The relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and C-reactive protein (CRP), which is an inflammatory biomarker, is limited in studies with the general population. It was hypothesized that changes in CRP levels are genotype-dependent in the general population with HCV infection. Thus, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HCV infection and compare CRP levels with an anti-HCV antibody, HCV-RNA status, and HCV genotypes. A total of 5611 adult participants from the National and Health Nutrition Examination (NHANES), 2009–2010 survey were analyzed. Proc survey frequency, means, and multivariate regression were used due to the complex survey design of NHANES. The prevalence of HCV infection among the study population was 1.6%. There were lower mean CRP levels among people with anti-HCV antibody positive status compared to those with antibody negative status (0.12 ± 0.08 vs. 0.24 ± 0.02, p
= 0.08, 95% Confidence Intervals, CI: −1.12 to 0.07). Mean CRP levels were also lower in people with HCV-RNA positive status compared to those with HCV-RNA negative status (0.56 ± 0.03 vs. 0.48 ± 0.05, p
= 0.62 and 95% CI: −1.37 to 0.86). However, these differences were non-significant. With respect to HCV genotypes, significantly higher CRP levels were noted among people infected with HCV genotype 2 vs. genotype 1 (0.53 ± 0.06 vs. 0.23 ± 0.05, p
< 0.01, 95% CI: −0.58 to −0.02) and those with HCV genotype 2 vs. HCV genotype 3 (0.53 ± 0.06, 0.28 ± 0.04, p
< 0.01, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.48). Further studies are needed to confirm this finding.
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