are also discussed. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Smart Inverters for Microgrid Applications: A Review
Energies 2019, 12(5), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12050840
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 24 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
In a microgrid, with several distributed generators (DGs), energy storage units and loads, one of the most important considerations is the control of power converters. These converters implement interfaces between the DGs and the microgrid bus. In order to achieve higher functionality, efficiency [...] Read more.
In a microgrid, with several distributed generators (DGs), energy storage units and loads, one of the most important considerations is the control of power converters. These converters implement interfaces between the DGs and the microgrid bus. In order to achieve higher functionality, efficiency and reliability, in addition to improving the control algorithms it is beneficial to equip the inverters with “smart” features. One interpretation of “smartness” refers to minimizing the requirement of communication and therefore switching from centralized to decentralized control. At the same time, being equipped with efficient and state of the art communication protocols also indicates “smartness” since the requirement of communication cannot be completely omitted. A “smart inverter” should offer some features such as plug and play, self-awareness, adaptability, autonomy and cooperativeness. These features are introduced and comprehensively explained in this article. One contribution discussed here is the possibility of achieving long-range wireless communication between inverters to empower various control schemes. Although current efforts aim to modify and improve power converters in a way that they can operate communication free, if a suitable and functional communication protocol is available, it will improve the accuracy, speed and robustness of them. Full article
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