Special Issue "Governance, Legislation and Economic Policy for Green Energy Production: The EU Green Deal Framework and Horizon 2030"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Economics and Policy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Antonio Sánchez-Bayón
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Applied Economics, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28032 Madrid, Spain
Interests: global economics and cross-cultural management; comparative and cultural studies; religion and economics; identity politics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Estrella Trincado
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Applied Economics, Structure and History, Universidad Compluntese de Madrid, Campus de Somosaguas, Pozuelo de Alarcón, 28223 Madrid, Spain
Interests: history of economic thought; financial markets; wellbeing economics; renewable energies; energy markets
Prof. Dr. Jesús Alberto Valero-Matas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Sociology, University of Valladolid, 34004 Palencia, Spain
Interests: regenerative development; immigration; sociology of science; youth
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Rafael Rávina-Ripoll
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Business & Management, Universidad de Cádiz, 11100 Cádiz, Spain
Interests: happiness management; social marketing; wellbeing economics; energy markets

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The clean energy transition started with the European Union (EU) commitment in the Green Deal, adopted in October 2014 and revised in 2018 during the negotiations for the next multi-annual budget period, 2021–27. The Green Deal is based on the sustainable development goals by the United Nations (SDG-NN.UU.) and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. It will enable the EU to move towards a climate-neutral economy for the benefit of welfare of the Member States and the wellbeing of its citizens. The Green Deal has a complex framework (with legal, political and economic instruments), which includes a set of targets for 2030: a) at least 40% cuts in greenhouse gas emissions (on the basis of 1990 levels); b) at least 32% share of renewable energy; and c) at least 32.5% improvement in energy efficiency. The goals related with energy are: to drive progress towards a low-carbon economy and build an energy system that ensures affordable energy for all consumers; to increase the security of the EU’s energy supplies; to reduce the EU dependence on energy imports; to create new opportunities for growth and jobs; and to bring environmental and health benefits (e.g., through reduced air pollution). The EU Green Deal’s success needs the support of national long-term strategies of the Member States (NEPCPs), with coordination and convergence actions. 

This Special Issue aims to bring together works that explain the EU Green Deal and its impact in energy transition and management. This call for papers includes original research articles, comprehensive reviews, and well-documented case studies.

The following topics are addressed:

- The EU Green Deal’s impact on energy management;

- Measures adopted for the energy transition;

- The reduction of polluting energies;

- Stimulus of green energies and their efficiency;

- The energy markets, negotiation and conflict-resolution methods;

- The improvement of renewable energy (green and blue energies);

- Convergence actions for energy transition between EU and Member States;

- NEPCPs plans for energy transition and climate-neutral economies;

- Governance, legislation, and economic policy for green energy production;

- Public policies and taxation in the energy sector;

- Digital economy and energy issues in the EU;

- Wellbeing economics and energy issues in the EU;

- Guidelines and legal-policy instruments in the energy sector;

- Other related topics (please ask the editors prior to submitting a paper on a different topic).

Prof. Dr. Antonio Sánchez-Bayón
Prof. Dr. Estrella Trincado
Prof. Dr. Jesús Alberto Valero-Matas
Prof. Dr. Rafael Rávina-Ripoll
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • EU Green Deal
  • Energy transition
  • Clean energies
  • Renewable energies
  • Green energies
  • Blue energies
  • Climate-neutral energies
  • Reduction of polluting energies
  • Wellbeing economics and energy
  • Energy efficiency
  • Energy markets
  • Sustainable Development Goals

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Effect of Environmental Degradation, Climate Change, and the European Green Deal Tools on Life Satisfaction
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5839; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185839 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 215
Abstract
Environmental issues, sustainability, and climate change have become the targets of many policies from international and governmental organizations including the EU’s European Green Deal action plan. This plan provides tools to address them—which include support for the circular economy, implementation of energy and [...] Read more.
Environmental issues, sustainability, and climate change have become the targets of many policies from international and governmental organizations including the EU’s European Green Deal action plan. This plan provides tools to address them—which include support for the circular economy, implementation of energy and environmental taxes, and investment in environmental protection—with the aim of favoring the well-being of EU citizens. In this context, this study analyses the impact of several parameters (environmental matters, global warming, circular economy, energy and environmental taxes, and expenditure and investment on the environment) on life satisfaction, or subjective well-being, and their effects on 33 European countries. For this purpose, four econometric models were carried out using data collected from the World Values Survey (WVS), the European Values Study (EVS), and the World Bank and Eurostat, reflecting subjective citizen satisfaction data. The findings present a highly significant inverse relationship between life satisfaction variables and both environmental problems and energy taxes. Additionally, there is a highly significant positive relationship between circular economy, environmental tax, and environmental protection expenditure parameters and life satisfaction variables, as well as, to a lesser degree of significance, with noise pollution from neighbours. Full article
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Article
European Green Deal and Recovery Plan: Green Jobs, Skills and Wellbeing Economics in Spain
Energies 2021, 14(14), 4145; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144145 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 616
Abstract
This paper on Political Economic and Labour Economic Policies in the European Green Deal framework analyses the Recovery Plan and Resilience Facility. It pays attention to the effects on the design of new green jobs and the necessary skills to develop this type [...] Read more.
This paper on Political Economic and Labour Economic Policies in the European Green Deal framework analyses the Recovery Plan and Resilience Facility. It pays attention to the effects on the design of new green jobs and the necessary skills to develop this type of new positions generated, with higher labour wellbeing. The paper is focused on the analysis of the green jobs’ opportunity for Europe, at a country level, with a specific analysis made for the Spanish case. A systematisation of the concepts and calculations on the issue is made and analysed (attending the international institutions and forums proposals) to harmonise the recovery plans, apply them beyond the energy sector to other related green activities and align the public and private sector, and other critical stakeholders, in achieving this goal. The following research questions were formulated: (1) what is the estimated number of new green jobs that would be created as a consequence of the implementation of the Recovery Plan in Spain; (2) which new soft skills or re-skilling would be necessary to develop such new green jobs; (3) how much are the new jobs aligned with Wellbeing Economics? The research was conducted by applying a few research methods, i.e., secondary sources, the desk research method and the exploration method, critical and comparative analysis, inductive and deductive reasoning and some mathematical calculations. The research contribution can provide a valuable source of information to coordinate sectoral plans by the policymakers, particularly those responsible for the economy, business, green activities and education. Full article
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Article
Improvements and Spatial Dependencies in Energy Transition Measures
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3802; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133802 - 24 Jun 2021
Viewed by 405
Abstract
This article aims to improve one of the newest energy transition measures—the World Economic Forum WEF Energy Transition Index (ETI) and find its driving forces. This paper proposes a new approach to correct the ETI structure, i.e., sensitivity analysis, which allows assessing the [...] Read more.
This article aims to improve one of the newest energy transition measures—the World Economic Forum WEF Energy Transition Index (ETI) and find its driving forces. This paper proposes a new approach to correct the ETI structure, i.e., sensitivity analysis, which allows assessing the accuracy of variable weights. Moreover, the novelty of the paper is the use the spatial error models to estimate determinants of the energy transition on different continents. The results show that ETI is unbalanced and includes many variables of marginal importance for the shape of the final ranking. The variables with the highest weights in ETI did not turn out to be its most important determinants, which means that they differentiate the analysed countries well; nonetheless, they do not have sufficient properties of approximating the values of the ETI components. The most important components of ETI (with the highest information load) belong to the CO2 emissions per capita, the innovative business environment, household electricity prices, or renewable capacity buildout. Moreover, we identified the clustering of both ETI and its two main pillars in Europe, which is not observed in America and Asia. The identified positive spatial effects showing that European countries need much deeper cooperation to reach a successful energy transition. Full article
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Article
Cognitive and Energetic Sustainability for Development: Spain and Europe before the Green Deal
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3770; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133770 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 437
Abstract
The paper will examine, in detail, (a) the norms that can be featured under the category “Green Deal” connected to the European Commission, (b) their application to Spain, and (c) the different patterns of action and development models that have been shaped by [...] Read more.
The paper will examine, in detail, (a) the norms that can be featured under the category “Green Deal” connected to the European Commission, (b) their application to Spain, and (c) the different patterns of action and development models that have been shaped by this framework over the last 20 years. These patterns are particularly relevant currently, as the COVID-19 crisis has highlighted the importance of advancing towards new patterns of local sustainability endowed with higher resilience. The notion of cognitive sustainability will be one of the added values to the current reflections on sustainability in general, and energetic sustainability in particular. Full article
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Article
The Spanish Energy Transition into the EU Green Deal: Alignments and Paradoxes
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2535; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092535 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 457
Abstract
Climate change, clean energy transition, the energy security quest, and international relations have triggered the revival of renewable energy as a solution to these problems. Nowadays, there is an energy transition where renewable energies bring geopolitical changes in a world where fossil fuels [...] Read more.
Climate change, clean energy transition, the energy security quest, and international relations have triggered the revival of renewable energy as a solution to these problems. Nowadays, there is an energy transition where renewable energies bring geopolitical changes in a world where fossil fuels are becoming less relevant. This article aims to assess how the transition influences Spain’s energy relations with other countries regarding electricity and its sources, in alignment with the European Green Deal. In order to do so, its current energy situation, the renewable energies development and its energy import-export relations are examined. The results show that despite progress in green regionalization through more electric interconnection, little difference is to be found in traditional relations with fossil fuel countries exporters, but more are the contractions in Spanish energy economic policy, as here is explained. Full article
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Article
European Union Green Deal and the Opportunity Cost of Wastewater Treatment Projects
Energies 2021, 14(7), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071994 - 04 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 758
Abstract
The European Union Green Deal aims at curbing greenhouse gas emissions and introducing clean energy production. But to achieve energy efficiency, the opportunity cost of different energies must be assessed. In this article, two different energy self-sufficient systems for wastewater treatment are compared. [...] Read more.
The European Union Green Deal aims at curbing greenhouse gas emissions and introducing clean energy production. But to achieve energy efficiency, the opportunity cost of different energies must be assessed. In this article, two different energy self-sufficient systems for wastewater treatment are compared. On the one hand, high-rate algal ponds system (HRAP) is considered; on the other hand, a conventional activated sludge system (AS) which uses photovoltaic power (PV) is studied. The paper offers a viability analysis of both systems based on the capacity to satisfy their energetic consumption. This viability analysis, along with the opportunity cost study, will be used in the article to compare these two projects devoted to the treatment of wastewater. In order to assess viability, the probability of not achieving the energy consumption threshold at least one day is studied. The results point that the AS+PV system self-sufficiency is achieved with much lesser land requirements than the HRAP system (for the former, less than 6500 m2, for the latter 40,000 m2). However, the important AS capital cost makes still the HRAP system more economic, although storage provides a great advantage for using the AS+PV in locations where a lot of irradiance is available. Full article
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Article
Generational Portrait of Spanish Society in the Face of Climate Change. A Question to Consider for the Green Economy under the Well-Being Approach
Energies 2021, 14(4), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14040807 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
Climate change is emerging as an issue of progressive attention, and therefore awareness, in societies. In this work, the problem is addressed from a generational perspective in Spanish society and is carried out from the approaches of awareness, human action, and self-responsibility. All [...] Read more.
Climate change is emerging as an issue of progressive attention, and therefore awareness, in societies. In this work, the problem is addressed from a generational perspective in Spanish society and is carried out from the approaches of awareness, human action, and self-responsibility. All this from the search of the subjective well-being and the citizens’ happiness, as one of the bases of sustainable development initiatives. With data from the European Social Survey R8, from EUROSTAT, we work in two phases: (1) descriptive and inferential on possible associations of the items with the variable Age, and (2) calculation of probabilities between groups through logistic regression. The results confirm a general awareness, but with apparent statistical differences between age groups. In general, the youngest are the most aware, blame human activity most intensely, are the most concerned, and are the most willing to act. And it is the older people who are less aware of all these issues. Based on this finding, and from the approach mentioned above, it is recommended that leaders, both in the macroeconomic and microeconomic sectors, develop initiatives that sensitize and encourage older age groups. Full article
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Article
The North Caucasus Region as a Blind Spot in the “European Green Deal”: Energy Supply Security and Energy Superpower Russia
Energies 2021, 14(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010017 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
The “European Green Deal” has ambitious aims, such as net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. While the European Union aims to make its energies greener, Russia pursues power-goals based on its status as a geo-energy superpower. A successful “European Green Deal” would have [...] Read more.
The “European Green Deal” has ambitious aims, such as net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. While the European Union aims to make its energies greener, Russia pursues power-goals based on its status as a geo-energy superpower. A successful “European Green Deal” would have the up-to-now underestimated geopolitical advantage of making the European Union less dependent on Russian hydrocarbons. In this article, we illustrate Russian power-politics and its geopolitical implications by analyzing the illustrative case of the North Caucasus, which has been traditionally a strategic region for Russia. The present article describes and analyses the impact of Russian intervention in the North Caucasian secessionist conflict since 1991 and its importance in terms of natural resources, especially hydrocarbons. The geopolitical power secured by Russia in the North Caucasian conflict has important implications for European Union’s energy supply security and could be regarded as a strong argument in favor of the “European Green Deal”. Full article
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Review

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Review
The European Union Green Deal: Clean Energy Wellbeing Opportunities and the Risk of the Jevons Paradox
Energies 2021, 14(14), 4148; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144148 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 544
Abstract
After the Great Recession of 2008, there was a strong commitment from several international institutions and forums to improve wellbeing economics, with a switch towards satisfaction and sustainability in people–planet–profit relations. The initiative of the European Union is the Green Deal, which is [...] Read more.
After the Great Recession of 2008, there was a strong commitment from several international institutions and forums to improve wellbeing economics, with a switch towards satisfaction and sustainability in people–planet–profit relations. The initiative of the European Union is the Green Deal, which is similar to the UN SGD agenda for Horizon 2030. It is the common political economy plan for the Multiannual Financial Framework, 2021–2027. This project intends, at the same time, to stop climate change and to promote the people’s wellness within healthy organizations and smart cities with access to cheap and clean energy. However, there is a risk for the success of this aim: the Jevons paradox. In this paper, we make a thorough revision of the literature on the Jevons Paradox, which implies that energy efficiency leads to higher levels of consumption of energy and to a bigger hazard of climate change and environmental degradation. Full article
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