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Special Issue "Advanced Heating and Cooling Techniques"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Vincent Lemort

Thermodynamics Laboratory, University of Liège, Campus du Sart Tilman, B49, B-4000 Liège, Belgium
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Vehicle thermal management; HVAC; displacement compressors
Guest Editor
Dr. Samuel Gendebien

Thermodynamics Laboratory, University of Liège, B49 Thermodynamics Laboratory, Quartier Polytech 1, Allée de la Découverte 17, 4000 Liège, Belgium
E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

from the covering of heating and cooling demands. A large part of the energy consumption of the industry is also related to heating and cooling production. In order to meet international objectives in terms of CO2 emissions reduction, a great deal of effort should be devoted to improving the energy efficiency of heating and cooling production, storage, distribution, and emission systems. This Special Issue will highlight recent advances in the development of such systems. Numerical and experimental contributions addressing the following topics (non exhaustive) are welcome: vapor compression heat pumps/chillers, heat driven heat pumps (absorption, adsorption, ejector cycles, etc.), geothermal heat pumps, waste heat recovery and reversible heat pumps, biofuel fired boilers, thermal energy storages, solar heating and cooling, Combined Heat and Power (CHP), district heating networks, radiant emitters, and Temperature and Humidity Independent Control (THIC).

Dr. Vincent Lemort
Dr. Samuel Gendebien
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • heat pumps
  • chillers
  • thermal energy storages (TES)
  • heat driven chiller/heat pumps (absorption, adsorption, ejector)
  • radiant emitters
  • CHP
  • district heating networks
  • solar energy
  • biofuels

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Phase Change Material Based Accumulation Panels in Combination with Renewable Energy Sources and Thermoelectric Cooling
Energies 2017, 10(2), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10020152
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (8328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The article deals with the use of modern materials and technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the design and usage of a special accumulation device, which is composed of thermal panels based on phase change materials (PCMs). [...] Read more.
The article deals with the use of modern materials and technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the design and usage of a special accumulation device, which is composed of thermal panels based on phase change materials (PCMs). The thermal panels have an integrated tube heat exchanger and heating foils. The technology can be used as a passive or active system for heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology”, so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic (PV) panels, solar thermal collectors and heat pumps. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermoelectric coolers. In the research, measurements of the different operating modes were made, and the results are presented in the text. The measurement approves that the technology improves the thermal capacity of the building, and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Heating and Cooling Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle Research on a Household Dual Heat Source Heat Pump Water Heater with Preheater Based on ASPEN PLUS
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9121026
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 3 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3742 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article proposes a dual heat source heat pump bathroom unit with preheater which is feasible for a single family. The system effectively integrates the air source heat pump (ASHP) and wastewater source heat pump (WSHP) technologies, and incorporates a preheater to recover [...] Read more.
This article proposes a dual heat source heat pump bathroom unit with preheater which is feasible for a single family. The system effectively integrates the air source heat pump (ASHP) and wastewater source heat pump (WSHP) technologies, and incorporates a preheater to recover shower wastewater heat and thus improve the total coefficient of performance (COP) of the system, and it has no electric auxiliary heating device, which is favorable to improve the security of the system operation. The process simulation software ASPEN PLUS, widely used in the design and optimization of thermodynamic systems, was used to simulate various cases of system use and to analyze the impact of the preheater on the system. The average COP value of a system with preheater is 6.588 and without preheater it is 4.677. Based on the optimization and analysis, under the standard conditions of air at 25 °C, relative humidity of 70%, wastewater at 35 °C, wastewater flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, tap water at 15 °C, and condenser outlet water temperature at 50 °C, the theoretical COP of the system can reach 9.784 at an evaporating temperature of 14.96 °C, condensing temperature of 48.74 °C, and preheated water temperature of 27.19 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Heating and Cooling Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation of Thermal Behaviors in Window Systems by Monitoring of Surface Condensation Using Full-Scale Measurements and Simulation Tools
Energies 2016, 9(11), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110979
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the thermal performance of window systems using full-scale measurements and simulation tools. A chamber was installed on the balcony of an apartment to control the temperatures which can create condensation on the interior surfaces [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the thermal performance of window systems using full-scale measurements and simulation tools. A chamber was installed on the balcony of an apartment to control the temperatures which can create condensation on the interior surfaces of window systems. The condensation process on the window was carefully scrutinized when outdoor and indoor temperature and indoor relative humidity ranged from −15 °C to −20 °C, 23 °C to 24 °C, and 50% to 65%, respectively. The results of these investigations were analyzed to determine how the moisture is influenced by changing temperatures. It appears that the glass-edge was highly susceptible to the temperature variations and the lowest temperature on the glass edge was caused by the heat transfer through the spacer, between the two glass panels of the window. The results from the simulation used in this study confirm that the thermal performance of window systems can be improved the use of super insulated or thermally broken spacers. If the values of the indoor humidity and temperature are given, then the outdoor temperature when condensation forms can be obtained by using Temperature Difference Ratio (TDR). This methodology can be employed to predict the possible occurrence of condensation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Heating and Cooling Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Characteristics of PTC Elements for an Electric Vehicle Heating System
Energies 2016, 9(10), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9100813
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 30 September 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3793 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A high-voltage positive temperature coefficient (PTC) heater has a simple structure and a swift response. Therefore, for cabin heating in electric vehicles (EVs), such heaters are used either on their own or with a heat pump system. In this study, the sintering process [...] Read more.
A high-voltage positive temperature coefficient (PTC) heater has a simple structure and a swift response. Therefore, for cabin heating in electric vehicles (EVs), such heaters are used either on their own or with a heat pump system. In this study, the sintering process in the manufacturing of PTC elements for an EV heating system was improved to enhance surface uniformity. The electrode production process entailing thin-film sputtering deposition was applied to ensure the high heating performance of PTC elements and reduce the electrode thickness. The allowable voltage and surface heat temperature of the high-voltage PTC elements with thin-film electrodes were 800 V and 172 °C, respectively. The electrode layer thickness was uniform at approximately 3.8 μm or less, approximately 69% less electrode materials were required compared to that before process improvement. Furthermore, a heater for the EV heating system was manufactured using the developed high-voltage PTC elements to verify performance and reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Heating and Cooling Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle Monitoring and Analysing Changes in Temperature and Energy in the Ground with Installed Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers
Energies 2016, 9(8), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9080555
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 14 June 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 28 July 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2837 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this work was to monitor and analyse temperature changes in the ground with installed linear and Slinky-type horizontal ground heat exchangers (HGHEs), used as low-potential heat pump energy sources. Specific heat flows and specific energies extracted from the ground during [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to monitor and analyse temperature changes in the ground with installed linear and Slinky-type horizontal ground heat exchangers (HGHEs), used as low-potential heat pump energy sources. Specific heat flows and specific energies extracted from the ground during the heating season were also measured and compared. The verification results showed that the average daily ground temperatures with the two HGHEs are primarily affected by the temperature of the ambient environment. The ground temperatures were higher than ambient temperature during most of the heating season, were only seldom below zero, and were higher by an average 1.97 ± 0.77 K in the ground with the linear HGHE than in the ground with the Slinky-type HGHE. Additionally, the specific thermal output extracted from the ground by the HGHE was higher by 8.45 ± 16.57 W/m2 with the linear system than with the Slinky system. The specific energies extracted from the ground over the whole heating season were 110.15 kWh/m2 and 57.85 kWh/m2 for the linear and Slinky-type HGHEs, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Heating and Cooling Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study of Natural Convection Cooling of Vertical Cylinders with Inclined Plate Fins
Energies 2016, 9(6), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9060391
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 13 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (7433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, natural convection from vertical cylinders with inclined plate fins is investigated experimentally for use in cooling electronic equipment. Extensive experimental investigations are performed for various inclination angles, fin numbers, and base temperatures. From the experimental data, a correlation for estimating [...] Read more.
In this paper, natural convection from vertical cylinders with inclined plate fins is investigated experimentally for use in cooling electronic equipment. Extensive experimental investigations are performed for various inclination angles, fin numbers, and base temperatures. From the experimental data, a correlation for estimating the Nusselt number is proposed. The correlation is applicable when the Rayleigh number, inclination angle, and fin number are in the ranges 100,000–600,000, 30°–90°, and 9–36, respectively. Using the correlation, a contour map depicting the thermal resistance as a function of the fin number and fin thickness is presented. Finally, the optimal thermal resistances of cylinders with inclined plate fins and conventional radial plate fins are compared. It is found that that the optimal thermal resistance of the cylinder with inclined fins is 30% lower than that of the cylinder with radial plate fins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Heating and Cooling Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Characteristics of a Modularized and Integrated PTC Heating System for an Electric Vehicle
Energies 2016, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010018
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 December 2015 / Published: 28 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A modularized positive temperature coefficient heating system has controller-integrated heater modules. Such a heating system that uses a high-voltage power of 330 V was developed in the present study for use in electric vehicles. Four heater modules and one controller with an input [...] Read more.
A modularized positive temperature coefficient heating system has controller-integrated heater modules. Such a heating system that uses a high-voltage power of 330 V was developed in the present study for use in electric vehicles. Four heater modules and one controller with an input power of 5.6 kW were integrated in the modularized system, which was designed for improved heating power density and light weight compared to the conventional heating system, in which the controller is separated. We experimentally investigated the performance characteristics, namely, the heating capacity, energy efficiency, and pressure drop, of a prototype of the developed heating system and found it to have satisfactory performance. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of heating systems for electric vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Heating and Cooling Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle A Numerical Study on System Performance of Groundwater Heat Pumps
Energies 2016, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010004
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 8 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 23 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3386 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Groundwater heat pumps have energy saving potential where the groundwater resources are sufficient. System Coefficients of Performance (COPs) are measurements of performance of groundwater heat pump systems. In this study, the head and power of submersible pumps, heat pump units, piping, and heat [...] Read more.
Groundwater heat pumps have energy saving potential where the groundwater resources are sufficient. System Coefficients of Performance (COPs) are measurements of performance of groundwater heat pump systems. In this study, the head and power of submersible pumps, heat pump units, piping, and heat exchangers are expressed as polynomial equations, and these equations are solved numerically to determine the system performance. Regression analysis is used to find the coefficients of the polynomial equations from a catalog of performance data. The cooling and heating capacities of water-to-water heat pumps are determined using Energy Plus. Results show that system performance drops as the water level drops, and the lowest flow rates generally achieve the highest system performance. The system COPs are used to compare the system performance of various system configurations. The groundwater pumping level and temperature provide the greatest effects on the system performance of groundwater heat pumps along with the submersible pumps and heat exchangers. The effects of groundwater pumping levels, groundwater temperatures, and the heat transfer coefficient in heat exchanger on the system performance are given and compared. This analysis needs to be included in the design process of groundwater heat pump systems, possibly with analysis tools that include a wide range of performance data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Heating and Cooling Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Operation of Combined Heat and Power System Based on Forecasted Energy Prices in Real-Time Markets
Energies 2015, 8(12), 14330-14345; https://doi.org/10.3390/en81212427
Received: 4 October 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1959 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper develops a discrete operation optimization model for combined heat and powers (CHPs) in deregulated energy markets to maximize owners’ profits, where energy price forecasting is included. First, a single input and multi-output (SIMO) model for typical CHPs is established, considering the [...] Read more.
This paper develops a discrete operation optimization model for combined heat and powers (CHPs) in deregulated energy markets to maximize owners’ profits, where energy price forecasting is included. First, a single input and multi-output (SIMO) model for typical CHPs is established, considering the varying ratio between heat and electricity outputs at different loading levels. Then, the energy prices are forecasted with a gray forecasting model and revised in real-time based on the actual prices by using the least squares method. At last, a discrete optimization model and corresponding dynamic programming algorithm are developed to design the optimal operation strategies for CHPs in real-time. Based on the forecasted prices, the potential operating strategy which may produce the maximum profits is pre-developed. Dynamic modification is then conducted to adjust the pre-developed operating strategy after the actual prices are known. The proposed method is implemented on a 1 MW CHP on a typical day. Results show the optimized profits comply well with those derived from real-time prices after considering dynamic modification process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Heating and Cooling Techniques)
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