Special Issue "Mangrove Regeneration and Restoration"

A special issue of Diversity (ISSN 1424-2818). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Diversity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Thomas Fickert

Physical Geography, University of Passau, D-94032 Passau, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: plant geography; mangrove ecology; disturbance ecology; vegetation dynamics; succession; phytodiversity; glacier forelands; high mountain research

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mangroves provide many fundamental ecosystem services. Hence, after disturbances—both natural, such as tropical storms or tsunamis, and anthropogenic, e.g., by deforestation, oil spill or conversion to shrimp ponds—reforestation efforts are widespread, with the intention of accelerating the return to vital mangroves, which are able to provide their ecosystem services to humans again. Most of these labor-intensive initiatives, however, fail for a variety of reasons and the question arises whether natural grow back wouldn’t be an easier and probably more successful way back to intact mangroves, even if a certain time lag has to be accepted. This Special Issue of Diversity is aimed to provide a platform to present case studies of successful and failed restoration projects and to discuss the underlying reasons. It also welcomes studies investigating natural regeneration dynamics in disturbed mangrove forest and so on.

Dr. Thomas Fickert
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Mangrove
  • Disturbance
  • Reforestation
  • Natural regeneration
  • Resilience

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Lingering Impacts of Hurricane Hugo on Rhizophora mangle (Red Mangrove) Population Genetics on St. John, USVI
Diversity 2019, 11(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11040065 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
PDF Full-text (634 KB)
Abstract
Stochastic events can have catastrophic effects on island populations through a series of genetic stressors from reduced population size. We investigated five populations of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) from St. John, USVI, an UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, which were impacted by Hurricane [...] Read more.
Stochastic events can have catastrophic effects on island populations through a series of genetic stressors from reduced population size. We investigated five populations of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) from St. John, USVI, an UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, which were impacted by Hurricane Hugo in 1989. Our goal was to determine diversity and to ascertain potential population bottlenecks two decades after the event. With the lowest observed heterozygosity, highest inbreeding coefficient, and evidence of a major bottleneck, our results demonstrated that the Great Lameshur mangroves, devastated by Hurricane Hugo, were the least diverse stand of trees. The other four populations from St. John manifested diversity reflecting the vegetation patterns of “fringing” mangrove or “developed forest” characteristics. The two fringing mangrove populations (Hurricane Hole and New Found Bay) evinced low observed heterozygosity and high inbreeding coefficients, while the fully forested sites showed higher heterozygosity and lower inbreeding frequencies. As such, fringing mangroves may be at greater risk to disturbance events and especially susceptible to sea level rise since they do not have room landward to expand. Our pair-wise population analysis indicated genetic similarity between the hurricane-damaged Great Lameshur and Coral Bay population, whose propagules were used in previous restoration attempts and is the geographically closest population. While the effective population size for Great Lameshur Bay places it in risk of genetic dysfunction, future rehabilitation of the site may be possible by the introduction of propagules from other regions of the island. However, recovery will ultimately be contingent upon hydrological connectivity and environmental improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Regeneration and Restoration)
Open AccessArticle Natural Regeneration of the Mangrove Vegetation on Abandoned Salt Ponds in Ceará, in the Semi-Arid Region of Northeastern Brazil
Diversity 2019, 11(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11020027
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
PDF Full-text (5601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of the mangrove in Ceará state, northeastern Brazil, is limited by local environmental and climatic factors, associated with the variables that determine the region’s semi-arid climatic conditions. The same conditions also contribute to the installation of artisanal saltworks in estuarine environments. [...] Read more.
The development of the mangrove in Ceará state, northeastern Brazil, is limited by local environmental and climatic factors, associated with the variables that determine the region’s semi-arid climatic conditions. The same conditions also contribute to the installation of artisanal saltworks in estuarine environments. The artisanal production of salt peaked in the 20th century, but with the decline of this activity, the salt evaporation ponds were abandoned, and have been incorporated back into the natural marine-estuarine environment and colonized by mangrove forests. In the early 2000s, however, the expansion of shrimp farming operations impacted this same environment. The present study was based on a spatiotemporal analysis of the natural regeneration of the mangrove vegetation in abandoned salt pond areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region between 1968 and 2009. The integrated analysis of mangrove ecosystem dynamics and the legislation that regulates the licensing of these economic activities identified a number of technical problems in the formulation and execution of the COEMA resolution 02/2002, which permits the installation of shrimp farms in areas dominated by the mangrove. The findings of the present study reinforce the need for a careful reformulation of the Ceará state environmental legislation, in order to guarantee the maximum possible conservation of the coastal zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Regeneration and Restoration)
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