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Electro-Chemo-Mechanical Characterization and Modelling of Advanced Materials

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "D1: Advanced Energy Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 9327

Special Issue Editors

School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics‍, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Interests: lithium-ion batteries; all-solid-state batteries; electro-chemo-mechanical modeling; phase-field methods; novel finite element methods; lattice materials
Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China
Interests: lithium-ion battery; coupled mechanical-electrochemical behavior; electrode degradation; high-capacity electrode; fast charging; mechanically based battery design

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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401, China
Interests: strain engineering of electrocatalysis; dynamic electro-chemo-mechanical analysis; electrochemical actuation; reactivity enhancement strategies; reaction knitics
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Guest Editor
School of Aerospace, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China
Interests: micromechanics of materials; interfaces; high-entropy alloys; radiation damage; chemo-mechanical coupling; metal corrosion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our great pleasure to invite submissions to a Special Issue of Energies on “Electro-Chemo-Mechanical Characterization and Modelling of Advanced Materials”. The ever-growing imploration for energy storage devices, intelligent wearables, multiferroics, etc., has demonstrated an urgent need for the knowledge of the intrinsic working and failure principles of advanced functional materials, both from experimental and theoretical aspects. The progressive development of characterization techniques and advances in computational mechanics enables more sophisticated understanding in such area.

This Special Issue is intended for a collection of contributions regarding the electro-chemo-mechanical characterization and mathematical modelling of advanced materials, in order to build and consolidate the knowledge in this subject area. To this end, topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Electrochamical systems;
  • Ferroelectrics and multiferroics;
  • Biological tissues;
  • Wearable electronics;
  • Corrosion in metals.

Dr. Ying Zhao
Dr. Bo Lu
Prof. Dr. Qibo Deng
Prof. Dr. Wenshan Yu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • lithium-ion batteries
  • fuel cells
  • supercapacitors
  • electro-chemo-mechanical modelling
  • chemo-mechanical characterization
  • electrochemical systems
  • corrosion
  • biological tissues
  • electronic wearables

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3718 KiB  
Article
Modulus Estimation of Composites with High Porosity, High Particle Volume Fraction, and Particle Eigenstrain: Application to the LIB Active Layer with a Bridged-Particle Mesostructure
by Kaituo Song, Bo Lu, Yaolong He, Yicheng Song and Junqian Zhang
Energies 2023, 16(3), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031424 - 1 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1485
Abstract
Due to the complex mesostructure and components of composite active layers in lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, coupled with the concentration-dependent material properties and eigenstrains, efficiently estimating the effective modulus of the active layers remains a great challenge. In this work, the classic Mori–Tanaka [...] Read more.
Due to the complex mesostructure and components of composite active layers in lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, coupled with the concentration-dependent material properties and eigenstrains, efficiently estimating the effective modulus of the active layers remains a great challenge. In this work, the classic Mori–Tanaka method is found to be unable to estimate the modulus of the active layer. By realizing the importance of the mesostructure feature, a rod-rod model is proposed. The resulting modulus is expressed analytically. It is shown that the rod-rod model can accurately estimate the modulus evolution of the active layer if the material properties of the components and the evolution of volume fractions are known in advance. Moreover, a simplified rod-rod model is also developed to reduce the complexity of the proposed method. By knowing the volume fractions at two arbitrary states of charge and subsequently determining two constants, the simplified model can estimate the modulus efficiently. Considering both its accuracy and its simplicity, the simplified rod-rod model is the most suitable for the estimation. Thus, the methods developed in this work provide a new perspective for analyzing the material properties of composite active layers in LIB electrodes. Full article
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14 pages, 1803 KiB  
Article
Application of LSTM Approach for Predicting the Fission Swelling Behavior within a CERCER Composite Fuel
by Jian Zhao, Zhenyue Chen, Jingqi Tu, Yunmei Zhao and Yiqun Dong
Energies 2022, 15(23), 9053; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15239053 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Irradiation-induced swelling plays a key role in determining fuel performance. Due to their high cost and time demands, experimental research methods are ineffective. Knowledge-based multiscale simulations are also constrained by the loss of trustworthy theoretical underpinnings. This work presents a new trial of [...] Read more.
Irradiation-induced swelling plays a key role in determining fuel performance. Due to their high cost and time demands, experimental research methods are ineffective. Knowledge-based multiscale simulations are also constrained by the loss of trustworthy theoretical underpinnings. This work presents a new trial of integrating knowledge-based finite element analysis (FEA) with a data-driven deep learning framework, to predict the hydrostatic-pressure–temperature dependent fission swelling behavior within a CERCER composite fuel. We employed the long short-term memory (LSTM) deep learning network to mimic the history-dependent behaviors. Training of the LSTM is achieved by processing the sequential order of the inputs to do the forecasting; the input features are fission rate, fission density, temperature, and hydrostatic pressure. We performed the model training based on a leveraged dataset of 8000 combinations of a wide range of input states and state evaluations that were generated by high-fidelity simulations. When replicating the swelling plots, the trained LSTM deep learning model exhibits outstanding prediction effectiveness. For various input variables, the model successfully pinpoints when recrystallization first occurs. The preliminary study for model interpretation suggests providing quantified insights into how those features affect solid and gaseous portions of swelling. The study demonstrates the efficacy of combining data-driven and knowledge-based modeling techniques to assess irradiation-induced fuel performance and enhance future design. Full article
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9 pages, 2273 KiB  
Article
Structural Health Monitoring of Repairs in Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites by MWCNT-Based Multiscale Sensors
by Wenlong Hu, Zijie Sun, Lulu Yang, Shuzheng Zhang, Fangxin Wang, Bin Yang and Yu Cang
Energies 2022, 15(22), 8348; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228348 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
The precision maintenance of delaminated carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composites calls for the high demand of continuous, in situ monitoring of the damage-repair process along with the in-service status of the repaired region. Moreover, the repaired region faces a high risk of re-damage; therefore, in-service [...] Read more.
The precision maintenance of delaminated carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composites calls for the high demand of continuous, in situ monitoring of the damage-repair process along with the in-service status of the repaired region. Moreover, the repaired region faces a high risk of re-damage; therefore, in-service monitoring is highly desired. However, the current repair process lacks the in situ monitoring function, leading to the mechanism and evaluation of the repair approach being unclear. Here, we implanted multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at the interface between the carbon fiber and resin matrix of the damaged region to achieve in situ monitoring of the repair, compression, and seawater-immersion processes. By depositing both the coupling agent and MWCNTs at the interfaces, a high recovery efficiency of 85% was achieved, which was independent of the delamination pattern shapes. The electric resistance changes of MWCNT-modified panels could effectively identify the resin permeation and solidification processes and could be used to in situ monitor the structural health of the repair region when it is subjected to the compression and seawater immersion tests. This strategy, combining high-efficient repair and precision maintenance, demonstrates potential in the structural applications of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composites. Full article
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10 pages, 1963 KiB  
Article
In Situ Thermal Ablation Repair of Delamination in Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting Composites
by Yu Cang, Wenlong Hu, Dalei Zhu, Lulu Yang, Chaojie Hu, Yiwen Yuan, Fangxin Wang and Bin Yang
Energies 2022, 15(19), 6927; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15196927 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1685
Abstract
Repairing delamination damage is critical to guarantee the structural safety of carbon fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites. The popular repair approaches, scarf repair and injection repair, can significantly restore the in-plane mechanical performance. However, the out-of-plane properties become worse due to the sacrifice of fiber [...] Read more.
Repairing delamination damage is critical to guarantee the structural safety of carbon fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites. The popular repair approaches, scarf repair and injection repair, can significantly restore the in-plane mechanical performance. However, the out-of-plane properties become worse due to the sacrifice of fiber continuity in these repairing processes, leading to the materials being susceptible under service loads. Here, we propose a novel in situ delamination repair approach of controllable thermal ablation in damage removal, achieving a high repair efficiency without impairing the fiber continuity in carbon fiber/epoxy panels. The epoxy resin in the delaminated region was eliminated under the carbonization temperature in a few minutes, allowing the carbon fiber frame to retain its structural integrity. The healing agent, refilled in the damaged region, was cured by the Joule heating of designed electrodes for 30 min at 80 °C, yielding the whole repair process to be accomplished within one hour. For the delaminated carbon fiber/epoxy panels with thicknesses from 2.5 to 6.8 mm, the in-plane compression-after-impact strength after repair could recover to 90.5% of the pristine one, and still retain 74.9% after three successive repair cycles of the 6.8 mm-thick sample. The simplicity and cost-saving advantages of this repair method offer great potential for practical applications of prolonging the service life of carbon fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 3261 KiB  
Review
Experimental Investigations on the Chemo-Mechanical Coupling in Solid-State Batteries and Electrode Materials
by Jiaxuan Wang and Feng Hao
Energies 2023, 16(3), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031180 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2429
Abstract
Increasing attention has been paid to the safety and efficiency of batteries due to the rapid development and widespread use of electric vehicles. Solid-state batteries have the advantages of good safety, high energy density, and strong cycle performance, and are recognized as the [...] Read more.
Increasing attention has been paid to the safety and efficiency of batteries due to the rapid development and widespread use of electric vehicles. Solid-state batteries have the advantages of good safety, high energy density, and strong cycle performance, and are recognized as the next generation of power batteries. However, solid-state batteries generate large stress changes due to the volume change of electrode materials during cycling, resulting in pulverization and exfoliation of active materials, fracture of solid-electrolyte interface films, and development of internal cracks in solid electrolytes. As a consequence, the cycle performance of the battery is degraded, or even a short circuit can occur. Therefore, it is important to study the stress changes of solid-state batteries or electrode materials during cycling. This review presents a current overview of chemo-mechanical characterization techniques applied to solid-state batteries and experimental setups. Moreover, some methods to improve the mechanical properties by changing the composition or structure of the electrode materials are also summarized. This review aims to highlight the impact of the stress generated inside solid-state batteries and summarizes a part of the research methods used to study the stress of solid-state batteries, which help improve the design level of solid-state batteries, thereby improving battery performance and safety. Full article
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