Special Issue "Beyond 5G Evolution"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Carlos J. Bernardos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Telematics Engineering, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes (Madrid), Spain
Interests: network virtualization; IP mobility management; wireless experimentation; cloud computing and vehicular communications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Future 5G networks promise delivering optimized services in three main usage scenarios: Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC), and Massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC). The standardization of 5G has reached its first milestone with the 3GPP Release 15, while Release 16 is being clarified and first commercial products will soon appear on the market.

Compared to 4G, 5G pushes the usage of radio spectrum to the next level and enables the configuration of both radio access and the core network segments, thanks to the concept of network slicing and the use of virtualization technologies. Future 5G seeks to connect a denser more diverse range of devices, at far higher speeds with far lower latency and constitutes one of the most ambitious and challenging technology rollouts of the modern era. The success of 5G will depend to a great extent on how it is embraced by the new type of customers that 5G targets: the vertical industries. Practical experience with 5G deployments is needed, from customers, network operators and equipment vendors. In parallel to this, there are already some "beyond-5G" efforts appearing.

The goal of this Special Issue is to share research efforts on the design, adaptation and enhancement of beyond-5G mobile networks. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Practical experience on 5G deployment and usage. Lessons learned towards beyond-5G enhancements.
  • Improvements of radio spectrum usage, novel strategies for coverage/service extension, support of novel use cases and mobile edge cloud applications, usability of the current unexplored spectrum.
  • Enhancements of mobile network architectures aiming at significantly reducing energy consumption.
  • Closed-loop automation and SLA control of automated vertical service lifecycle management.
  • AI-based E2E network slicing solutions to combine optimization of RAN, Transport, Core and cloud/MEC resources, across multi-technologies, multi-vendors and multi-domains (federation).
  • Applicability of AI/ML techniques to cross-layer optimizations in mobile network architectures.
  • Enhancements to NFV MANO based on AI/ML.
  • Orchestration and automation mechanisms capable of coping with extreme distributed and volatile resources (fog computing).
  • Machine learning techniques to optimize time and frequency slot allocation and minimize interference between devices in ultra-dense environments.
  • Optimal placement and movement of compute resources within a very distributed, mobile and heterogeneous infrastructure, including path movement prediction mechanisms to allow "follow-me" approaches.
  • Beyond-5G related standardization efforts in the relevant standardization bodies (IEEE, IETF, 3GPP and ETSI).
Prof. Dr. Carlos Jesús Bernardos Cano


Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
An Enhanced Replica Selection Approach Based on Distance Constraint in ICN
Electronics 2021, 10(4), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10040490 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 524
Abstract
Fifth generation (5G) networks have a high requirement for low latency of data delivery. Information-centric networking (ICN) adopts the paradigm of separation of the identifier and locator. It is efficient in content distribution by supporting in-network caching and has the potential to satisfy [...] Read more.
Fifth generation (5G) networks have a high requirement for low latency of data delivery. Information-centric networking (ICN) adopts the paradigm of separation of the identifier and locator. It is efficient in content distribution by supporting in-network caching and has the potential to satisfy the low latency requirement in 5G. Replica selection is a key problem to retrieving content in ICN. Prior research usually utilizes the nearest replica. However, using the nearest replica cannot guarantee the smallest content download delay. To exploit in-network caching better, we propose an enhanced replica selection approach, called ERS. ERS first uses a distance-constrained-based name resolution system to discover the nearby replicas. Then, the most appropriate replica is chosen according to a local state table that maintains the state of replica nodes within a limited domain. In addition to network distance and replica node load, ERS innovatively introduces the path congestion degree between requester and replica nodes to assist replica selection. With extensive simulations, the proposed approach shows better performance than the state-of-the-art methods in terms of average content download delay. Finally, the overhead of the proposed method is analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond 5G Evolution)
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Article
Two Step Random Access Latency Improvement in Congested beyond 5G Networks
Electronics 2020, 9(11), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9111974 - 22 Nov 2020
Viewed by 674
Abstract
It has been recently proposed to enhance the performance of random access procedure (RAP) by downsizing the current four step RAP (4s-RAP) to two step RAP (2s-RAP) in order to address ultra reliable low latency communications (URLLC) in 5G and beyond 5G wireless [...] Read more.
It has been recently proposed to enhance the performance of random access procedure (RAP) by downsizing the current four step RAP (4s-RAP) to two step RAP (2s-RAP) in order to address ultra reliable low latency communications (URLLC) in 5G and beyond 5G wireless networks. 2s-RAP reduces latency and signaling overhead by manifesting only one round trip between gNB (5G base station) and the UE (user equipment). However, the low latency goal of 2s-RAP is challenged by the increase in the number of UEs in the future wireless networks. Numerous UEs competing for limited random access resources would result in frequent collisions followed by multiple random access reattempts, resulting in increased delay. In this paper, we propose novel algorithms to improve the performance of 2s-RAP in a congested environment. In the proposed algorithms, the UEs can perform RAP reattempts in either 2s-RAP or 4s-RAP based on the channel conditions such that the chances of RAP failure due to poor channels are reduced. They can also transit to 4s-RAP from the initially selected 2s-RAP in order to alleviate the congestion in 2s-RAP. The proposed algorithms are probabilistically analyzed based on collision probabilities and success rates. We employ our derived mathematical equations, as well as carry out simulation evaluations, to present the performance results effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond 5G Evolution)
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Article
A Baseline Roadmap for Advanced Wireless Research Beyond 5G
Electronics 2020, 9(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9020351 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2892
Abstract
This paper presents a baseline roadmap for the evolution of 5G new radio over the next decade. Three timescales are considered, namely short-term (2022-ish), medium-term (2025-ish), and long-term (2030-ish). The evolution of the target key performance indicators (KPIs) is first analyzed by accounting [...] Read more.
This paper presents a baseline roadmap for the evolution of 5G new radio over the next decade. Three timescales are considered, namely short-term (2022-ish), medium-term (2025-ish), and long-term (2030-ish). The evolution of the target key performance indicators (KPIs) is first analyzed by accounting for forecasts on the emerging use cases and their requirements, together with assumptions on the pace of technology advancements. The baseline roadmap is derived next by capturing the top-10 and next the top-5 technology trends envisioned to bring significant added value at each timescale. Being intrinsically predictive, our proposed baseline roadmap cannot assert with certainty the values of the target KPIs and the shortlisting of the technology trends. It is, however, aimed at driving discussions and collecting feedback from the wireless research community for future tuning and refinement as the 5G evolution journey progresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond 5G Evolution)
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Other

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Letter
Framework for Delay Guarantee in Multi-Domain Networks Based on Interleaved Regulators
Electronics 2020, 9(3), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9030436 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
The key to the asynchronous traffic shaping (ATS) technology being standardized in IEEE 802.1 time sensitive network (TSN) task group (TG) is the theorem that a minimal interleaved regulator (IR), attached to a FIFO system does not increase delay upper bound while suppresses [...] Read more.
The key to the asynchronous traffic shaping (ATS) technology being standardized in IEEE 802.1 time sensitive network (TSN) task group (TG) is the theorem that a minimal interleaved regulator (IR), attached to a FIFO system does not increase delay upper bound while suppresses the burst accumulation. In this work it is observed that the FIFO system can be a network for flows that share same input/output ports and same queues of the network, and are treated with a scheduling scheme that guarantees the FIFO property within a queue. Based on this observation, a framework for delay bound guarantee is further proposed, in which the networks with flow aggregates (FAs) scheduling and minimal IRs per FA attached at the network edge are interconnected. The framework guarantees the end-to-end delay bound with reduced complexity, compared to the traditional flow-based approach. Numerical analysis shows that the framework yields smaller bound than both the flow-based frameworks such as the integrated services (IntServ) and the class-based ATS, at least in the networks with identical flows and symmetrical topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond 5G Evolution)
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