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The Effect of the NaCl Bulk Concentration on the Resistance of Ion Exchange Membranes—Measuring and Modeling

REDstack bv, Graaf Adolfstraat 35-G, 8606 BT Sneek, The Netherlands
Energies 2020, 13(8), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13081946
Received: 2 March 2020 / Revised: 10 April 2020 / Accepted: 12 April 2020 / Published: 15 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blue Energy)
Ion exchange membranes are used in different fields of energy and separation technology such as electrodialysis, reverse electrodialysis, and fuel cells. Important aspects are permselectivity, resistance, and water transport. In this paper, we focus on the effect of the bulk NaCl concentration on the membrane resistance. Data from 36 publications containing 145 datasets using 6 different methods for measuring membrane resistance were compared. This study showed that the membrane resistance is dependent on the method of measuring. Two probable causes are identified: the application of reference electrodes and the presence of direct electrode–membrane contact. In addition, three physical and three phenomenological membrane models were tested by fitting these to the datasets. First, fits in the resistance domain were compared with fits in the conductivity domain. Resistance fits are sensitive to fluctuations in low concentrations, whereas fits in the conductivity domain are subject to nonlinear responses at high concentration. Resistance fits resulted in higher coefficients of determination (R2). Then, the six models were compared. The 1-thread model with two fit parameters was in almost all cases a good start. More improvements were difficult to test due to the restricted number of data points in most of the used publications, although this study shows that the so-called Gierke model (with 4 parameters) fits better than the 3-thread model. Phenomenological models were also tested, but they did not lead to much better fits. View Full-Text
Keywords: ion exchange membranes; membrane resistance; membrane model; electrodialysis; reverse electrodialysis; resistance measurement ion exchange membranes; membrane resistance; membrane model; electrodialysis; reverse electrodialysis; resistance measurement
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MDPI and ACS Style

Veerman, J. The Effect of the NaCl Bulk Concentration on the Resistance of Ion Exchange Membranes—Measuring and Modeling. Energies 2020, 13, 1946. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13081946

AMA Style

Veerman J. The Effect of the NaCl Bulk Concentration on the Resistance of Ion Exchange Membranes—Measuring and Modeling. Energies. 2020; 13(8):1946. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13081946

Chicago/Turabian Style

Veerman, Joost. 2020. "The Effect of the NaCl Bulk Concentration on the Resistance of Ion Exchange Membranes—Measuring and Modeling" Energies 13, no. 8: 1946. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13081946

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