Special Issue "Distributed Energy Storage Devices in Smart Grids"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Guido Carpinelli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
Interests: distributed energy storage devices; smart grids; forecasting; power quality issues
Dr. Fabio Mottola
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
Interests: distributed energy storage devices; smart grids
Dr. Pasquale De Falco
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Naples Parthenope, 80143 Naples, Italy
Interests: energy forecasting, energy data analysis, renewable energy, dynamic rating of power system components, smart grids
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy storage systems have been recognized as viable solutions for implementing the smart grid paradigm, providing features in load levelling, integrating renewable and intermittent sources, voltage and frequency regulation, grid resiliency, improving power quality and reliability, reducing energy import during peak demand periods, and so on. In particular, distributed-energy storage addresses a wide range of the above potential issues, and it is gaining specific attention from customers, utilities, and regulators.

The potential of distributed-energy storage in reducing costs and in improving the quality of electric services is considerable. However, installation costs and lifetime durations are the main drawbacks to the wide diffusion of this technology. In this context, a serious challenge to be faced is the adoption of new techniques and strategies for the optimal planning, control, and management of grids that include distributed-energy storage devices. Moreover, there is a significant need for regulatory guidance and proactive policies to ensure a smooth rollout of this technology.

Original and unpublished contributions discussing theoretical aspects and practical applications of distributed-energy storage systems in smart grids are invited to be submitted. Proposals can address new solutions for the planning and operation of smart grids equipped by distributed-energy storage devices. Review papers will also be taken in consideration for publication. Papers on research projects involving cooperation among researchers from academia, industries, and government will also be welcome to foster interactions among stakeholders.

Prof. Guido Carpinelli
Dr. Fabio Mottola
Dr. Pasquale De Falco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • analysis of cost and benefits of distributed energy storage devices
  • cycle life and calendar life for storage devices connected to smart grids
  • costs and benefits of customer-owned storage systems to achieve specific types of grid benefits
  • optimal sizing and siting of distributed energy storage devices
  • distributed-energy storage devices and power quality and/or reliability improvement
  • optimal control and management of smart grids that include distributed energy storage devices
  • DC networks modeling in the presence of distributed-energy storage devices
  • hybrid AC-DC networks modeling in the presence of distributed-energy storage devices
  • renewable-energy bidding strategies considering the integration of storage devices
  • increasing renewable-energy penetration considering distributed-energy storage devices
  • optimal planning and control of smart grids considering an increased penetration of plug-in (hybrid) electric vehicles
  • forecasting loads and renewable generation for integration with distributed-energy storage systems
  • policy and regulation for distributed energy storage device development
  • real-world practical applications of distributed-energy storage devices

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Optimal Energy Storage System Positioning and Sizing with Robust Optimization
Energies 2020, 13(3), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030512 (registering DOI) - 21 Jan 2020
Abstract
Energy storage systems can improve the uncertainty and variability related to renewable energy sources such as wind and solar create in power systems. Aside from applications such as frequency regulation, time-based arbitrage, or the provision of the reserve, where the placement of storage [...] Read more.
Energy storage systems can improve the uncertainty and variability related to renewable energy sources such as wind and solar create in power systems. Aside from applications such as frequency regulation, time-based arbitrage, or the provision of the reserve, where the placement of storage devices is not particularly significant, distributed storage could also be used to improve congestions in the distribution networks. In such cases, the optimal placement of this distributed storage is vital for making a cost-effective investment. Furthermore, the now reached massive spread of distributed renewable energy resources in distribution systems, intrinsically uncertain and non-programmable, together with the new trends in the electric demand, often unpredictable, require a paradigm change in grid planning for properly lead with the uncertainty sources and the distribution system operators (DSO) should learn to support such change. This paper considers the DSO perspective by proposing a methodology for energy storage placement in the distribution networks in which robust optimization accommodates system uncertainty. The proposed method calls for the use of a multi-period convex AC-optimal power flow (AC-OPF), ensuring a reliable planning solution. Wind, photovoltaic (PV), and load uncertainties are modeled as symmetric and bounded variables with the flexibility to modulate the robustness of the model. A case study based on real distribution network information allows the illustration and discussion of the properties of the model. An important observation is that the method enables the system operator to integrate energy storage devices by fine-tuning the level of robustness it willing to consider, and that is incremental with the level of protection. However, the algorithm grows more complex as the system robustness increases and, thus, it requires higher computational effort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Energy Storage Devices in Smart Grids)
Open AccessArticle
Planning of Distributed Energy Storage Systems in μGrids Accounting for Voltage Dips
Energies 2020, 13(2), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020401 - 14 Jan 2020
Abstract
This paper deals with the optimal planning of the electrical energy storage systems in the microgrids aimed at cost minimization. The optimization accounts for the compensation of the voltage dips performed by the energy storage systems. A multi-step procedure, at the first step, [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the optimal planning of the electrical energy storage systems in the microgrids aimed at cost minimization. The optimization accounts for the compensation of the voltage dips performed by the energy storage systems. A multi-step procedure, at the first step, identifies a set of candidate buses where the installation of a storage device produces the maximum benefit in terms of dip compensation; then, the life cycle costs in correspondence of different alternatives in terms of size and location of the storage systems are evaluated by considering an optimized use of the energy storage systems. The simulations on a medium voltage microgrid allowed validating the effectiveness of the proposed procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Energy Storage Devices in Smart Grids)
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Open AccessArticle
Location and Sizing of Battery Energy Storage Units in Low Voltage Distribution Networks
Energies 2020, 13(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010052 - 20 Dec 2019
Abstract
Proper planning of the installation of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) in distribution networks is needed to maximize the overall technical and economic benefits. The limited lifetime and relatively high cost of BESSs require appropriate decisions on their installation and deployment, in order [...] Read more.
Proper planning of the installation of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) in distribution networks is needed to maximize the overall technical and economic benefits. The limited lifetime and relatively high cost of BESSs require appropriate decisions on their installation and deployment, in order to make the best investment. This paper proposes a comprehensive method to fully support the BESS location and sizing in a low-voltage (LV) network, taking into account the characteristics of the local generation and demand connected at the network nodes, and the time-variable generation and demand patterns. The proposed procedure aims to improve the overall network conditions, by considering both technical and economic aspects. An original approach is presented to consider both the planning and scheduling of BESSs in an LV system. This approach combines the properties of metaheuristics for BESS sizing and placement with a greedy algorithm to find viable BESS scheduling in a relatively short time considering a specified time horizon, and the application of decision theory concepts to obtain the final solution. The decision theory considers various scenarios with variable energy prices, the diffusion of local renewable generation, evolution of the local demand with the integration of electric vehicles, and a number of planning alternatives selected as the solutions with top-ranked objective functions of the operational schedules in the given scenarios. The proposed approach can be applied to energy communities where the local system operator only manages the portion of the electrical grid of the community and is responsible for providing secure and affordable electricity to its consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Energy Storage Devices in Smart Grids)
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Open AccessArticle
Integration of Stationary Batteries for Fast Charge EV Charging Stations
Energies 2019, 12(24), 4638; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12244638 - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
One of the biggest issues preventing the spread of electric vehicles is the difficulty in supporting distributed fast charging stations by actual distribution grids. Indeed, a significant amount of power is required for fast charging, especially if multiple vehicles must be supplied simultaneously. [...] Read more.
One of the biggest issues preventing the spread of electric vehicles is the difficulty in supporting distributed fast charging stations by actual distribution grids. Indeed, a significant amount of power is required for fast charging, especially if multiple vehicles must be supplied simultaneously. A possible solution to mitigate this problem is the installation of auxiliary batteries in the charging station to support the grid during high peak power demands. Nevertheless, the integration of high-voltage batteries with significant power is not a trivial task. This paper proposes the configuration and control of a converter to integrate batteries in a fast charging station. The proposed configuration makes it possible to decouple the grid power from the vehicle power using several auxiliary battery modules. At the same time, the converter makes it possible to draw different amounts of power from the battery modules, allowing the use of second life batteries performing in different ways. This paper discusses the design, control, and operation of the converter. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposed control is shown by means of numerical results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Energy Storage Devices in Smart Grids)
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Open AccessArticle
Intelligent Control of Converter for Electric Vehicles Charging Station
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2334; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122334 - 18 Jun 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) are envisaged to be the future transportation medium, and demonstrate energy efficiency levels much higher than conventional gasoline or diesel-based vehicles. However, the sustainability of EVs is only justified if the electricity used to charge these EVs is availed from [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are envisaged to be the future transportation medium, and demonstrate energy efficiency levels much higher than conventional gasoline or diesel-based vehicles. However, the sustainability of EVs is only justified if the electricity used to charge these EVs is availed from a sustainable source of energy and not from any fossil fuel or carbon generating source. In this paper, the challenges of the EV charging stations are discussed while highlighting the growing use of distributed generators in the modern electrical grid system. The benefits of the adoption of photovoltaic (PV) sources along with battery storage devices are studied. A multiport converter is proposed for integrating the PV, charging docks, and energy storage device (ESD) with the grid system. In order to control the bidirectional flow between the generating sources and the loads, an intelligent energy management system is proposed by adapting particle swarm optimization for efficient switching between the sources. The proposed system is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink environment, and the results depicted fast switching between the sources and less switching time without obstructing the fast charging to the EVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Energy Storage Devices in Smart Grids)
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Open AccessArticle
An Economic Analysis of Load Leveling with Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) in an Electricity Market Environment: The Korean Case
Energies 2019, 12(9), 1608; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091608 - 27 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The capacity of battery energy storage systems (BESS) is expected to increase for power system applications. However, as the cost of BESS is high, economic feasibility must be considered when using BESS in grid applications. Load leveling with BESS is one such application [...] Read more.
The capacity of battery energy storage systems (BESS) is expected to increase for power system applications. However, as the cost of BESS is high, economic feasibility must be considered when using BESS in grid applications. Load leveling with BESS is one such application for which the economic implications have been analyzed in the literature. However, these studies do not sufficiently consider the fact that the leveled loads will lead to a change in electricity prices, thereby modifying charging/discharging operations of BESS. Additionally, in a competitive electricity market, electricity prices are not determined by the generator cost functions. Market participants’ strategic decisions also affect prices. Therefore, we conducted an economic analysis of load leveling with BESS in an electricity market from the perspective of a utility company and/or a government agency. In our analysis of the Korean market, we examine whether the leveled loads necessarily lead to economic benefits. Load leveling performance and the associated economic benefit are quantitatively analyzed for varying sizes of BESS. Further, the policy implications related to using BESS are derived from the analysis results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Energy Storage Devices in Smart Grids)
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