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Special Issue "Alternative Sources of Energy Modeling and Automation"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. George S. Stavrakakis

Electric Circuits & Renewable Energy Sources Laboratory, Electrical & Computer Engineering Department, Kounoupidiana Campus, Technical University of Crete, GR73100 Chania - Crete - Greece
Website | E-Mail
Interests: renewable energy sources modeling and automation; production systems automation; decision support systems; systems safety and reliability analysis; real-time industrial processes fault monitoring and diagnosis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Formulation of computer implemented models of alternative (renewable) sources of energy (ASE) will help in the proper allocation of widely-available renewable energy sources; moreover, they are absolutely necessary to design and implment efficient automation for optimal operation of ASE plants and installations. Detailed simulation of alternative sources of energy divices and integrated power plants may be a very cost-effective solution and very often several subsystems of an integraded ASE power plant might be inappropriate, difficult to find and/or very expensive. In addition, ASE forecasts are essential to the integration of renewable power generation in electricity markets operations, since markets ought to be cleared in advance, while market participants shall then make decisions even before that. This Special Issue, entitled “Alternative Sources of Energy Modeling and Automation”, was proposed for the international journal Energies, which is an SSCI and SCIE journal (2015 IF = 2.072 to cover original research and scientific contributions related to the above-mentioned topics, including the most usual ASE small electric power plants, such as wind, small hydro, geothermal, biomas, tidal, photovoltaic, fuel cells, batteries, hybrid plants, etc. As an exemple, in order to design integrated smart power grids based on ASE with battery-based storage, very good ASE components behavioral model and automation of the integrated system are required.

Papers selected for this Special Issue will be subjected to a rigorous peer review procedure with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments and applications.

I am writing to invite you to submit your original work to this Special Issue. I am looking forward to receiving your outstanding research.

Prof. Dr. George S. Stavrakakis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Alternative (Renewable) sources of energy (ASE) models
  • Alternative (Renewable) sources of energy (ASE) automation
  • Solar thermal energy models and automation
  • Photovoltaic energy
  • Fuel Cells, hydrogen, batteries and energy storage in general models and automation
  • Wind energy models and automation
  • Biomass, biofuels and bioenergy models and automation
  • Tidal systems models and automation
  • Geothermal systems models and automation
  • Waste to energy models and automation
  • Hybrid ASE models and automation
  • ASE and hybrid power systems Optimization models
  • ASE and smart micro grids integration
  • Alternative (Renewable) sources of energy (ASE) forecasting and optimal planning
  • ASE models and automation based on neural networks, fuzzy logic, neuro-fuzzy methods

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Modeling a High Concentrator Photovoltaic Module Using Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems
Energies 2019, 12(3), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030567
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
Currently, there is growing interest in the modeling of high concentrator photovoltaic modules, due to the importance of achieving an accurate model, to improve the knowledge and understanding of this technology and to promote its expansion. In recent years, some techniques of artificial [...] Read more.
Currently, there is growing interest in the modeling of high concentrator photovoltaic modules, due to the importance of achieving an accurate model, to improve the knowledge and understanding of this technology and to promote its expansion. In recent years, some techniques of artificial intelligence, such as the Artificial Neural Network, have been used with the goal of obtaining an electrical model of these modules. However, little attention has been paid to applying Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems for this purpose. This work presents two new models of high concentrator photovoltaics that use two types of Fuzzy Systems: the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang, characterized by the achievement of high accuracy in the model, and the Mamdani, characterized by high accuracy and the ease of interpreting the linguistic rules that control the behavior of the fuzzy system. To obtain a good knowledge base, two learning methods have been proposed: the “Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system” and the “Ad Hoc data-driven generation”. These combinations of fuzzy systems and learning methods have allowed us to obtain two models of high concentrator photovoltaic modules, which include two improvements over previous models: an increase in the model accuracy and the possibility of deducing the relationship between the main meteorological parameters and the maximum power output of a module. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Sources of Energy Modeling and Automation)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Research of Transmissions on Electric Vehicles’ Energy Consumption
Energies 2019, 12(3), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030388
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
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Abstract
The growth of electric vehicles share of total passenger-vehicle sales is evident and is expected to be a very big market segment by 2030. Range of travel and pricing are the most influencing factors that affect their gain in market share. As so, [...] Read more.
The growth of electric vehicles share of total passenger-vehicle sales is evident and is expected to be a very big market segment by 2030. Range of travel and pricing are the most influencing factors that affect their gain in market share. As so, powertrain development is a key technology factor researched by the automotive industry. To explore, among others, how the energy consumption of zero emission vehicles is affected by different transmissions, we developed, built and installed a variety of them on a custom hydrogen fuel cell powered urban vehicle. In this work we present a comparison of the effect, on the energy consumption of the proposed testbed, of a prototype custom build 2-speed gearbox and a single stage transmission. Results presented show a reduction of the overall energy consumption with the use of the 2-speed gearbox, compared to single stage, as well as the effect of gear change speed, related to speed, in energy consumption. Finally, a correlation of experimental results using a custom build CVT is conducted compared to single stage transmission. A comparison to simulation results found in literature is performed for all the transmissions tested on road. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Sources of Energy Modeling and Automation)
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Open AccessArticle Non-Iterative Methods for the Extraction of the Single-Diode Model Parameters of Photovoltaic Modules: A Review and Comparative Assessment
Energies 2019, 12(3), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030358
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
The extraction of the photovoltaic (PV) model parameters remains to this day a long-standing and popular research topic. Numerous methods are available in the literature, widely differing in accuracy, complexity, applicability, and their very nature. This paper focuses on the class of non-iterative [...] Read more.
The extraction of the photovoltaic (PV) model parameters remains to this day a long-standing and popular research topic. Numerous methods are available in the literature, widely differing in accuracy, complexity, applicability, and their very nature. This paper focuses on the class of non-iterative parameter extraction methods and is limited to the single-diode PV model. These approaches consist of a few straightforward calculation steps that do not involve iterations; they are generally simple and easy to implement but exhibit moderate accuracy. Seventeen such methods are reviewed, implemented, and evaluated on a dataset of more than one million measured I-V curves of six different PV technologies provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL). A comprehensive comparative assessment takes place to evaluate these alternatives in terms of accuracy, robustness, calculation cost, and applicability to different PV technologies. For the first time, the irregularities found in the extracted parameters (negative or complex values) and the execution failures of these methods are recorded and are used as an assessment criterion. This comprehensive and up-to-date literature review will serve as a useful tool for researchers and engineers in selecting the appropriate parameter extraction method for their application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Sources of Energy Modeling and Automation)
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Open AccessArticle Optimized Dimensioning and Operation Automation for a Solar-Combi System for Indoor Space Heating. A Case Study for a School Building in Crete
Energies 2019, 12(1), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12010177
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
This article investigates the introduction of hybrid power plants for thermal energy production for the indoor space heating loads coverage. The plant consists of flat plate solar collectors with selective coating, water tanks as thermal energy storage and a biomass heater. A new [...] Read more.
This article investigates the introduction of hybrid power plants for thermal energy production for the indoor space heating loads coverage. The plant consists of flat plate solar collectors with selective coating, water tanks as thermal energy storage and a biomass heater. A new operation algorithm is applied, maximizing the exploitation of the available thermal energy storage capacity and, eventually, the thermal power production from the solar collectors. An automation system is also designed and proposed for the realization of the newly introduced algorithm. The solar-combi system is computationally simulated, using annual time series of average hourly steps. A dimensioning optimization process is proposed, using as criterion the minimization of the thermal energy production levelized cost. The overall approach is validated on a school building with 1000 m2 of covered area, located in the hinterland of the island of Crete. It is seen that, given the high available solar radiation in the specific area, the proposed solar-combi system can guarantee the 100% annual heating load coverage of the examined building, with an annual contribution from the solar collectors higher than 45%. The annually average thermal power production levelized cost is calculated at 0.15 €/kWhth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Sources of Energy Modeling and Automation)
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Open AccessArticle Leveraging Energy Storage in a Solar-Tower and Combined Cycle Hybrid Power Plant
Energies 2019, 12(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12010040
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
A method is presented to enhance solar penetration of a hybrid solar-combined cycle power plant integrated with a packed-bed thermal energy storage system. The hybrid plant is modeled using Simulink and employs systems-level automation. Feedback control regulates net power, collector temperature, and turbine [...] Read more.
A method is presented to enhance solar penetration of a hybrid solar-combined cycle power plant integrated with a packed-bed thermal energy storage system. The hybrid plant is modeled using Simulink and employs systems-level automation. Feedback control regulates net power, collector temperature, and turbine firing temperature. A base-case plant is presented, and plant design is systematically modified to improve solar energy utilization. A novel recycling configuration enables robust control of collector temperature and net power during times of high solar activity. Recycling allows for improved solar energy utilization and a yearly solar fraction over 30%, while maintaining power control. During significant solar activity, excessive collector temperature and power setpoint mismatch are still observed with the proposed recycling configuration. A storage bypass is integrated with recycling, to lower storage charging rate. This operation results in diverting only a fraction of air flow to storage, which lowers the storage charging rate and improves solar energy utilization. Recycling with a storage bypass can handle larger solar inputs and a solar fraction over 70% occurs when following a drastic peaking power load. The novel plant configuration is estimated to reduce levelized cost of the plant by over 4% compared to the base-case plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Sources of Energy Modeling and Automation)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of the Applied Working Fluid and the Arrangement of the Steering Edges on Multi-Vane Expander Performance in Micro ORC System
Energies 2018, 11(4), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040892
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract
Micro-power domestic organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems are nowadays of great interest. These systems are considered for combined heat and power (CHP) generation in domestic and distributed applications. The main issues of ORC systems design is selection of the expander and the working [...] Read more.
Micro-power domestic organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems are nowadays of great interest. These systems are considered for combined heat and power (CHP) generation in domestic and distributed applications. The main issues of ORC systems design is selection of the expander and the working fluid. Thanks to their positive features, multi-vane expanders are especially promising for application in micro-power ORC systems. These expanders are very simple in design, small in dimensions, inexpensive and feature low gas flow capacity and expansion ratio. The application of multi-vane expanders in ORC systems is innovative and currently limited to prototype applications. However, a literature review indicates the growing interest in these machines and the potential for practical implementation. For this reason, it is necessary to conduct detailed studies on the multi-vane expanders operation in ORC systems. In this paper the results of experimental and numerical investigations on the influence of the applied working fluid and the arrangement of the steering edges on multi-vane expander performance in micro ORC system are reported. The experiments were performed using the specially designed lab test-stand, i.e. the domestic ORC system. Numerical simulations were proceeded in ANSYS CFX software (ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA) and were focused on determining the expander performance under various flow conditions of different working fluids. Detailed numerical analysis of the arrangement of the machine steering edges showed existence of optimal mutual position of the inlet and outlet port for which the multi-vane expander achieves maximum internal work and internal efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Sources of Energy Modeling and Automation)
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