Next Article in Journal
Survey and Classification of Business Models for the Energy Transformation
Next Article in Special Issue
Impact of Diethyl Ether/Rapeseed Oil Blends on Performance and Emissions of a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle
Previous Article in Journal
Temperature and Field Induced Variations of Electric Conductivities of HTV Silicone Rubbers Derived from Measured Currents and Surface Potential Decay Characteristics

Impact of Pretreatment on Hydrothermally Carbonized Spruce

Energy Technology, Laboratory of Sustainable Energy Systems, LUT University, PL 20, 53851 Lappeenranta, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2984;
Received: 8 May 2020 / Revised: 29 May 2020 / Accepted: 7 June 2020 / Published: 10 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Solutions for Baltic-Nordic Region 2020)
Upgrading biomass waste streams can improve economics in wood industries by adding value to the process. This work considers use of a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process for the residual feedstock after lignin and hemicelluloses extraction. Batch experiments were performed at 200–240 °C temperatures and three hours residence time with an 8:1 biomass to water ratio for two feedstocks: Raw spruce and spruce after lignin extraction. The proximate analysis and heating value showed similar results for both feedstocks, indicating that the thermochemical conversion is not impacted by the removal of lignin and hemicelluloses; the pretreatment processing slightly increases the heating value of the treated feedstock, but the HTC conversion process produces a consistent upgrading trend for both the treated and untreated feedstocks. The energy yield was 9.7 percentage points higher for the treated wood on average across the range temperatures due to the higher mass yield in the treated experiments. The energy densification ratio and the mass yield were strongly correlated with reaction temperature, while the energy yield was not. Lignocellulosic composition of the solid HTC product is mainly affected by HTC treatment, the effect of lignin extraction is negligible. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrothermal carbonization; lignin; biomass; energy densification hydrothermal carbonization; lignin; biomass; energy densification
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Partridge, A.; Sermyagina, E.; Vakkilainen, E. Impact of Pretreatment on Hydrothermally Carbonized Spruce. Energies 2020, 13, 2984.

AMA Style

Partridge A, Sermyagina E, Vakkilainen E. Impact of Pretreatment on Hydrothermally Carbonized Spruce. Energies. 2020; 13(11):2984.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Partridge, Anna, Ekaterina Sermyagina, and Esa Vakkilainen. 2020. "Impact of Pretreatment on Hydrothermally Carbonized Spruce" Energies 13, no. 11: 2984.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop