Trends in Marine Non-Indigenous Species in Europe by 2020, and Predictions through Modelling and Horizon Scanning for 2050

A special issue of Diversity (ISSN 1424-2818). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Diversity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 22216

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR), P.O. Box 712, Mayro Lithari, GR 19013 Anavyssos, Greece
Interests: taxonomy of mollusca; benthic ecology of marine coastal ecosystems; biodiversity in the Mediterranean and Black Seas; database development; development of biological indicators

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Guest Editor
Ustun Energy Engineering LLC, Izmir 35430, Turkey
Interests: aquatic invasions

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Assistant Guest Editor
Finnish Environment Institute, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
Interests: aquatic invasions; monitoring of coastal and pelagic ecosystems; ecology of benthic habitats in the Baltic Sea; management of aquatic invasions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Marine non-indigenous species (NIS) are of high relevance to a number of European policies. Marine NIS are included as a descriptor of Good Environmental Status (GES) in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive of the European Union (EU), while targeted marine invasive species are gradually entering the list of alien species of Union concern under Regulation (EU) 1143/2014. In order to define the GES, Member States are required to establish the threshold value for the number of new NIS, through regional or subregional cooperation. However, setting threshold values for new NIS introductions has proven to be challenging since updated and validated lists are not in place in all European countries. The European Environment Agency is updating the indicator “rate of introductions and pathways of NIS” at a regional, subregional, and pan-European scale by December 2020, while UNEP/MAP RAC/SPA is currently developing the baseline NIS checklists and setting threshold values for GES in Mediterranean countries.  

Studies in this Special Issue will focus on but are not limited to validated inventories of NIS at the national and subregional level of countries bordering all European Seas. Predictions through the modeling of invasive NIS distribution under different climatic scenarios, as well as predictions of new entries resulting from Horizon scanning exercises, are also welcome.

Dr. Arrgyro Zenetos
Dr. Marika Galanidi
Dr. Okko Outinen
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Alien species
  • Validated lists
  • Trends indicator
  • European seas
  • National inventories
  • Modeling
  • Horizon scanning
  • Thresholds for GES
  • Species introductions
  • Risk screening

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 4544 KiB  
Article
Marine Non-Indigenous Species Dynamics in Time and Space within the Coastal Waters of the Republic of Ireland
by Arjan Gittenberger, Luca Mirimin, John Boyd, Francis O’Beirn, Grainne Devine, Martina O’Brien, Marjolein Rensing, Katie O’Dwyer and Edmund Gittenberger
Diversity 2023, 15(9), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15091019 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 880
Abstract
Documenting temporal and spatial occurrence trends of Non-Indigenous Species (NIS) is essential to understand vectors and pathways of introduction, and for horizon scanning for future introductions. This study provides an overview of marine NIS found in the Republic of Ireland up to 2020. [...] Read more.
Documenting temporal and spatial occurrence trends of Non-Indigenous Species (NIS) is essential to understand vectors and pathways of introduction, and for horizon scanning for future introductions. This study provides an overview of marine NIS found in the Republic of Ireland up to 2020. Taxonomic groups, species origin, and location of first reporting (counties) were compiled and analysed focusing on the last three decades. While the unambiguous characterisation of introduction events is challenging, analysis of 110 species corroborated the global weight of evidence that shipping activities to/from ports and marinas are the most likely vectors and pathways in Ireland. A comparable review study for the Netherlands revealed that most NIS were first introduced to mainland Europe and subsequently would take on average >15 years to reach Ireland. In the last two decades there has been an increase in NIS-focused surveys in Ireland. Incorporating data from these surveys in centralized national repositories such as the National Biodiversity Data Centre, will strongly aid the evaluation of potential NIS management responses. Furthermore, the availability of robust baseline data as well as predictions of future invaders and their associated vectors and pathways will facilitate the effective application of emerging monitoring technologies such as DNA-based approaches. Full article
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23 pages, 2997 KiB  
Article
Validated Inventories of Non-Indigenous Species (NIS) for the Mediterranean Sea as Tools for Regional Policy and Patterns of NIS Spread
by Marika Galanidi, Mehdi Aissi, Malek Ali, Ali Bakalem, Michel Bariche, Angela G. Bartolo, Hocein Bazairi, Sajmir Beqiraj, Murat Bilecenoglu, Ghazi Bitar, Myra Bugeja, Aina Carbonell, Luca Castriota, Adbdelhafidh Chalabi, Melih Ertan Çinar, Branko Dragičević, Jakov Dulčić, Alaa Eldin Ahmed El-Haweet, Mahmoud M. S. Farrag, Julian Evans, Bella Galil, Laurent Guerin, Orit Hyams-Kaphzan, Rezart Kapedani, Elvis Kamberi, Silvia Livi, Vesna Mačić, Cécile Masse, Borut Mavrič, Martina Orlando-Bonaca, Atef Ouerghi, Slavica Petović, Lydia Png-Gonzalez, Patrick J. Schembri, Noa Shenkar, Yassine Ramzi Sghaier, Esmail Shakman, Asma Yahyaoui, Mehmet Baki Yokeş and Argyro Zenetosadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Diversity 2023, 15(9), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15090962 - 25 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
This work presents refined, updated subregional and regional non-indigenous species (NIS) inventories for the Mediterranean Sea, validated by national and taxonomic experts, with species records observed until December 2020. These datasets will be used as the baselines for the implementation of the Integrated [...] Read more.
This work presents refined, updated subregional and regional non-indigenous species (NIS) inventories for the Mediterranean Sea, validated by national and taxonomic experts, with species records observed until December 2020. These datasets will be used as the baselines for the implementation of the Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Programme for the Mediterranean (IMAP) and the Mediterranean Quality Status Report 2023. In total, 1006 non-indigenous species have been found in Mediterranean marine and brackish waters. The highest numbers of NIS were observed in Israel, Türkiye, Lebanon and Italy. Approximately 45 species were categorized as data deficient, either due to lack of consensus on their alien status or the validity of their identification. Polychaeta, Foraminifera and macroalgae were the groups with the highest numbers of controversial species. There was a general increase in the yearly rate of new NIS introductions after the late 1990s, which appears to be slowing down in the last decade, but this may be confounded by reporting lags and differential research efforts. Between 1970 and 2020 there has been a steep increase in the proportion of shared species present throughout all four Mediterranean subregions, which are predominantly transported via shipping and recreational boating. While Lessepsian species are gradually spreading westwards and northwards, there is still a considerable invasion debt accumulating in the eastern and central Mediterranean. Full article
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23 pages, 6528 KiB  
Article
Non-Indigenous Species Dynamics in Time and Space within the Coastal Waters of The Netherlands
by Arjan Gittenberger, Marjolein Rensing, Marco Faasse, Lodewijk van Walraven, Sander Smolders, Helena Keeler Perez and Edmund Gittenberger
Diversity 2023, 15(6), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15060719 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1668
Abstract
Information on temporal and spatial trends with regard to the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS) is often sparsely available. These trends may potentially help improve the design and focus of monitoring programs, give insights into new pathways and hotspots, and facilitate horizon scanning. [...] Read more.
Information on temporal and spatial trends with regard to the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS) is often sparsely available. These trends may potentially help improve the design and focus of monitoring programs, give insights into new pathways and hotspots, and facilitate horizon scanning. We provide an overview of 215 marine and brackish water NIS recorded in The Netherlands. Temporal trends over the most recent three decades for taxonomic groups, species origin, introduction vectors, and water systems were analysed. We attempt to explain the observed patterns and discuss factors that hamper their explanation. A shift in the region of origin from Pacific to W Atlantic can potentially be linked to legislation prohibiting Pacific oyster imports, whereas a subsequent shift backwards cannot. Case studies illustrate that NIS may not be first detected in the water systems where they were originally introduced. Additionally, it is shown that changes in allegedly native species’ distribution or seasonal pattern should be linked to an introduced cryptic NIS instead. We also discuss the shortcomings of monitoring programs that were originally not focused on NIS, the importance of naturalists’ observations, and the added value of a more recent network that is focused on NIS detection in the coastal waters of The Netherlands. Full article
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15 pages, 2547 KiB  
Article
Updating the National Baseline of Non-Indigenous Species in Spanish Marine Waters
by Lydia Png-Gonzalez, Robert Comas-González, Matías Calvo-Manazza, Guillermo Follana-Berná, Enric Ballesteros, Pilar Díaz-Tapia, Jesús M. Falcón, J. Enrique García Raso, Serge Gofas, Marcos González-Porto, Eduardo López, Alfonso A. Ramos-Esplá, Eva Velasco and Aina Carbonell
Diversity 2023, 15(5), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15050630 - 05 May 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2333
Abstract
The introduction of new non-indigenous species (NIS) in Spanish marine waters is addressed under Descriptor 2 of the European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive. National baseline inventories of NIS have been compiled and updated for the three subregions (Western Mediterranean Sea, WMED; Bay [...] Read more.
The introduction of new non-indigenous species (NIS) in Spanish marine waters is addressed under Descriptor 2 of the European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive. National baseline inventories of NIS have been compiled and updated for the three subregions (Western Mediterranean Sea, WMED; Bay of Biscay–Iberian Coast, ABI; Macaronesia, AMA) with data from 1800 to 2021. An overall of 574 species were identified with an alien, cryptogenic, crypto-expanding, or debatable status, mostly invertebrates (~65%) and primary producers (~22%). Of 412 alien species, 80.51% were reported in ABI, 67.82% in WMED, and 66.67% in AMA. Cryptogenic species are more abundant in the WMED (25.25%), compared to AMA (19.77%) and ABI (18.46%). ABI harbors more established species (62.56%) than AMA (45.2%) and WMED (43.56%), contrary to casual records (AMA 31.64%, WMED 23.76%, ABI 13.85%). Invasive species are more abundant (14.36%) in WMED. The ‘transport-stowaway’ pathway accounted for 142 (79.33%), 123 (67.58%), and 169 (85.21%) records in WMED, ABI, and AMA, respectively. The second most common pathway was ‘transport-contaminant’ related to mariculture (~10% of the total), prevalently in ABI with 42 species (23.08%). The Canary Islands stand out for species introduced through oil platforms from throughout the world. ‘Unaided’ was a relevant pathway of secondary introduction into the WMED, particularly of Lessepsian species progressing westwards. Temporal trends in newly introduced species show similar behavior among subregions. Full article
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24 pages, 2908 KiB  
Article
An Overview of Marine Non-Indigenous Species Found in Three Contrasting Biogeographic Metropolitan French Regions: Insights on Distribution, Origins and Pathways of Introduction
by Cécile Massé, Frédérique Viard, Suzie Humbert, Elvire Antajan, Isabelle Auby, Guy Bachelet, Guillaume Bernard, Vincent M. P. Bouchet, Thomas Burel, Jean-Claude Dauvin, Alice Delegrange, Sandrine Derrien-Courtel, Gabin Droual, Benoit Gouillieux, Philippe Goulletquer, Laurent Guérin, Anne-Laure Janson, Jérôme Jourde, Céline Labrune, Nicolas Lavesque, Jean-Charles Leclerc, Michel Le Duff, Vincent Le Garrec, Pierre Noël, Antoine Nowaczyk, Christine Pergent-Martini, Jean-Philippe Pezy, Aurore Raoux, Virginie Raybaud, Sandrine Ruitton, Pierre-Guy Sauriau, Nicolas Spilmont, Delphine Thibault, Dorothée Vincent and Amelia Curdadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Diversity 2023, 15(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15020161 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3335
Abstract
Biological invasions are one of the main global threats to biodiversity in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems worldwide, requiring effective inventorying and monitoring programs. Here, we present an updated list of non-indigenous species in French marine and transitional waters. Focused on eukaryote pluricellular [...] Read more.
Biological invasions are one of the main global threats to biodiversity in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems worldwide, requiring effective inventorying and monitoring programs. Here, we present an updated list of non-indigenous species in French marine and transitional waters. Focused on eukaryote pluricellular species found throughout the three metropolitan French marine regions (Western Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Biscay and the Northern Seas), a total of 342 non-indigenous, including 42 cryptogenic, species are listed as having been introduced since the 13th century. The majority of the species originated from the temperate Northern Pacific. They mainly arrived through both ballast and hull fouling and also are associated with shellfish farming activities. Most of them have been introduced since the 1970s, a time when maritime and aquaculture trade intensified. Despite important human-aided opportunities for species transfer between the three marine regions (for instance, via recreational boating or aquaculture transfers), only a third of these NIS are common to all regions, as expected due to their environmental specificities. Full article
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50 pages, 2174 KiB  
Article
Status and Trends in the Rate of Introduction of Marine Non-Indigenous Species in European Seas
by Argyro Zenetos, Konstantinos Tsiamis, Marika Galanidi, Natacha Carvalho, Cátia Bartilotti, João Canning-Clode, Luca Castriota, Paula Chainho, Robert Comas-González, Ana C. Costa, Branko Dragičević, Jakov Dulčić, Marco Faasse, Ann-Britt Florin, Arjan Gittenberger, Hans Jakobsen, Anders Jelmert, Francis Kerckhof, Maiju Lehtiniemi, Silvia Livi, Kim Lundgreen, Vesna Macic, Cécile Massé, Borut Mavrič, Rahmat Naddafi, Martina Orlando-Bonaca, Slavica Petovic, Lydia Png-Gonzalez, Aina Carbonell Quetglas, Romeu S. Ribeiro, Tiago Cidade, Sander Smolders, Peter A. U. Stæhr, Frederique Viard and Okko Outinenadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Diversity 2022, 14(12), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14121077 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 5025
Abstract
Invasive alien species are a major worldwide driver of biodiversity change. The current study lists verified records of non-indigenous species (NIS) in European marine waters until 2020, with the purpose of establishing a baseline, assessing trends, and discussing appropriate threshold values for good [...] Read more.
Invasive alien species are a major worldwide driver of biodiversity change. The current study lists verified records of non-indigenous species (NIS) in European marine waters until 2020, with the purpose of establishing a baseline, assessing trends, and discussing appropriate threshold values for good environmental status (GES) according to the relevant European legislation. All NIS records were verified by national experts and trends are presented in six-year assessment periods from 1970 to 2020 according to the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Altogether, 874 NIS have been introduced to European marine waters until 2020 with the Mediterranean Sea and North-East Atlantic Ocean hosting most of the introductions. Overall, the number of new introductions has steadily increased since 2000. The annual rate of new introductions reached 21 new NIS in European seas within the last six-year assessment period (2012–2017). This increase is likely due to increased human activities and research efforts that have intensified during the early 21st century within European Seas. As Europe seas are not environmentally, nor geographically homogenous, the setting of threshold values for assessing GES requires regional expertise. Further, once management measures are operational, pathway-specific threshold values would enable assessing the effectiveness of such measures. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 1253 KiB  
Review
The Application of eDNA for Monitoring Aquatic Non-Indigenous Species: Practical and Policy Considerations
by Vera G. Fonseca, Phil I. Davison, Veronique Creach, David Stone, David Bass and Hannah J. Tidbury
Diversity 2023, 15(5), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15050631 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3205
Abstract
Aquatic non-indigenous species (NIS) threaten biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and the economy worldwide. Monitoring NIS is of immediate concern to identify newly arriving species, assess the efficacy of mitigation measures, and report long-term indicators of introduction, spread, and impacts. The challenges associated with conventional [...] Read more.
Aquatic non-indigenous species (NIS) threaten biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and the economy worldwide. Monitoring NIS is of immediate concern to identify newly arriving species, assess the efficacy of mitigation measures, and report long-term indicators of introduction, spread, and impacts. The challenges associated with conventional methods of specimen collection and morphological identification have led to the development of alternative methods, such as DNA-based methods, which could offer rapid and cost-effective detection of NIS. Depending on whether a few (targeted monitoring) or many species (passive monitoring) are being monitored, environmental DNA (eDNA) can infer presence-absence and relative abundances, enabling informed decisions and actions to be made based on patterns of detection. Compared to more conventional methods, eDNA tools can increase the levels of detection and sensitivity for rare and elusive species, which is even more noticeable for some taxa when using targeted monitoring. The use of DNA-based tools not only minimizes the onus on taxonomic expertise and reduces resource demands but can also be more sensitive and cost-efficient in detecting NIS, thus proving its value as an early warning tool. As nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) methods advance rapidly for NIS detection, there must be a balance between method sensitivity, logistical requirements, and associated costs, which must be factored into future management decisions. While there are many complementary reviews available, our aim is to emphasize the importance of incorporating eDNA tools into NIS surveys and to highlight the available opportunities in this field. Full article
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44 pages, 8716 KiB  
Review
Reviewing Introduction Histories, Pathways, Invasiveness, and Impact of Non-Indigenous Species in Danish Marine Waters
by Kathe R. Jensen, Per Andersen, Nikolaj R. Andersen, Annette Bruhn, Helle Buur, Henrik Carl, Hans Jakobsen, Cornelia Jaspers, Kim Lundgreen, Ruth Nielsen, Beate Strandberg and Peter A. U. Stæhr
Diversity 2023, 15(3), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15030434 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2681
Abstract
Non-indigenous species (NIS) are of concern for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning. We present an updated list of NIS, including cryptogenic species, from Danish marine waters containing 123 species. Benthic invertebrates (36%) and phytoplankton (28%) dominate the list, but fish (15%) and macroalgae [...] Read more.
Non-indigenous species (NIS) are of concern for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning. We present an updated list of NIS, including cryptogenic species, from Danish marine waters containing 123 species. Benthic invertebrates (36%) and phytoplankton (28%) dominate the list, but fish (15%) and macroalgae (13%) are also important. The Limfjord in Northern Jutland emerges as a hotspot for the introduction of NIS. Data from multiple sources were included, i.e., the National Monitoring Program (NOVANA), the National Fish Atlas project, the citizen science project Arter.dk, research articles, and annual national reports of the ICES working group ITMO. Forty-six NIS species were subject to expert judging using a modified Harmonia protocol; 19 were found to fulfil the four selected criteria identifying a species as being ‘invasive’. Additionally, 38 species, not yet recorded in Danish waters, were evaluated using the same method, and 31 were found to fulfil the ‘invasive’ criteria. For nine selected species, introduction history, distribution maps, and time-series diagrams are presented. Our data document that the national monitoring efforts should be expanded to record macrozooplankton, coastal fish, and mobile epibenthic species. Furthermore, the national data repository, Arter.dk, should be expanded to enable more detailed documentation of new NIS records. Full article
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