Psychological Variables Impacted by Sport Participation

A special issue of European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education (ISSN 2254-9625).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 17562

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Kinesiology and Sport Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA
2. Education Academy, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania
Interests: sport and exercise psychology; meta-analysis; achievement goals
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Competitive sport at all levels—grassroots, collegiate, professional, and Olympic—play many roles in our world. This Special Issue is open to all aspects of competitive sport within the framework of EJIPHE. Quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-methods articles are welcome on any topic investigating the psychology, health, and education aspects of competitive sport. With the Winter Olympics just completed, articles focusing on Olympic sports and issues are encouraged.

Prof. Dr. Marc Lochbaum
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • competitive sport
  • grassroots sport
  • psychology
  • human health
  • sport education
  • qualitative methodology
  • quantitative methodology
  • physical activity participation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 735 KiB  
Article
“I RUN CLEAN Project”—An Innovative and Self-Sustainable Approach to Develop Clean Sport Behaviours in Grassroots Athletes
by Roberto Codella, Fabio Lucidi, Fabio Alivernini, Tommaso Palombi, Bill Glad, Jean Gracia, Daniel Gotti, Antonio La Torre and Andrea Chirico
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(11), 2561-2573; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13110178 - 8 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1132
Abstract
The phenomenon of doping is a public health issue that poses threats to sport and society. In recent decades, the emphasis on efforts to address the issue and reduce the incidence of doping by young people in sport has shifted from deterrence through [...] Read more.
The phenomenon of doping is a public health issue that poses threats to sport and society. In recent decades, the emphasis on efforts to address the issue and reduce the incidence of doping by young people in sport has shifted from deterrence through testing and punishment to the promotion of clean sport behaviours through values-based education. The “I Run Clean project” sought to develop new and effective tools targeting grassroots athletes and those around them (coaches, medical support personnel, sport leaders, parents). These included sport-specific e-learning and in-person peer-to-peer workshops led by trained volunteer ambassadors. The aim of all “I Run Clean” measures is to go beyond the warnings and provision of factual information about early anti-doping campaigns to a more holistic educational approach that focuses participants on their personal and sport-related values in order to encourage good decision-making and resistance to doping-related behaviours. This study evaluates the efficacy of the peer-to-peer workshops and their impact on selected psycho-social variables. The collaboration of the volunteer ambassadors is shown to effectively transmit the desired reasoning, reduce doping risk factors and enhance protective factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Variables Impacted by Sport Participation)
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32 pages, 3396 KiB  
Article
Keeping Things Positive: Affect as a Mediator between Physical Activity and Psychological Functioning
by Aliakbar Foroughi, Nils T. Henschel, Hassan Shahi, Scott S. Hall, Lawrence S. Meyers, Kheirollah Sadeghi, Aliakbar Parvizifard, Klaus Boehnke and Serge Brand
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(11), 2428-2459; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13110171 - 2 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1441
Abstract
Higher physical activity is generally associated with more favorable psychological functioning. However, the role of positive and negative affect in such associations is unclear. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study explored whether affect mediated the relationship of physical activity with psychological well-being (PWB) and psychological [...] Read more.
Higher physical activity is generally associated with more favorable psychological functioning. However, the role of positive and negative affect in such associations is unclear. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study explored whether affect mediated the relationship of physical activity with psychological well-being (PWB) and psychological dysfunctioning (PD). Young Iranian adults (N = 200) completed self-rating questionnaires covering physical activity, positive and negative affect, and proxies of PWB and PD. Regression analyses indicated that higher physical activity levels and higher positive and lower negative affect predicted proxies of PWB. The same (albeit in the opposite direction) applied to proxies of PD. Structural equation modeling indicated that positive and negative affect mediated the relationship between physical activity and PWB/PD. Accordingly, change in affect might be an important mechanism behind the association of physical activity and PWB/PD. Future research should further explore this across target populations and cultural contexts. Longitudinal and/or experimental studies are needed to disentangle causality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Variables Impacted by Sport Participation)
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16 pages, 1679 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Physical and Psychosocial Health of Older Adults in Saudi Arabia through Walking: Comparison between Supervised Group-Based and Non-Supervised Individual-Based Walking
by Palash Karmakar, Ming-Yu (Claudia) Wong, Mezna A. AlMarzooqi, Nouf Alghamdi, Kailing Ou, Yanping Duan, Ryan E. Rhodes and Chun-Qing Zhang
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(11), 2342-2357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13110165 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1357
Abstract
Walking is widely recognized as one of the most common and effective forms of physical activity, particularly for older adults. This study examined the comparative effects of two types of walking interventions, including supervised group-based intervention (SGBI) and non-supervised individual-based intervention (NSIBI), on [...] Read more.
Walking is widely recognized as one of the most common and effective forms of physical activity, particularly for older adults. This study examined the comparative effects of two types of walking interventions, including supervised group-based intervention (SGBI) and non-supervised individual-based intervention (NSIBI), on frailty syndrome, cognitive functions or skills, and health-related quality of life among sedentary older Saudi individuals. A 15-week double-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) including three groups (two were intervention groups while the other was the control group) was conducted among older adults who were inactive to examine the effect of different forms of walking interventions on frailty syndrome, cognitive functions, and health-related quality of life. A total of 107 participants, including 65 males and 42 females, were divided into three groups, which include SGBI, NSIBI, and the control group. Frailty syndrome was measured using the physical performance test (PPT), while cognitive function and health-related quality of life were assessed using the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Short Form 36 (SF 36) health survey questionnaire. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with the pre- and post-tests were performed for within- and between-group differences. while post-test data for the control group participants were absent due to the change in elderly center regulation, and they were excluded from the analysis. Hence, the comparison was stated only between the intervention groups. Both of the intervention groups (SGBI and NSIBI) showed significant within-subject differences in the Physical Function subscale of the health-related quality of life scale only, with F(1,20) = 23.03, p < 0.001, and F(1,18) = 27.22, p < 0.001, respectively. On the other hand, the Physical Performance Test revealed significant [F(2,51) = 9.21, p < 0.001] between-group differences in the post-test based on the baseline values. In addition, the average step count of older adults was increased from 4000 steps per session to around 7000 steps per session in the intervention group. The average heart rate of the NSIBI group did not show a visible change, and the resting heart rate of both groups showed a slightly declining trend throughout the intervention period. The walking intervention significantly increased participants’ physical function, which is a component of health-related quality of life and physical performance (frailty level), along with average daily step counts for older adults in Saudi Arabia. Regular engagement in the recommended level of walking is strongly advisable for Saudi Arabian older adults to maintain their overall quality of life at this stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Variables Impacted by Sport Participation)
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17 pages, 721 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Bullying among Athletes in the Romanian Context
by Florin Nichifor, Andrei-Lucian Marian and Silviu-Mihail Tiţă
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(10), 2046-2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13100145 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the explanatory power of a predictive model of bully/perpetrator behaviour in Romanian athletes, consisting of negative pre-competitive emotions (anxiety, sadness, and anger), perception of male gender normativity, and relationships with coaches and teammates. Additionally, we [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the explanatory power of a predictive model of bully/perpetrator behaviour in Romanian athletes, consisting of negative pre-competitive emotions (anxiety, sadness, and anger), perception of male gender normativity, and relationships with coaches and teammates. Additionally, we aimed to explore the mediation effect of bully–victim behaviour on the relationship between athletes’ connections with their coaches and bully/perpetrator behaviour. The current research involved a nonexperimental, cross-sectional design exploring the presence of bully/perpetrator behaviour in Romanian male and female athletes. The quantitative methodology was used to collect and analyse the data obtained. Researchers translated, adapted and pretested the questionnaire set to the Romanian cultural background (SEQ, MAMS, CART-Q, In-group Ties Scale, BSQ) before distributing it to 448 participants. 58.7% were male participants, and 41.3% were female participants. The mean age was 21.15 (SDage = 2.37, range = 18–32). The research was conducted in the first half of 2023. SPSS (V. 20) and Hayes’s PROCESS tool were used to investigate the data. The findings demonstrated that in the case of Romanian male athletes, perception of male gender normativity, anger, and weaker connections with coaches are the most important psychological factors in predicting bully/perpetrator behaviour. In contrast, in the case of Romanian female athletes, only weaker connections with coaches and perception of male gender normativity play an essential role in explaining bully/perpetrator behaviour. Additionally, the study demonstrated that bully–victim behaviour mediates the relationship between athletes’ weaker connections with their coaches and bully/perpetrator behaviour. Athletes’ weaker connections with their coaches lead to experiencing a high level of bully/perpetrator behaviour by stressing bully–victim behaviour, which also contributes to achieving a high level of bully/perpetrator behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Variables Impacted by Sport Participation)
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Review

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24 pages, 4898 KiB  
Review
The Athletic Identity Measurement Scale: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis from 1993 to 2021
by Marc Lochbaum, Sydney Cooper and Sara Limp
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(9), 1391-1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12090097 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 8098
Abstract
Sport psychology embraced the study of athletic identity in the 1990s. The Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) is at the forefront of athletic identity measurement. This quantitative review examined two hypotheses: individual who are most engaged in sports identify most as athletes and [...] Read more.
Sport psychology embraced the study of athletic identity in the 1990s. The Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) is at the forefront of athletic identity measurement. This quantitative review examined two hypotheses: individual who are most engaged in sports identify most as athletes and thus score higher on the AIMS, and athletic identity relates to positive (e.g., intrinsic motivation) and negative (negative emotions) factors. In addition to our two hypotheses, we explored whether the AIMS subscales influenced our two hypotheses. After completing a systematic search of SPORTDiscus, APA PsycINFO, ERIC, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection APA within the EBSCOhost platform along with some hand searching, 101 articles published between 1993 and our end date of August 2021 met the inclusion criteria. The included studies investigated 20,498 athletes competing in a variety of sports from the following continents: Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America. We based all analyses on random- and mixed-effects statistics. Higher-achieving athletes, as expected, self-reported a higher degree of athletic identity. The differences between athlete groups were significant (p < 0.001) and meaningful (g values ranged from 1.55 to 1.93). The AIMS total score correlations with positive and negative factors (correlates) were small in magnitude (r = 0.22 and 0.17). However, the relationships differed across correlate subcategories (e.g., intrinsic motivation/commitment, r = 0.51, and body issues, r = 0.14). Minimal AIMS subscale reporting occurred across the 101 studies; thus, we could not assess their importance with certainty. In conclusion, a higher degree of athletic identity related to valued sport correlates such as intrinsic motivation/commitment and the mastery goal orientation. These correlations were small in relation to negative or less desirable factors in sport such as body disorder issues and negative emotions. We recommend future research of greater complexity and the reporting of athletes’ competitive backgrounds to understand athletic identity. In addition, researchers should report AIMS subscale data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Variables Impacted by Sport Participation)
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Other

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15 pages, 1256 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effectiveness of Therapeutic Exercise in Musculoskeletal Risk Factors Related to Swimmer’s Shoulder
by Nuno Tavares, Gonçalo Dias, Paulo Carvalho, João Paulo Vilas-Boas and Maria António Castro
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(6), 601-615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12060044 - 2 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3464
Abstract
Background: Therapeutic exercise seems to minimize musculoskeletal risk factors related to swimmer’s shoulder. However, there is an absence of a qualitative evaluation of these programs and a great variability regarding the characteristics of exercises. The objective of this review was to identify, evaluate, [...] Read more.
Background: Therapeutic exercise seems to minimize musculoskeletal risk factors related to swimmer’s shoulder. However, there is an absence of a qualitative evaluation of these programs and a great variability regarding the characteristics of exercises. The objective of this review was to identify, evaluate, and compare exercise programs used to minimize musculoskeletal risk factors related to swimmer’s shoulder. Methods: PubMed, CochraneLibrary, ScienceDirect, and Medscape were searched during January 2022. The research was limited to meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and RCTs written in English, Spanish, and Portuguese without publication time. The researched papers had swimmers as the population, compared an exercise program with another program or without intervention, and had as outcomes musculoskeletal risk factor variables. Results: Eleven articles were considered for analysis. There were three positive effects of strength programs on shoulder rotators’ strength and endurance, two positive effects of strength and stretching programs on shoulder posture, and one positive effect of a stretching program on shoulder ROM and a plyometric program on proprioception. Conclusions: There is high heterogeneity and little methodological quality evidence about the theme. However, strength programs with five or fewer OKC exercises performed out of the water seems to lead to better results in the swimmer’s shoulder prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Variables Impacted by Sport Participation)
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