Special Issue "Renewable Energy Solutions for Baltic-Nordic Region 2020"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Bio-Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Timo Kikas
Website
Guest Editor
Chair of Biosystems Engineering, Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
Interests: bioeconomy; biofuels; biomass conversion; biomethane; bioethanol; lingnocellulosic biomass; pretreatment; renewable transport fuels
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Prof. Marcis Jansons
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA
Interests: engine technology; combustion; optical diagnostics; propulsion systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biosystems Engineering (BSE) aims to become the leading annual conference in the Baltic region in fields related to traditional and modern engineering techniques and technical solutions applied to biological systems. The goal of BSE 2020 is to gather scholars from all over the world to present advances in the fields of biosystems engineering, and to foster an environment conducive to exchanging ideas and information. This year, the conference will take place virtually on an e-platform. However, we still hope to provide an environment to develop new collaborations and meet experts on the fundamentals, applications, and products related to the mentioned fields.

Among the more prominent topics of the conference are energy and fuels from renewable sources, bioenergy, waste-to-energy, energy efficiency, etc.

Prof. Dr. Timo Kikas
Prof. Marcis Jansons
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Smart energy systems
  • Energy policy
  • Energy system analysis
  • Renewable energy resources
  • Advanced sustainable energy conversion systems
  • Renewable heat systems
  • Biofuels and biorefineries
  • Alternative fuels
  • Hybrid and electric vehicles
  • Energy storage
  • Energy efficient appliances
  • Energy efficiency in buildings

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Selected Fuel Properties of Alcohol and Rapeseed Oil Blends
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3821; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153821 - 25 Jul 2020
Abstract
The alcohols ethanol and 1-butanol are interesting options as blending components for renewable fuels. We studied whether it is possible to mix these alcohols with a little refined material, rapeseed oil, to obtain stable fuel samples. At room temperature, the stable samples consisted [...] Read more.
The alcohols ethanol and 1-butanol are interesting options as blending components for renewable fuels. We studied whether it is possible to mix these alcohols with a little refined material, rapeseed oil, to obtain stable fuel samples. At room temperature, the stable samples consisted of rapeseed oil blended with butanol at 5 vol-%, 10 vol-%, 20 vol-%, 30 vol-% and one sample of rapeseed oil with 5 vol-% of ethanol. The samples’ fuel properties analysed were kinematic viscosity (at 40 °C), density (at 15 °C) and surface tension. Cold filter plugging point was measured for rapeseed oil with 20 vol-% and 30 vol-% of butanol. Stability of butanol or ethanol and rapeseed oil blends can be achieved at the studied volumes. The density of neat rapeseed oil and all the alcohol–rapeseed oil blends met the requirements set for residual marine fuels. The 30 vol-% butanol–rapeseed oil blend met the requirements for distillate marine oil for density, and almost for kinematic viscosity. The blends appeared most suitable for power plants and marine engines. More detailed analyses of their properties are needed before recommendations for use can be given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Solutions for Baltic-Nordic Region 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Diesel Fuel-Coconut Oil-Butanol Blends on Operational Parameters of Diesel Engine
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3796; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153796 - 24 Jul 2020
Abstract
The global concentration of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is increasing as well as the emissions of harmful pollutants. Utilization of liquid biofuels in combustion engines helps to reduce these negative effects. For diesel engines, the most common alternative fuels are based on [...] Read more.
The global concentration of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is increasing as well as the emissions of harmful pollutants. Utilization of liquid biofuels in combustion engines helps to reduce these negative effects. For diesel engines, the most common alternative fuels are based on vegetable oils. Blending neat vegetable oils with diesel and/or alcohol fuels is a simple way to make them suitable for diesel engines. In this study, coconut oil was used in ternary fuel blends with diesel and butanol. Coconut oil is a potentially usable source of renewable energy, especially in the Pacific, where it is a local product. Diesel fuel-coconut oil-butanol fuel blends were used in concentrations of 70%/20%/10% and 60%/20%/20%, and 100% diesel fuel was used as a reference. The effect of the fuel blends on the production of harmful emissions, engine smoke, performance parameters, fuel consumption and solid particles production was monitored during the measurement. The engine was kept at a constant speed during the measurement and the load was selected at 50%, 75% and 100%. From the results, it can be stated that in comparison with diesel fuel, specific fuel consumption increased with a positive effect on the reduction of engine smoke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Solutions for Baltic-Nordic Region 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Diethyl Ether/Rapeseed Oil Blends on Performance and Emissions of a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3788; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153788 - 23 Jul 2020
Abstract
This article presents results of experimental study of diesel, rapeseed oil and three different blends of 10%, 20% and 30% diethyl ether addition to rapeseed oil, tested on VW Golf vehicle on chassis dynamometer Mustang MD-1750. Fuel consumption and emission tests were conducted [...] Read more.
This article presents results of experimental study of diesel, rapeseed oil and three different blends of 10%, 20% and 30% diethyl ether addition to rapeseed oil, tested on VW Golf vehicle on chassis dynamometer Mustang MD-1750. Fuel consumption and emission tests were conducted at different testing conditions: idling, 50 km/h, 90 km/h, as also IM-240 cycle. The analysis of obtained results have shown reduction of engine power by 6.2%–17.3% and increase of fuel consumption by 0.6%–15.5% (based on testing conditions) for all blends based on DEE addition compared to RO, demonstrating better perspectives for low level blends. Emission tests have shown decrease of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for all blends with DEE content in almost all testing conditions and also slight increase of carbon monoxides and carbon dioxides compared to rapeseed oil. Largest decrease of NOx was observed during 90 km/h and cycle IM-240 reaching almost 24% reduction for 20DEE and 30DEE in comparison to neat RO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Solutions for Baltic-Nordic Region 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Pretreatment on Hydrothermally Carbonized Spruce
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2984; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112984 - 10 Jun 2020
Abstract
Upgrading biomass waste streams can improve economics in wood industries by adding value to the process. This work considers use of a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process for the residual feedstock after lignin and hemicelluloses extraction. Batch experiments were performed at 200–240 °C temperatures [...] Read more.
Upgrading biomass waste streams can improve economics in wood industries by adding value to the process. This work considers use of a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process for the residual feedstock after lignin and hemicelluloses extraction. Batch experiments were performed at 200–240 °C temperatures and three hours residence time with an 8:1 biomass to water ratio for two feedstocks: Raw spruce and spruce after lignin extraction. The proximate analysis and heating value showed similar results for both feedstocks, indicating that the thermochemical conversion is not impacted by the removal of lignin and hemicelluloses; the pretreatment processing slightly increases the heating value of the treated feedstock, but the HTC conversion process produces a consistent upgrading trend for both the treated and untreated feedstocks. The energy yield was 9.7 percentage points higher for the treated wood on average across the range temperatures due to the higher mass yield in the treated experiments. The energy densification ratio and the mass yield were strongly correlated with reaction temperature, while the energy yield was not. Lignocellulosic composition of the solid HTC product is mainly affected by HTC treatment, the effect of lignin extraction is negligible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Solutions for Baltic-Nordic Region 2020)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Role of Ionic Liquids in the Lignin Separation from Lignocellulosic Biomass
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4864; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184864 - 17 Sep 2020
Abstract
Lignin is a natural polymer, one that has an abundant and renewable resource in biomass. Due to a tendency towards the use of biochemicals, the efficient utilization of lignin has gained wide attention. The delignification of lignocellulosic biomass makes its fractions (cellulose, hemicellulose, [...] Read more.
Lignin is a natural polymer, one that has an abundant and renewable resource in biomass. Due to a tendency towards the use of biochemicals, the efficient utilization of lignin has gained wide attention. The delignification of lignocellulosic biomass makes its fractions (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) susceptible to easier transformation to many different commodities like energy, chemicals, and materials that could be produced using the biorefinery concept. This review gives an overview of the field of lignin separation from lignocellulosic biomass and changes that occur in the biomass during this process, as well as taking a detailed look at the influence of parameters that lead the process of dissolution. According to recent studies, a number of ionic liquids (ILs) have shown a level of potential for industrial scale production in terms of the pretreatment of biomass. ILs are perspective green solvents for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. These properties in ILs enable one to disrupt the complex structure of lignocellulose. In addition, the physicochemical properties of aprotic and protic ionic liquids (PILs) are summarized, with those properties making them suitable solvents for lignocellulose pretreatment which, especially, target lignin. The aim of the paper is to focus on the separation of lignin from lignocellulosic biomass, by keeping all components susceptible for biorefinery processes. The discussion includes interaction mechanisms between lignocellulosic biomass subcomponents and ILs to increase the lignin yield. According to our research, certain PILs have potential for the cost reduction of LC biomass pretreatment on the feasible separation of lignin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Solutions for Baltic-Nordic Region 2020)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Origin, Impact and Control of Lignocellulosic Inhibitors in Bioethanol Production—A Review
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4751; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184751 - 11 Sep 2020
Abstract
Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass is still struggling with many obstacles. One of them is lignocellulosic inhibitors. The aim of this review is to discuss the most known inhibitors. Additionally, the review addresses different detoxification methods to degrade or to remove inhibitors from [...] Read more.
Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass is still struggling with many obstacles. One of them is lignocellulosic inhibitors. The aim of this review is to discuss the most known inhibitors. Additionally, the review addresses different detoxification methods to degrade or to remove inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Inhibitors are formed during the pretreatment of biomass. They derive from the structural polymers-cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The formation of inhibitors depends on the pretreatment conditions. Inhibitors can have a negative influence on both the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The inhibition mechanisms can be, for example, deactivation of enzymes or impairment of vital cell structures. The toxicity of each inhibitor depends on its chemical and physical properties. To decrease the negative effects of inhibitors, different detoxification methods have been researched. Those methods focus on the chemical modification of inhibitors into less toxic forms or on the separation of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Each detoxification method has its limitations on the removal of certain inhibitors. To choose a suitable detoxification method, a deep molecular understanding of the inhibition mechanism and the inhibitor formation is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Solutions for Baltic-Nordic Region 2020)
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