Special Issue "Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Conditions in Childhood"

A special issue of Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Helen Rodd
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Claremont Crescent, Sheffield, S10 2TA, UK
Interests: paediatric dentistry, psychosocial impacts of dental conditions, management of enamel defects, dental anxiety, cognitive behavioural therapy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Zoe Marshman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Claremont Crescent, Sheffield, S10 2TA, UK
Interests: dental public health, child-centred oral health research, dental anxiety, cognitive behavioural therapy, clinical trials for caries prevention and management
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Guest Editors' Research Interests:

We belong to a multidisciplinary research team that aims to improve the oral health and treatment experiences of children and young people through a combination of clinical and social scientific research strategies that:

  • Give children an active voice in relation to their oral health.
  • Explore and evaluate the impact of oral health on the daily lives of children and their families.
  • Develop child-centred measures, decision aids and resources.

Some of our current research projects include: development and evaluation of a self-help cognitive behavioural therapy resource for young people with dental anxiety; determining the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a SMS (text message) behaviour change programme to improve the oral health of young people living in deprived areas; conduct of a multi-centred clinical trial, ‘Filling Children's Teeth: Indicated Or Not?’ which seeks to provide an evidence base for the most effective approach to the management of dental caries in the primary teeth of children; and exploring the impacts of traumatic dental injuries and enamel defects on children´s oral health-related quality of life.

Dear Colleagues,

The wider contribution of children’s oral health to their overall wellbeing is increasingly being acknowledged. Clinicians, public health practitioners and researchers are therefore increasingly interested in the psychosocial impacts of various dental conditions and how interventions may affect a child’s oral health-related quality of life. Children are eloquent and insightful in describing the social, emotional or functional impacts of their dental condition and treatment experiences, providing they are engaged in a suitably child-centred approach. Indeed, over the last decade or so, it has been encouraging to observe the emergence of novel ways of involving children in oral health research, to ensure that their opinions are listened to and valued. Consequently, we now have a much greater understanding of what it means to a child (and indeed their family) to have a dental condition such as caries, enamel defects or trauma.

We very much hope that readers will enjoy this Special Issue which highlights recent research with children who have a range of dental conditions, and raises awareness of the diversity of impacts. The included studies also serve to demonstrate the value of multi-disciplinary teams in enhancing both qualitative and quantitative enquiry. The overall theme reflects our own personal interest in child-centred dental research, through which we hope to improve the oral health and treatment experiences of children and their families (https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/dentalschool/research/create/home2). For those of us who have the privilege of providing dental care for children, it is essential that we appreciate their perspectives and expectations, so that treatment outcomes are considered not just from a biomedical approach, but also from a psychosocial one.

Prof. Dr. Helen Rodd
Prof. Dr. Zoe Marshman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Dentistry Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Pediatric dentistry
  • psychosocial impacts
  • oral health-related quality of life
  • dental conditions
  • caries
  • enamel defects
  • traumatic dental injury
  • child

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Self-Help Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Children’s Dental Anxiety in General Dental Practice
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020036 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Dental anxiety is very common; however, there is a lack of studies focusing on reducing children’s dental anxiety. One such initiative, the guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) resources ‘Your teeth, you are in control’, reduces dental anxiety in children attending paediatric dentistry [...] Read more.
Dental anxiety is very common; however, there is a lack of studies focusing on reducing children’s dental anxiety. One such initiative, the guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) resources ‘Your teeth, you are in control’, reduces dental anxiety in children attending paediatric dentistry clinics. This service evaluation aims to investigate whether such CBT resources reduce children’s dental anxiety when implemented in general dental practice. A convenience sample of children was given the resources by their dental practitioner. There was no control group. Children completed the Children’s Experiences of Dental Anxiety Measure (CEDAM) prior to using the resources and on completion of a course of dental treatment. Overall, 84 children were involved, with a mean age of 10.9 years; 48 were female and 59 were living in the most deprived area of England. At baseline the mean CEDAM score was 20.3, and on receiving the resource and completing treatment the mean CEDAM score was 16.4, showing a significant reduction in dental anxiety (t = 14.6, (df = 83), p < 0.001, 95% CI: 3.4–4.4). The items that improved the most were worry over having dental treatment and dental treatment being painful. The service evaluation indicates a reduction in child dental anxiety following the use of CBT resources in general practice. Further evaluation, preferably a randomised controlled trial, is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Conditions in Childhood)
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Open AccessArticle
The Malocclusion Impact Questionnaire (MIQ): Cross-Sectional Validation in a Group of Young People Seeking Orthodontic Treatment in New Zealand
Dent. J. 2019, 7(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7010024 - 04 Mar 2019
Abstract
The aim of the study was to test the validity of the Malocclusion Impact Questionnaire (MIQ) in a NZ sample and to evaluate possible cross-cultural differences in MIQ data between a NZ and a UK sample. A cross-sectional, non-random sample of young people, [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to test the validity of the Malocclusion Impact Questionnaire (MIQ) in a NZ sample and to evaluate possible cross-cultural differences in MIQ data between a NZ and a UK sample. A cross-sectional, non-random sample of young people, aged 10–16 years, attending their first appointment at the orthodontic clinic of New Zealand’s National Centre for Dentistry were asked to complete a questionnaire. This consisted of the 17 item MIQ, the short form CPQ11-14-ISF16 and two global questions. Some basic demographic and clinical data were collected. Sixty-six participants completed the questionnaire; however, the data for 2 were excluded due to the number of incomplete responses. MIQ was found to have excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.924), good construct validity (Spearman’s rho, 0.661 global Q1 ‘Overall, how much do your teeth bother you?’; 0.583 global Q2 ‘Overall, how much do your teeth affect your life?’). MIQ also demonstrated good criterion validity with CPQ11-14-ISF16 (Pearson rho, 0.625). The Rasch analysis confirmed that the questionnaire performed similarly and there was no differential item functioning between the two populations. The main differences between the samples were that the young people in NZ were less concerned about their malocclusion and reported lower item-impact scores compared with the young people in the UK. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Conditions in Childhood)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Three Child OHRQoL Measures
Dent. J. 2019, 7(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7010019 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Comparing oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures can facilitate selecting the most appropriate one for a particular research question/setting. Three child OHRQoL measures Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11–14), the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) and the Caries Impacts and Experiences [...] Read more.
Comparing oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures can facilitate selecting the most appropriate one for a particular research question/setting. Three child OHRQoL measures Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11–14), the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) and the Caries Impacts and Experiences Questionnaire for Children (CARIES-QC) were used with 335 10- to 13-year-old participants in a supervised tooth-brushing programme in New Zealand. The use of global questions enabled their validity to be examined. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 months. All three measures had acceptable internal consistency reliability. There were moderate, positive correlations among their scores, and all showed differences in the impact of dental caries on OHRQoL, with children with the highest caries experience having the highest scale scores. Effect sizes were used to assess meaningful change. The CPQ11–14 and the CARIES-QC showed meaningful change. The COHIP-SF score showed no meaningful change. Among children reporting improved OHRQoL, baseline and follow-up scores differed significantly for the CPQ11–14 and CARIES-QC measures, although not for the COHIP-SF. The three scales were broadly similar in their conceptual basis, reliability and validity, but responsiveness of the COHIP-SF was questionable, and the need to compute two different scores for the CARIES-QC meant that its administrative burden was considerably greater than for the other two measures. Replication and use of alternative approaches to measuring meaningful change are suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Conditions in Childhood)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Experiences of Being a Parent to a Child with Amelogenesis Imperfecta
Dent. J. 2019, 7(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7010017 - 09 Feb 2019
Abstract
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary developmental disorder affecting the enamel of teeth. Affected patients present with tooth hypersensitivity, rapid tooth wear, or fractures of enamel as well as alterations in color and shape, all of which compromise esthetic appearance and masticatory function. [...] Read more.
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary developmental disorder affecting the enamel of teeth. Affected patients present with tooth hypersensitivity, rapid tooth wear, or fractures of enamel as well as alterations in color and shape, all of which compromise esthetic appearance and masticatory function. Chronic conditions in childhood severely impact the whole family, affecting normal family routines and/or increasing the family’s financial burden. The aim of this study was to explore experiences and the impact on daily life of being a parent to a child with severe forms of amelogenesis imperfecta. Parents of children and adolescents with AI participated in an interview with a psychologist. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. The parents talked about several concerns about having a child with AI. Four main themes emerged from the interviews: Feelings associated with passing on a hereditary disorder, knowledge decreases stress, unfamiliarity with the diagnosis, and psychosocial stress. In these main categories we identified several subthemes. Feelings associated with passing on a hereditary disorder included the subtheme of guilt/shame; knowledge decreases stress included knowledge about diagnosis in the family and support from dental health care professionals; Unfamiliarity with diagnosis included missed diagnosis, fear of not getting correct treatment, and insufficient pain control; finally, the subtheme Psychosocial stress included fear of child being bullied and emergency dental visits. The findings show that parents of children with severe amelogenesis imperfecta report similar experiences as do parents of children with other chronic and rare diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Conditions in Childhood)
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Open AccessArticle
Parental Perception of Children Affected by Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) and Dentinogenesis Imperfecta (DI): A Qualitative Study
Dent. J. 2018, 6(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6040065 - 17 Nov 2018
Abstract
This qualitative study was conducted to explore parental attitudes and values regarding aesthetics and treatment needs of children in primary dentition affected by AI and DI. A purposive sample of parents of young children attended two focus groups: mothers (n = 7) and [...] Read more.
This qualitative study was conducted to explore parental attitudes and values regarding aesthetics and treatment needs of children in primary dentition affected by AI and DI. A purposive sample of parents of young children attended two focus groups: mothers (n = 7) and fathers (n = 6). A topic guide with open-ended questions was formulated and standardised photographs showing primary teeth affected by varying severity of AI/DI and photographs of different aesthetic treatments were utilised to stimulate discussion. Data was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A cross-sectional thematic analysis was performed which identified six main themes; the impact on affected children, the impact on parents, the life course of the disease, coping mechanisms, treatment need, and experience of treatment. Parents believed that young children were aware of their altered dental appearance. A feeling of guilt was evident among fathers affected by the same condition. Most parents sought dental treatment before starting school due to worries of bullying at school. Parents appeared to rely solely on the professional advice of the paediatric dentist in making all treatment related decisions. The personal experience of parents affected by AI/DI played a pivotal role in parent’s judgements of their children’s teeth and perceived need for treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Conditions in Childhood)
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Open AccessArticle
Change in Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Following Minimally Invasive Aesthetic Treatment for Children with Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation: A Prospective Study
Dent. J. 2018, 6(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6040061 - 01 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is a common enamel condition, presenting with incisor opacities, which may be of psychosocial concern to children. This clinical study sought to determine whether minimally invasive treatment, aiming to improve incisor aesthetics, would also improve children’s oral health-related quality [...] Read more.
Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is a common enamel condition, presenting with incisor opacities, which may be of psychosocial concern to children. This clinical study sought to determine whether minimally invasive treatment, aiming to improve incisor aesthetics, would also improve children’s oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). 111 MIH patients, aged 7–16 years, referred to a UK Dental Hospital, were invited to complete the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (C-OHIP-SF19) prior to any intervention (T0) and again at one-month following the intervention (T1) for MIH. Treatment regimens included one or more of the following: Microabrasion; resin infiltration; tooth whitening; resin composite restoration. Data were obtained for 93 children with a mean age of 11 years. Mean total C-OHIP-SF19 score at T0 was 47.00 (SD = 9.29; range = 0–76) and this increased significantly at T1 to 58.24 (SD = 9.42; range = 0–76; p < 0.001, paired t-test), indicating a marked improvement in self-reported OHRQoL. There were no statistically significant differences according to gender. This is the first study to show that simple, minimally invasive dental treatment, to reduce the visibility of enamel opacities, in MIH, can have a positive impact on children’s wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Conditions in Childhood)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Influence of Stress and Anxiety on the Expectation, Perception and Memory of Dental Pain in Schoolchildren
Dent. J. 2018, 6(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6040060 - 22 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of stress and anxiety with the expectation, perception and memory of dental pain among schoolchildren. A follow-up study involving 46 children aged 9 to 12 years was conducted in a public school in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of stress and anxiety with the expectation, perception and memory of dental pain among schoolchildren. A follow-up study involving 46 children aged 9 to 12 years was conducted in a public school in the city of Petropolis (RJ), Brazil. Demographic characteristics, stress (children’s stress scale), and state and trait anxiety (state–trait anxiety inventory) were recorded before a dental procedure to restore the occlusal surface of a permanent first molar under local anaesthetic. Dental pain was assessed using the faces pain scale before (dental pain expectation), immediately after (dental pain perception) and six weeks after (memory of dental pain) the dental procedure. Dental pain expectation scores were significantly higher than dental pain perception, independent of the levels of stress, state anxiety and trait anxiety. Children with high scores of stress (OR 1.05 95%CI 1.02–1.09), state anxiety (OR 1.15 95%CI 1.05–1.27) and trait anxiety (OR 1.18 95%CI 1.07–1.30) were more likely to report greater scores of dental pain expectation. Children anticipated more dental pain than what was actually perceived after the dental restoration. Children with greater levels of stress and anxiety have a distorted evaluation of expected dental pain before the dental procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Conditions in Childhood)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Psychosocial Impacts Relating to Dental Injuries in Childhood: The Bigger Picture
Dent. J. 2019, 7(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7010023 - 04 Mar 2019
Abstract
Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in childhood are fairly commonplace, with a reported prevalence of up to 30% worldwide. These injuries can have significant impacts on patients, their families and dental professionals; however, this area is currently underrepresented within paediatric oral health research. The [...] Read more.
Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in childhood are fairly commonplace, with a reported prevalence of up to 30% worldwide. These injuries can have significant impacts on patients, their families and dental professionals; however, this area is currently underrepresented within paediatric oral health research. The psychosocial impacts of traumatic injury are personal to each patient and should be addressed as part of a holistic treatment plan. A review of the current evidence base shows that children who have suffered a traumatic injury to the dentition report worse oral-health-related quality of life. They are also more likely to suffer decreased self-esteem due to their appearance, especially where the injury is not effectively managed. Society (including other children) often judges poorly those with obvious dental disease or anomaly, and with the rising use of social media, these judgements can be made by even greater audiences. There is currently a paucity of qualitative research in this topic to explore the negative psychosocial impacts of dental trauma in greater detail. Although there is growing evidence for the benefit of treatment in improving children’s wellbeing following a TDI, the field of paediatric dental traumatology still has much to learn about young patients’ perspectives, experiences and values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Conditions in Childhood)
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