energies-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Environmental Aspects and Impacts of Hydrogen Technologies"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A5: Hydrogen Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 18636

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Viviana Cigolotti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory for Energy Storage, Batteries and Hydrogen Production and Utilization Technologies, Department of Energy Technologies and Renewable Sources, ENEA—Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Research Centre of Portici, Naples, Italy
Interests: hydrogen production; ammonia; fuel cells; hybrid energy systems
Dr. Angelo Basile
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane Reactors for Pure Hydrogen Production, Institute of Membrane Technology (ITM) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), Cubo 17/C, 87036 Rende CS, Italy
Interests: membrane; membrane reactors; hydrogen production; CO2 capture and use
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to invite you to participate to the Special Issue “Environmental Aspects and Impacts of Hydrogen Technologies”. There is a revolution taking place in the energy sector, where hydrogen is now considered a pivotal clean energy carrier for the future, playing a key role in enabling this energy transition. The current post-pandemic policies tend to foster the much-needed energy transition towards an economic development decoupled from fossil fuels. A future hydrogen-based economy will require H2 production through different technological pathways, using a wide range of feedstocks and energy sources. Besides production, along the entire supply chain hydrogen needs to be stored, distributed, and finally used.

The main goal of this Special Issue is to deepen the understanding of the potential economic, social and environmental impacts of the most recent advancements in the field of hydrogen technologies and their applications, involving hydrogen production, storage, distribution, and final usage.

Articles including recent analyses on the social, environmental and economic aspects of novel and emerging technologies, and future trends in the field of sustainable hydrogen production, storage, and utilization as an energy resource, are highly encouraged. The submission of articles reporting specific applications and case studies, which demonstrate or analyze the sustainability of hydrogen technologies, will be much appreciated. The analysis of specific case studies may focus on different stages or the entire H2 supply chain.

We look forward to considering your submissions.

Dr. Viviana Cigolotti
Dr. Angelo Basile
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • LCA, LCC
  • Social life cycle assessment
  • Hydrogen production technologies
  • Hydrogen storage
  • Hydrogen distribution
  • Fuel cell
  • Hydrogen valley

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Carbon-Negative Hydrogen Production (HyBECCS) from Organic Waste Materials in Germany: How to Estimate Bioenergy and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential
Energies 2021, 14(22), 7741; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14227741 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Hydrogen derived from biomass feedstock (biohydrogen) can play a significant role in Germany’s hydrogen economy. However, the bioenergy potential and environmental benefits of biohydrogen production are still largely unknown. Additionally, there are no uniform evaluation methods present for these emerging technologies. Therefore, this [...] Read more.
Hydrogen derived from biomass feedstock (biohydrogen) can play a significant role in Germany’s hydrogen economy. However, the bioenergy potential and environmental benefits of biohydrogen production are still largely unknown. Additionally, there are no uniform evaluation methods present for these emerging technologies. Therefore, this paper presents a methodological approach for the evaluation of bioenergy potentials and the attainable environmental impacts of these processes in terms of their carbon footprints. A procedure for determining bioenergy potentials is presented, which provides information on the amount of usable energy after conversion when applied. Therefore, it elaborates a four-step methodical conduct, dealing with available waste materials, uncertainties of early-stage processes, and calculation aspects. The bioenergy to be generated can result in carbon emission savings by substituting fossil energy carriers as well as in negative emissions by applying biohydrogen production with carbon capture and storage (HyBECCS). Hence, a procedure for determining the negative emissions potential is also presented. Moreover, the developed approach can also serve as a guideline for decision makers in research, industry, and politics and might also serve as a basis for further investigations such as implementation strategies or quantification of the benefits of biohydrogen production from organic waste material in Germany. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Aspects and Impacts of Hydrogen Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Design of Low-Cost Ethanol Production Medium from Syngas: An Optimization of Trace Metals for Clostridium ljungdahlii
Energies 2021, 14(21), 6981; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14216981 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
Syngas fermentation via the Wood-Ljungdahl (WL) pathway is a promising approach for converting gaseous pollutants (CO and CO2) into high-value commodities. Because the WL involves several enzymes with trace metal components, it requires an adequate supply of micronutrients in the fermentation [...] Read more.
Syngas fermentation via the Wood-Ljungdahl (WL) pathway is a promising approach for converting gaseous pollutants (CO and CO2) into high-value commodities. Because the WL involves several enzymes with trace metal components, it requires an adequate supply of micronutrients in the fermentation medium for targeted bioprocessing such as bioethanol production. Plackett-Burman statistical analysis was performed to examine the most efficient trace elements (Ni, Mg, Ca, Mn, Co, Cu, B, W, Zn, Fe, and Mo) and their concentrations for Clostridium ljungdahlii on ethanol production. Overall, 1.5 to 2.5 fold improvement in ethanol production could be achieved with designed trace element concentrations. The effects of tungsten and copper on ethanol and biomass production were determined to be the most significant, respectively. The model developed was statistically significant and has the potential to significantly decrease the cost of trace element solutions by 18–22%. This research demonstrates the critical importance of optimizing the medium for syngas fermentation in terms of product distribution and economic feasibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Aspects and Impacts of Hydrogen Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Assessing Uncertainties of Life-Cycle CO2 Emissions Using Hydrogen Energy for Power Generation
Energies 2021, 14(21), 6943; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14216943 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1452
Abstract
Hydrogen and its energy carriers, such as liquid hydrogen (LH2), methylcyclohexane (MCH), and ammonia (NH3), are essential components of low-carbon energy systems. To utilize hydrogen energy, the complete environmental merits of its supply chain should be evaluated. To understand [...] Read more.
Hydrogen and its energy carriers, such as liquid hydrogen (LH2), methylcyclohexane (MCH), and ammonia (NH3), are essential components of low-carbon energy systems. To utilize hydrogen energy, the complete environmental merits of its supply chain should be evaluated. To understand the expected environmental benefit under the uncertainty of hydrogen technology development, we conducted life-cycle inventory analysis and calculated CO2 emissions and their uncertainties attributed to the entire supply chain of hydrogen and NH3 power generation (co-firing and mono-firing) in Japan. Hydrogen was assumed to be produced from overseas renewable energy sources with LH2/MCH as the carrier, and NH3 from natural gas or renewable energy sources. The Japanese life-cycle inventory database was used to calculate emissions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate emission uncertainty and mitigation factors using hydrogen energy. For LH2, CO2 emission uncertainty during hydrogen liquefaction can be reduced by using low-carbon fuel. For MCH, CO2 emissions were not significantly affected by power consumption of overseas processes; however, it can be reduced by implementing low-carbon fuel and waste-heat utilization during MCH dehydrogenation. Low-carbon NH3 production processes significantly affected power generation, whereas carbon capture and storage during NH3 production showed the greatest reduction in CO2 emission. In conclusion, reducing CO2 emissions during the production of hydrogen and NH3 is key to realize low-carbon hydrogen energy systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Aspects and Impacts of Hydrogen Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Direct Reduction in Greenhouse Gases by Continuous Dry (CO2) Reforming of Methane over Ni-Containing SHS Catalysts
Energies 2021, 14(19), 6078; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196078 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
The world of energy is on the cusp of profound transformation. Hydrogen or hydrogen-containing fuel mixtures in the form of synthesis gas, as carriers of clean energy, will be in the short term among the most efficient solutions to pressing environmental problems, reducing [...] Read more.
The world of energy is on the cusp of profound transformation. Hydrogen or hydrogen-containing fuel mixtures in the form of synthesis gas, as carriers of clean energy, will be in the short term among the most efficient solutions to pressing environmental problems, reducing the amount of greenhouse gases as well as pollution of cities and dependence on oil-based fuels. Carbon dioxide conversion of methane is the most promising method for the production of synthesis gas due to the simultaneous consumption of two greenhouse gases and, accordingly, a successful solution to environmental problems. Ni/Mn-based catalysts have been prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) for this process. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen porosimetry. The effects of the catalysts’ composition on activity, selectivity, and product yield were investigated. The influence of the content of Ni, Mn on the behavior of catalysts has been established. Comparison of spinels with different component ratios showed that they have a defective structure. Non-stoichiometric spinels with highly defective catalyst structures were obtained due to very high heating and cooling rates during SHS. They work as active sites, which underlies the high activity of the catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Aspects and Impacts of Hydrogen Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Household Energy Systems Including Incentives on Energy Communities and Externalities: A Case Study in Italy
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5847; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185847 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
The building sector is one of the key energy consumers worldwide. Fuel cell micro-Cogeneration Heat and Power systems for residential and small commercial applications are proposed as one of the most promising innovations contributing to the transition towards a sustainable energy infrastructure. For [...] Read more.
The building sector is one of the key energy consumers worldwide. Fuel cell micro-Cogeneration Heat and Power systems for residential and small commercial applications are proposed as one of the most promising innovations contributing to the transition towards a sustainable energy infrastructure. For the application and the diffusion of these systems, in addition to their environmental performance, it is necessary, however, to evaluate their economic feasibility. In this paper a life cycle assessment of a fuel cell/photovoltaic hybrid micro-cogeneration heat and power system for a residential building is integrated with a detailed economic analysis. Financial indicators (net present cost and payback time are used for studying two different investments: reversible-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and natural gas SOFC in comparison to a base scenario, using a homeowner perspective approach. Moreover, two alternative incentives scenarios are analysed and applied: net metering and self-consumers’ groups (or energy communities). Results show that both systems obtain annual savings, but their high capital costs still would make the investments not profitable. However, the natural gas Solide Oxide Fuel Cell with the net metering incentive is the best scenario among all. On the contrary, the reversible-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell maximizes its economic performance only when the self-consumers’ groups incentive is applied. For a complete life cycle cost analysis, environmental impacts are monetized using three different monetization methods with the aim to internalize (considering them into direct cost) the externalities (environmental costs). If externalities are considered as an effective cost, the natural gas Solide Oxide Fuel Cell system increases its saving because its environmental impact is lower than in the base case one, while the reversible-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell system reduces it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Aspects and Impacts of Hydrogen Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Investigating the Effects of Ultrasonic Frequency and Membrane Technology on Biodiesel Production from Chicken Waste
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2133; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082133 - 11 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
In this study, the experiments were carried out under different operating conditions to evaluate the effect of ultrasound waves on biodiesel production from chicken feet oil. A two-step esterification–transesterification mechanism was employed to improve the biodiesel quality. The continuous (methanol-to-oil molar ratio and [...] Read more.
In this study, the experiments were carried out under different operating conditions to evaluate the effect of ultrasound waves on biodiesel production from chicken feet oil. A two-step esterification–transesterification mechanism was employed to improve the biodiesel quality. The continuous (methanol-to-oil molar ratio and KOH catalyst amount) and discrete (frequencies, 25 and 45 kHz) variables were investigated using the experimental design method. The five-level three-factor response surface method (RSM) was assisted to optimize the biodiesel synthesis variables. Applying RSM based on the central composite design (CCD), a polynomial equation was fitted to the experimental data with the aid of Design-Expert software. The model accuracy was checked by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed the highest yield of 89.74% could be achieved by using an M/O molar ratio of 12, a KOH concentration of 1 wt%, and an ultrasound frequency of 45 kHz. Finally, a mathematical model of biodiesel production in a membrane system was developed. The reaction rate constant was calculated as a function of ultrasonic frequency. Compared with the conventional method, the membrane system has significantly improved chicken feet biodiesel production’s reaction rate. The membrane is more effective at higher frequencies than at lower ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Aspects and Impacts of Hydrogen Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Significance of Hydrogen as Economic and Environmentally Friendly Fuel
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7389; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217389 - 05 Nov 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 2876
Abstract
The major demand of energy in today’s world is fulfilled by the fossil fuels which are not renewable in nature and can no longer be used once exhausted. In the beginning of the 21st century, the limitation of the fossil fuels, continually growing [...] Read more.
The major demand of energy in today’s world is fulfilled by the fossil fuels which are not renewable in nature and can no longer be used once exhausted. In the beginning of the 21st century, the limitation of the fossil fuels, continually growing energy demand, and growing impact of green-house gas emissions on the environment were identified as the major challenges with current energy infrastructure all over the world. The energy obtained from fossil fuel is cheap due to its established infrastructure; however, these possess serious issues, as mentioned above, and cause bad environmental impact. Therefore, renewable energy resources are looked to as contenders which may fulfil most energy requirements. Among them, hydrogen is considered as the most environmentally friendly fuel. Hydrogen is clean, sustainable fuel and it has promise as a future energy carrier. It also has the ability to substitute the present energy infrastructure which is based on fossil fuel. This is seen and projected as a solution for the above-mentioned problems including rise in global temperature and environmental degradation. Environmental and economic aspects are the important factors to be considered to establish hydrogen infrastructure. This article describes the various aspects of hydrogen including production, storage, and applications with a focus on fuel cell based electric vehicles. Their environmental as well as economic aspects are also discussed herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Aspects and Impacts of Hydrogen Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Morphology-Governed Performance of Multi-Dimensional Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Generation
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7223; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217223 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
In the past few decades, extensive studies have been performed to utilize the solar energy for photocatalytic water splitting; however, up to the present, the overall efficiencies reported in the literature are still unsatisfactory for commercialization. The crucial element of this challenging concept [...] Read more.
In the past few decades, extensive studies have been performed to utilize the solar energy for photocatalytic water splitting; however, up to the present, the overall efficiencies reported in the literature are still unsatisfactory for commercialization. The crucial element of this challenging concept is the proper selection and design of photocatalytic material to enable significant extension of practical application perspectives. One of the important features in describing photocatalysts, although underestimated, is particle morphology. Accordingly, this review presents the advances achieved in the design of photocatalysts that are dedicated to hydrogen generation, with an emphasis on the particle morphology and its potential correlation with the overall reaction performance. The novel concept of this work—with the content presented in a clear and logical way—is based on the division into five parts according to dimensional arrangement groups of 0D, 1D, 2D, 3D, and combined systems. In this regard, it has been shown that the consideration of the discussed aspects, focusing on different types of particle morphology and their correlation with the system’s efficiency, could be a promising route for accelerating the development of photocatalytic materials oriented for solar-driven hydrogen generation. Finally, concluding remarks (additionally including the problems connected with experiments) and potential future directions of particle morphology-based design of photocatalysts for hydrogen production systems have been presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Aspects and Impacts of Hydrogen Technologies)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Comprehensive Review on Fuel Cell Technology for Stationary Applications as Sustainable and Efficient Poly-Generation Energy Systems
Energies 2021, 14(16), 4963; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164963 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 5939
Abstract
Fuel cell technologies have several applications in stationary power production, such as units for primary power generation, grid stabilization, systems adopted to generate backup power, and combined-heat-and-power configurations (CHP). The main sectors where stationary fuel cells have been employed are (a) micro-CHP, (b) [...] Read more.
Fuel cell technologies have several applications in stationary power production, such as units for primary power generation, grid stabilization, systems adopted to generate backup power, and combined-heat-and-power configurations (CHP). The main sectors where stationary fuel cells have been employed are (a) micro-CHP, (b) large stationary applications, (c) UPS, and IPS. The fuel cell size for stationary applications is strongly related to the power needed from the load. Since this sector ranges from simple backup systems to large facilities, the stationary fuel cell market includes few kWs and less (micro-generation) to larger sizes of MWs. The design parameters for the stationary fuel cell system differ for fuel cell technology (PEM, AFC, PAFC, MCFC, and SOFC), as well as the fuel type and supply. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review of two main trends of research on fuel-cell-based poly-generation systems: tracking the market trends and performance analysis. In deeper detail, the present review will list a potential breakdown of the current costs of PEM/SOFC production for building applications over a range of production scales and at representative specifications, as well as broken down by component/material. Inherent to the technical performance, a concise estimation of FC system durability, efficiency, production, maintenance, and capital cost will be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Aspects and Impacts of Hydrogen Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop