Special Issue "Blue Energy"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Svetlozar G. Velizarov
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory for Green Chemistry (LAQV), Faculty of Science and Technology, New University of Lisbon, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Interests: clean (mainly membrane-assisted) (bio)chemical processes and technologies; electro-membrane processes; water treatment, sustainable salinity gradient-based (“blue”) energy generation and/or storage
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Andrea Cipollina
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chemical Process and Plant Design at the Engineering Department, University of Palermo, Palermo, PA, Italy
Interests: Salinity gradient power (SGP) processes; water technologies, Computer-aided process modelling and optimisation; fluid flow characterization and prototype design, commissioning and operation; water treatment; brine re-use

Special Issue Information

Salinity gradient power (SGP) technologies nowadays represent novel and promising alternative sources of sustainable energy, obtainable from the controlled mixing of solutions with different salinities. Significant research efforts have been devoted to demonstrating the technological advances of already-proven technologies, such as reverse electrodialysis, pressure-retarded osmosis, capacitive mixing, as well as developing new (often hybrid) emerging processes. Research activities have spanned from fundamental theoretical analysis to the development of novel materials and from process modelling and optimisation to the demonstration of adequate technological feasibility/readiness levels through commissioning of the first pilot plants, operating in real environments, thus reaching the interest of a wider audience, including academics, industries and public authorities operating in the field of sustainable energy sources. This Special Issue will open the floor to introducing the most recent research activities carried out in the field of SGP technologies. The goal is to provide a shared knowledge platform, on which relevant advances are presented to the scientific and technological communities, with the hope of providing a robust and wide spectrum reference, thus acting as a stepping-stone for the future practical implementation of these new technologies.

Keywords

  • sustainable energy
  • mixing entropy
  • salinity gradient power
  • energy from sea and saline brines
  • energy from wastewaters
  • reverse electrodialysis
  • ion-exchange membranes
  • pressure retarded osmosis
  • osmotic membranes
  • capacitive mixing
  • flow batteries
  • (bio)fuel cells
  • mechanistic process modelling
  • multivariate statistical modelling
  • CFD simulations

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Fluid–Structure Interaction and Flow Redistribution in Membrane-Bounded Channels
Energies 2019, 12(22), 4259; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224259 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
The hydrodynamics of electrodialysis and reverse electrodialysis is commonly studied by neglecting membrane deformation caused by transmembrane pressure (TMP). However, large frictional pressure drops and differences in fluid velocity or physical properties in adjacent channels may lead to significant TMP values. In previous [...] Read more.
The hydrodynamics of electrodialysis and reverse electrodialysis is commonly studied by neglecting membrane deformation caused by transmembrane pressure (TMP). However, large frictional pressure drops and differences in fluid velocity or physical properties in adjacent channels may lead to significant TMP values. In previous works, we conducted one-way coupled structural-CFD simulations at the scale of one periodic unit of a profiled membrane/channel assembly and computed its deformation and frictional characteristics as functions of TMP. In this work, a novel fluid–structure interaction model is presented, which predicts, at the channel pair scale, the changes in flow distribution associated with membrane deformations. The continuity and Darcy equations are solved in two adjacent channels by treating them as porous media and using the previous CFD results to express their hydraulic permeability as a function of the local TMP. Results are presented for square stacks of 0.6-m sides in cross and counter flow at superficial velocities of 1 to 10 cm/s. At low velocities, the corresponding low TMP does not significantly affect the flow distribution. As the velocity increases, the larger membrane deformation causes significant fluid redistribution. In the cross flow, the departure of the local superficial velocity from a mean value of 10 cm/s ranges between −27% and +39%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blue Energy)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Modeling and Simulation Studies Analyzing the Pressure-Retarded Osmosis (PRO) and PRO-Hybridized Processes
Energies 2019, 12(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12020243 - 14 Jan 2019
Abstract
Pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is viewed as a highly promising renewable energy process that generates energy without carbon emissions in the age of the climate change regime. While many experimental studies have contributed to the quest for an efficiency that would make the PRO [...] Read more.
Pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is viewed as a highly promising renewable energy process that generates energy without carbon emissions in the age of the climate change regime. While many experimental studies have contributed to the quest for an efficiency that would make the PRO process commercially viable, computational modeling and simulation studies have played crucial roles in investigating the efficiency of PRO, particularly the concept of hybridizing the PRO process with reverse osmosis (RO). It is crucial for researchers to understand the implications of the simulation and modeling works in order to promote the further development of PRO. To that end, the authors collected many relevant papers and reorganized their important methodologies and results. This review, first of all, presents the mathematical derivation of the fundamental modeling theories regarding PRO including water flux and concentration polarization equations. After that, those theories and thermodynamic theories are then applied to depict the limitations of a stand-alone PRO process and the effectiveness of an RO-PRO hybridized process. Lastly, the review diagnoses the challenges facing PRO-basis processes which are insufficiently resolved by conventional engineering approaches and, in response, presents alternative modeling and simulation approaches as well as novel technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blue Energy)
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