Special Issue "Chronic and Infectious Diseases"

A special issue of Diseases (ISSN 2079-9721). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Disease".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 November 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Amal K. Mitra
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Jackson State University, 350 West Woodrow Wilson Dr., room 216, Jackson, MS 39213, USA
Interests: obesity; minority health; global health; neglected tropical diseases; lead poisoning; arsenic poisoning; iron; vitamin A; breast cancer; smoking; depression; complementary and alternative medicine; metabolic syndrome; enteric pathogens; hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; hepatitis G
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Because of epidemiological transition and demographic changes, many nations are still facing many infectious diseases and gradually transitioning to chronic and noncommunicable diseases. Based on the double burden of chronic and infectious diseases globally, researchers and health planners are continuously striving to reduce or eliminate infectious diseases using vaccines, identifying newer antimicrobials in the face of the increasing problem of drug resistance, educating people in preventive measures and personal hygiene, and early and effective screening for both infectious and chronic diseases.

The scope of this Special Issue is to address both chronic and infectious diseases. The editors welcome original articles, brief reports, and review articles (systematic review and meta-analysis) describing research findings on epidemiology, pathogenesis, management, treatment algorithms, clinical trials, microbial agents, etc. on infectious diseases. Similarly, this Special Issue provides a forum in which researchers from a wide variety of disciples can report their findings in a number of chronic and noncommunicable diseases and conditions, including population-based interventions of chronic diseases, minority health, health disparities, and disease prediction models.

Prof. Dr. Amal K. Mitra
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diseases is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Heart disease
  • Cancer
  • Stroke
  • Diabetes
  • Injury and injury prevention
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Smoking
  • Suicide
  • Depression
  • Aging
  • Drug addiction
  • Chronic disease prevention
  • Infectious diseases
  • Emerging infections
  • Outbreaks
  • New pathogens
  • Probiotics
  • Malnutrition
  • Pneumonia
  • Septicemia
  • Malaria
  • Vector-borne disease
  • Drug resistance
  • Micronutrients
  • Vaccines
  • Use of machine learning and modeling
  • Geographic information system
  • Economic analysis—cost effectiveness
  • Quality of life
  • Clinical trials
  • Community-based interventions
  • Minority health

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Perceptions on Adherence to Dietary Prescriptions for Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease on Hemodialysis: A Qualitative Study
Diseases 2020, 8(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases8030029 - 06 Aug 2020
Abstract
Diet is one of the modifiable lifestyle factors in management of kidney disease. We explored perceptions on adherence to dietary prescriptions for adults with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. This was a qualitative descriptive study. Participants were purposively selected at renal clinics/dialysis units [...] Read more.
Diet is one of the modifiable lifestyle factors in management of kidney disease. We explored perceptions on adherence to dietary prescriptions for adults with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. This was a qualitative descriptive study. Participants were purposively selected at renal clinics/dialysis units at national referral hospitals in Kenya. Data were collected using in-depth interviews, note-taking and voice-recording. The data were managed and analyzed thematically in NVIV0-12 computer software. Study participants were 52 patients and 40 family caregivers (42 males and 50 females) aged 20 to 69 years. Six sub-themes emerged in this study: “perceived health benefits”; “ease in implementing prescribed diets”; “cost of prescribed renal diets”; “nutrition information and messages”; “transition to new diets” and “fear of complications/severity of disease”. Both patients and caregivers acknowledged the health benefits of adherence to diet prescriptions. However, there are mixed messages to the patients and caregivers who have challenges with management and acceptability of the prescriptions. Most of them make un-informed dietary decisions that lead to consumption of unhealthy foods with negative outcomes such as metabolic waste accumulation in the patients’ bodies negating the effects of dialysis and undermining the efforts of healthcare system in management of patients with chronic kidney disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic and Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessCommunication
Association between Biofilm-Production and Antibiotic Resistance in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC): An In Vitro Study
Diseases 2020, 8(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases8020017 - 07 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections requiring medical attention worldwide. The production of biofilms is an important step in UTIs, not only from a mechanistic point of view, but this may also confer additional resistance, distinct from other aspects [...] Read more.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections requiring medical attention worldwide. The production of biofilms is an important step in UTIs, not only from a mechanistic point of view, but this may also confer additional resistance, distinct from other aspects of multidrug resistance (MDR). A total of two hundred and fifty (n = 250) Escherichia coli isolates, originating from clean-catch urine samples, were included in this study. The isolates were classified into five groups: wild-type, ciprofloxacin-resistant, fosfomycin-resistant, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains. The bacterial specimens were cultured using eosine methylene blue agar and the colony morphology of isolates were recorded. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method and E-tests. Biofilm-formation of the isolates was carried out with the crystal violet tube-adherence method. n = 76 isolates (30.4%) produced large colonies (>3 mm), mucoid variant colonies were produced in n = 135 cases (54.0%), and n = 119 (47.6%) were positive for biofilm formation. The agreement (i.e., predictive value) of mucoid variant colonies in regard to biofilm production in the tube-adherence assay was 0.881 overall. Significant variation was seen in the case of the group of ESBL-producers in the ratio of biofilm-producing isolates. The relationship between biofilm-production and other resistance determinants has been extensively studied. However, no definite conclusion can be reached from the currently available data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic and Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Biofilm-Forming Capabilities are not Predictable from Clinical Details or from Colonial Morphology
Diseases 2020, 8(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases8020011 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is increasing to an extent where efficacy is not guaranteed when treating infection. Biofilm formation has been shown to complicate treatment, whereby the formation of biofilm is associated with higher minimum inhibitory concentration values of antibiotic. The objective of the current [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance is increasing to an extent where efficacy is not guaranteed when treating infection. Biofilm formation has been shown to complicate treatment, whereby the formation of biofilm is associated with higher minimum inhibitory concentration values of antibiotic. The objective of the current paper was to determine whether biofilm formation is variable among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates and whether formation is associated with recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI), and whether it can be predicted by phenotypic appearance on culture medium A total of 62 E. coli isolates that were reported as the causative agent of UTI were studied (33 from patients denoted as having recurrent UTI and 29 from patients not specified as having recurrent UTI). The biofilm forming capability was determined using a standard microtitre plate method, using E. coli ATCC 25922 as the positive control. The majority of isolates (93.6%) were found to be biofilm formers, whereby 81% were denoted as strong or very strong producers of biofilm when compared to the positive control. Through the use of a Wilcox test, the difference in biofilm forming propensity between the two patient populations was found to not be statistically significant (p = 0.5). Furthermore, it was noted that colony morphology was not a reliable predictor of biofilm-forming propensity. The findings of this study indicate that biofilm formation is very common among uropathogens, and they suggest that the biofilm-forming capability might be considered when treating UTI. Clinical details indicating a recurrent infection were not predictors of biofilm formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic and Infectious Diseases)
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