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Special Issue "Engineering Fluid Dynamics 2018"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Bjørn H. Hjertager

Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering and Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger, Norway
Website | E-Mail
Interests: process/chemical engineering; fluid mechanics and transport processes; industrial and environmental flows; multiphase chemical reactors; chemical reactions in turbulent flows; combustion hazards

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last few decades, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental fluid dynamics (EFD) methods have penetrated into all fields of engineering. CFD is now becoming a routine analysis tool for design in some fields (e.g., aerodynamics of vehicles), and its implementation in other fields (e.g., chemical and marine application) is being quickly adopted. Additionally, in the last decade, open source software has had a tremendous impact in the use of CFD. Laser-based methods have also made significant improvements in methods to obtain data for the validation of the CFD codes.

The present Special Issue invites contributions on the topic of engineering fluid dynamics, both experimental as well as computational studies. Of special interest are submissions from the fields of mechanical, chemical, marine, safety, and energy engineering. We welcome both original research articles as well as review articles.

Prof. Dr. Bjørn H. Hjertager
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chemical reactors
  • fluidized beds
  • bioreactors
  • combustors
  • wind turbines
  • offshore structures
  • open source CFD software
  • explosions
  • dispersion
  • fires
  • multiphase flows
  • laser doppler anemometry (LDA)/phase doppler anemometry (PDA)/laser doppler velocimetry (LDV)
  • particle image velocimetry (PIV)/planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF)

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Designing Incidence-Angle-Targeted Anti-Cavitation Foil Profiles Using a Combination Optimization Strategy
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3099; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113099
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
In hydraulic machinery, the surface of the blade can get damaged by the cavitation of the leading-edge. In order to improve the cavitation performance, the anti-cavitation optimization design of blade leading-edge is conducted. A heuristic-parallel locally-terminated improved hill-climbing algorithm, which is named as
[...] Read more.
In hydraulic machinery, the surface of the blade can get damaged by the cavitation of the leading-edge. In order to improve the cavitation performance, the anti-cavitation optimization design of blade leading-edge is conducted. A heuristic-parallel locally-terminated improved hill-climbing algorithm, which is named as the global dynamic-criterion (GDC) algorithm was proposed in this study. The leading-edge shape of NACA 0009-mod foil profile was optimized by combining the GDC algorithm, CFD prediction, Diffusion-angle Integral (DI) design method and orthogonal test. Three different optimal foil geometries were obtained for specific incidence angles that 0, 3, and 6 degrees. According to the flow field analyses, it was found that the geometric variation of the optimized foil fits the incoming flow better at the respective optimal incidence angles due to a slighter leading-edge flow separation. The pressure drops become gentler so that the cavitation performance get improved. Results show that the GDC algorithm quickly and successfully fits the target condition by parallel running with the ability against falling into local-best tarps. The −Cpmin of the optimal foils was improved especially by +11.4% and +14.5% at 3 and 6 degrees comparing with the original foil. This study provided a reference for the anti-cavitation design of hydraulic machinery blades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Fluid Dynamics 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Study of the Axial Gap and Hot Streak Effects on Thermal and Flow Characteristics in Two-Stage High Pressure Gas Turbine
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2654; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102654
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
Combined cycle power plants (CCPPs) are becoming more important as the global demand for electrical power increases. The power and efficiency of CCPPs are directly affected by the performance and thermal efficiency of the gas turbines. This study is the first unsteady numerical
[...] Read more.
Combined cycle power plants (CCPPs) are becoming more important as the global demand for electrical power increases. The power and efficiency of CCPPs are directly affected by the performance and thermal efficiency of the gas turbines. This study is the first unsteady numerical study that comprehensively considers axial gap (AG) in the first-stage stator and first-stage rotor (R1) and hot streaks in the combustor outlet throughout an entire two-stage turbine, as these factors affect the aerodynamic performance of the turbine. To resolve the three-dimensional unsteady-state compressible flow, an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equation was used to calculate a k ω   SST   γ turbulence model. The AG distance d was set as 80% (case 1) and 120% (case 3) for the design value case 2 (13 mm or d/Cs1 = 0.307) in a GE-E3 gas turbine model. Changes in the AG affect the overall flow field characteristics and efficiency. If AG decreases, the time-averaged maximum temperature and pressure of R1 exhibit differences of approximately 3 K and 400 Pa, respectively. In addition, the low-temperature zone around the hub and tip regions of R1 and second-stage rotor (R2) on the suction side becomes smaller owing to a secondary flow and the area-averaged surface temperature increases. The area-averaged heat flux of the blade surface increases by a maximum of 10.6% at the second-stage stator and 2.8% at R2 as the AG decreases. The total-to-total efficiencies of the overall turbine increase by 0.306% and 0.295% when the AG decreases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Fluid Dynamics 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Study on the Influence of Mass and Stiffness Ratios on the Vortex Induced Motion of an Elastically Mounted Cylinder for Harnessing Power
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2580; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102580
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 22 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (12883 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Harnessing the power of vortices shed in the wake of bluff bodies is indeed a boon to society in the face of fuel crisis. This fact serves as an impetus to develop a device called a hydro vortex power generator (HVPG), comprised of
[...] Read more.
Harnessing the power of vortices shed in the wake of bluff bodies is indeed a boon to society in the face of fuel crisis. This fact serves as an impetus to develop a device called a hydro vortex power generator (HVPG), comprised of an elastically mounted cylinder that is free to oscillate in the cross-flow (CF) direction even in a low velocity flow field. The oscillatory motions in turn can be converted to useful power. This paper addresses the influence of system characteristics viz. stiffness ratio (k*) and mass ratio (m*) on the maximum response amplitude of the elastically mounted cylinder. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have been used here to solve a two way fluid–structure interaction (FSI) problem for predicting the trend of variation of the non-dimensional amplitude Y/D with reduced velocity Ur through a series of simulations. Maximum amplitude motions have been attributed to the lowest value of m* with Ur = 8. However, the maximum lift forces correspond to Ur = 4, providing strong design inputs as well as indicating the best operating conditions. The numerical results have been compared with those of field tests in an irrigation canal and have shown reasonable agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Fluid Dynamics 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Optimization of Multiple Circumferential Casing Grooves Distribution Considering Sweep and Lean Variations on the Blade Tip
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2401; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092401
Received: 18 August 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 9 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper focuses on the design and optimization of the axial distribution of the circumferential groove casing treatment (CGCT). Effects of the axial location of multiple casing grooves on the flow structures are numerically studied. Sweep and lean variations are then introduced to
[...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the design and optimization of the axial distribution of the circumferential groove casing treatment (CGCT). Effects of the axial location of multiple casing grooves on the flow structures are numerically studied. Sweep and lean variations are then introduced to the blade tip, and their influences on the grooves are discussed. The results show that the ability of the CGCT to relieve the blockage varies with the distribution of grooves, and the three-dimensional blading affects the performance of both the blade and the CGCT. Accordingly, a multi-objective optimization combining the CGCT design with the sweep and lean design is conducted. Objectives, including the total pressure ratio and the adiabatic efficiency, are set at the design point; meanwhile, the choking mass flow and the near-stall performance are constrained. The coupling between the CGCT and the blade is improved, which contributes to an optimal design point performance and a sufficient stall margin. The sweep and lean in the tip redistribute the spanwise and chordwise loading, which enhances the ability of the CGCT to improve the blade’s performance. This work shows that the present CGCT-blade integrated optimization is a practical engineering strategy to develop the working capacity and efficiency of a compressor blade while achieving the stall margin extension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Fluid Dynamics 2018)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Experimental Research on Hydraulic Collecting Spherical Particles in Deep Sea Mining
Energies 2018, 11(8), 1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11081938
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Hydraulic collecting is the key technology in deep sea mining and dredging engineering. It determines economic benefits of the project and environmental issues. However, mechanistic studies of hydraulic collecting are rarely described. In this study, the mechanism of collecting spherical particles is researched
[...] Read more.
Hydraulic collecting is the key technology in deep sea mining and dredging engineering. It determines economic benefits of the project and environmental issues. However, mechanistic studies of hydraulic collecting are rarely described. In this study, the mechanism of collecting spherical particles is researched by dimensional analysis and experimental study. The experimental system is established to carry out three kinds of tests including 253 different test cases. The empirical model of collecting performance prediction is established by the tests of vertical force characteristics and vertical incipient motion characteristics of particles in suction flow field. The results show that the vertical suction force coefficient (Cvs) decreases exponentially with the ratio of bottom clearance to diameter of the particle (h/d), increases linearly with the ratio of diameter of the suction pipe to diameter of the particle (D/d), and is nearly independent of Reynolds number (Re). The empirical formula of vertical force and criterion-formula of vertical incipient motion of particles are obtained with the maximum tolerance less than 15%. The phenomenon that the vortex could help strengthen the suction force was observed in the tests. In addition, the characteristics of suction flow field were obtained by flow visualization tests, and applied to explain the force characteristics of particles in the suction flow field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Fluid Dynamics 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Impeller Optimized Design of the Centrifugal Pump: A Numerical and Experimental Investigation
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1444; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061444
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9854 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Combined numerical simulation with experiment, blade wrap angle, and blade exit angle are varied to investigate the optimized design of the impeller of centrifugal pump. Blade wrap angles are 122°, 126°, and 130°. Blade exit angles are 24°, 26°, and 28°. Based on
[...] Read more.
Combined numerical simulation with experiment, blade wrap angle, and blade exit angle are varied to investigate the optimized design of the impeller of centrifugal pump. Blade wrap angles are 122°, 126°, and 130°. Blade exit angles are 24°, 26°, and 28°. Based on numerical simulation, internal flow of the centrifugal pump with five different impellers under 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.5 Qd are simulated. Variations of static pressure, relative velocity, streamline, and turbulent kinetic energy are analyzed. The impeller with blade wrap angle 126° and blade exit angle 24° are optimal. Distribution of static pressure is the most uniform and relative velocity sudden changes do not exist. Streamlines are the smoothest. Distribution scope of turbulent kinetic energy is the smallest. Based on performance experiments, head and efficiency of the centrifugal pump with the best impeller are tested. The values of head and efficiency are higher than that of the original pump. Centrifugal pump with the best impeller has better hydraulic performance than the original centrifugal pump. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Fluid Dynamics 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Study on the Transient Thermal Performance of a Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061433
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 3 June 2018
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Abstract
The transient thermal performance of phase change and heat and mass transfer in a two-phase closed thermosyphon are studied with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A CFD model based on the volume of fluid technique is built. Deionized water is specified as the working
[...] Read more.
The transient thermal performance of phase change and heat and mass transfer in a two-phase closed thermosyphon are studied with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A CFD model based on the volume of fluid technique is built. Deionized water is specified as the working fluid of this thermosyphon. The CFD model reproduces evaporation and condensation in the thermosyphon at different heating inputs. The average wall temperatures are also analyzed. Variations of average wall temperatures indicate that this thermosyphon reaches a steady state after 19 s, and starts to work in advance when the heating input increases. Moreover, thermal resistance is decreased until a minimum (0.552 K/W) by increasing the heating input, and the effective thermal conductivity is elevated to a maximum (2.07 × 106 W/m∙K). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Fluid Dynamics 2018)
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Open AccessArticle An Experimental Study on the Radiation Noise Characteristics of a Centrifugal Pump with Various Working Conditions
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2139; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122139
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To investigate the radiation noise characteristics of a centrifugal pump under various working conditions, a noise measurement system is established; afterwards, the distribution of different points and intervals, as well as the overall level of noise, are studied. The total sound pressure level
[...] Read more.
To investigate the radiation noise characteristics of a centrifugal pump under various working conditions, a noise measurement system is established; afterwards, the distribution of different points and intervals, as well as the overall level of noise, are studied. The total sound pressure level distribution for different points manifests the dipole and asymmetric directivity characteristics. Additionally, the acoustic energy is introduced to compare the noise of different intervals to reveal the asymmetric characteristics, and it is found that variation in working conditions has little impact on the acoustic energy distribution, and the ratio of the acoustic energy in the direction facing the tongue, as well as that in the direction against the tongue, to total acoustic energy fluctuate around 0.410 and 0.160, respectively, under various working conditions. Also, the A-weighted average sound pressure level (LpA) is applied to describe the overall level of noise, and LpA increases gradually with the growth of rotational speed, but the growth slope decreases. While in the operation of throttling regulation, LpA shows the trend that first increases, then remains stable, and increases again with the growth of flow rate. This study could provide guidance for optimizing the operating conditions and noise control of centrifugal pumps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Fluid Dynamics 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Study on the Acoustic Characteristics of an Axial Fan under Rotating Stall Condition
Energies 2017, 10(12), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10121945
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
Axial fan is an important piece of equipment in the thermal power plant that provides enough air for combustion of coal. This paper focuses on the aerodynamic noise characteristics of an axial fan in the development from stall inception to stall cells. The
[...] Read more.
Axial fan is an important piece of equipment in the thermal power plant that provides enough air for combustion of coal. This paper focuses on the aerodynamic noise characteristics of an axial fan in the development from stall inception to stall cells. The aerodynamic noise characteristic of monitoring region in time and frequency domains was simulated employing the large-eddy simulation (LES), with the addition of throttle setting and the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) noise model. The numerical results show that, under the design condition, the acoustic pressure presents regular periodicity along with the time. The noise energy is concentrated with high energy of the fundamental frequency and high order harmonics. During the stall inception stage, the acoustic pressure amplitude starts fluctuating and discrete frequencies are increased significantly in the low frequency; among them, there are three obvious discrete frequencies: 27.66 Hz, 46.10 Hz and 64.55 Hz. On the rotating stall condition, the fluctuation of the acoustic pressure level and amplitude are more serious than that mentioned above. During the whole evolution process, the acoustic pressure peak is difficult to keep stable all the time, and a sudden increase of the peak value at the 34.5th revolution corresponds to the relative velocity’s first sudden increase at the time when the valve coefficient is 0.780. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Fluid Dynamics 2018)
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